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>r4 . 

)^orld Missionary Conference, 1910 

{To consider Missionary Problems in relation to the Non-Christian World) 





With Supplement : Presentation 
and Discussion of the Report in 
the Conference on 15th June 1910 












The Opportunity and the Urgency of Carrying the 
Gospel to all the Non-Christian World 


Survey of the Non-Christian World 

Japan ....... 50 

Formosa . 

. 68 



The Chinese Empire 



. 108 

British Malaya 


The Dutch East Indies 


The Phihppine Islands 


Australasia and Oceania . 






The Asiatic Levant 


Central Asia 




North-East Africa 


North-West Africa . 


Western Africa 


South- West Africa . 


South Africa 


Southern Central Africa 


East Africa . 


Madagascar . 


Non-Christians of the Western Hemisphere 

Indians and Orientals in South America 


Orientals in the West Indies 




Survey of the Non-Christian World (continued) 
Indians in Central America . 
Indians in the United States 
Orientals in the United States 
Indians in Canada 
Orientals in Canada . 
The Arctic Regions . 
The Jews .... 
Unoccupied Sections of the World 



Factors in Carrying the Gospel to all the Non-Christian 

The Disposition of the Forces .... 289 
The Relation of the Various Missionary Methods to 

Carrying the Gospel to all the Non-Christian World . 298 
The Church in the Mission Field as an Evangelistic 

Agency . . . . . .318 

The State of the Home Church in its Bearing upon the 

Work of Carrying the Gospel to all the Non-Christian 

World ....... 344 

The Superhuman Factor in Carrying the Gospel to ail 

the Non-Christian World . . . -351 

Findings of the Commission 

. 362 


A. List of Corresponding Members of the Commission . 

B. Suggestions for a World Survey of Missionary 

Occupation ...... 




Presentation and Discussion of the Report in the 

Conference ...... 399 

General Index ...... 437 

Index of Corre.spondents and Authorities Quoted, 

AND OF Speakers in the Discussion . -451 



Mr, John R. Mott, M.A., LL.D., General Secretary 
of the World's Student Christian Federation, New 


The Rev. Geo. Robson, D.D., Editor of the Missionary 
Record, United Free Church of Scotland, Edinburgh. 

Herr Pastor Julius Richter, D.D., Schvvanebeck, 
Belzig, Germany. 

Mr. Hans P. Andersen, B.A., Secretary, Foreign De- 
partment, International Committee of Youn^ JVIen's 
Christian Associations, New York. 

The Rev. Professor Harlan P. Beach, D.D., Yale Uni- 
versity, New Plaven, Conn., U.S.A. 

Directeur A. Boegner, D.D., Missions Evangeliques de 
Paris, France. 

Mr. Marshall Broomhall, B.A., Editorial Secretary, 
China Inland Mission, London. 

Mrs. J. M. Cornell, Women's Foreign Missionary Society, 
Methodist Episcopal Church, New York. 

The Rev. James S. Dennis, D.D., New York. 

The Rev. F. P. Haggard, D.D., Secretary, American 
Baptist Foreign Mission Society, Boston, Mass., 

The Right Rev. Bishop La Trobe, Moravian Missions, 
Herrnhut, Saxony. 



Mr. Frank Lenwood, M.A., London Missionary Society 
The Rev. R. P. Mackay, D.D., Secretary, Foreign Mission| 

Committee of the Presbyterian Church in Canada, 

The Right Rev. Bishop Montgomery, D.D., London. 
Miss Ruth Rouse, Travelhng Secretary of the World's 

Student Christian Federation, London. 
Herr Pastor Vilh. Sorensen, Secretar}^ of the Oriental 

Mission, Husby, Fyn, Denmark. 
Mr. Eugene Stock, D.C.L., late Editorial Secretary of 

the Church Missionary Society, London. 
The Rev. A. Taylor, M.A., Secretary of the British and 

Foreign Bible Society, London. 
The Rev. Chas. R. Watson, D.D., Secretary, Board of 

Foreign Missions, United Presbyterian Church of 

North America, Philadelphia. 
The Rev. Samuel M. Zwemer, D.D., Secretary of the 

Student Volunteer Movement, New York. 





It is a startling and solemnising fact that even as late as 
the twentieth century the Great Command of Jesus Christ 
to carry the Gospel to all mankind is still so largely 
unfulfilled. It is a ground for great hopefulness that, 
notwithstanding the serious situation occasioned by 
such neglect, the Church is confronted to-day, as in no 
preceding generation, with a literally world-wide oppor- 
tunity to make Christ known. There may have been 
times when in certain non-Christian lands the missionary 
forces of Christianity stood face to face with as pressing 
opportunities as those now presented in the same fields, 
but never before has there been such a conjunction of 
crises and of opening of doors in all parts of the world as 
that which characterises the present decade. It is 
likewise true that never on the home field have the 
conditions been more favourable for waging a campaign 
of evangelisation adequate in scope, in thoroughness, and 
in power. Therefore, the first duty of a World Missionary 
Conference meeting at such an auspicious time is to 
consider the present world situation from the point 
of view of making the Gospel known to all men, and to 
determine what should be done to accomplish this Christ- 
given purpose. To this end Commission I., on Carrying 
THE Gospel to All the Non-Christian World, was con- 

COM. I. I 


stituted, and herewith presents the results of its investi- 
gations and deliberations. 

The Commission in its Report, first of all, sets forth 
considerations which emphasise the present unique 
opportunity and urgency of carrying the Gospel to all 
the non-Christian world. Then follows a survey of the 
different fields which, it is hoped, may serve as a reliable 
basis for a comprehensive and aggressive policy. In 
taking up each field the plan has been to indicate the 
number, distribution, and character of the people to be 
reached ; the extent to which the Gospel has already 
been carried to them ; the agencies of evangelisation 
now at work ; the task of evangelisation still to be 
accomplished ; and the adverse and the favouring circum- 
stances. In the light of this survey of the entire non- 
Christian world, the principles and considerations which 
should be borne in mind in determining the best dis- 
position of the forces are outlined. The various methods 
in use in the mission field are passed under review with 
reference to their adaptation and efficiency in the vary- 
ing circumstances which present themselves. The large 
part which the Church in the mission field must have as 
an evangelistic agency is shown, likewise the vital bearing 
which the state of the Home Church has upon the 
enterprise of carrying the knowledge of Christ to all 
the non-Christian world. The indispensable and supreme 
relation sustained by the Superhuman Factor is em- 
phasised. At the close of its Report the Commission 
presents certain findings or recommendations based upon 
its correspondence and conferences with the leaders of 
the Christian forces at home and abroad. 

As a part of its Report, although published and 
sold separately, the Commission has prepared and 
issued a Statistical Atlas of Christian Missions. The 
statistical section of this volume was prepared under 
the editorship of the Reverend James S. Dennis, D.D., 
the author of the Centennial Survey of Foreign Missions, 
presented at the Conference in New York ten years ago. 
The atlas section, embracing maps of all missions in 


the non- Christian world, is the work of Professor Harlan 
P. Beach of Yale University. It is essential to the 
proper study of the Report of the Commission that the 
Statistical Atlas be frequently consulted. 

The work of the Commission has been deter- 
mined by the basis and scope of the Conference 
itself, and has thus been concerned solely with the 
non-Christian world. In its survey of this field the 
Commission has for the most part endeavoured to sum- 
marise the information regarding missionary work 
communicated by its correspondents. For detailed 
lists.of the various missions at work in each principal field 
and for the statistics indicating the extent of their work, 
reference must be made to the Atlas mentioned in the 
previous paragraph. In this Atlas the statistical informa- 
tion regarding the missions of the Roman Catholic and 
Russian Orthodox Churches is given separately, as well 
as a map showing their distribution in non-Christian 

Owing to the shortness of the time in which the Com- 
mission has had to do its work, it has not been able to 
make its investigations as extensive and as thorough as 
is desirable. Its members are keenly conscious of the 
resulting limitations. It is earnestly hoped, however, 
that the way may have been pointed to a more scientific 
study of the fields and problems, and, above all, that 
enough may have been doheToT impress the Church with 
the unprecedented urgency of" the situation, to create a 
sense of deep solicitude as to the grave consequences 
which must ensue if the present unique world opportunity 
be not improved, and to indicate the lines along which 
the Church may wisely enlarge its operations, and the 
ways in which the efhciency of the work of evangelisation 
may be increased. 

The Commission acknowledges its deep indebtedness 
to the hundreds of missionaries, native Christian leaders, 
civilians, leaders of the Church in Christian lands, and 
other special students of missionary problems for their 
unfailing and invaluable co-operation at every stage of 


the preparation of the Report. The list of such collabo- 
rators is so extensive that it is given in Appendix A. 

In the confident hope that with the delegates of the 
Edinburgh Conference, and with those who shall study 
its investigations, discussions, and conclusions, there 
may originate plans, efforts, and influences which, 
animated by a new consecration to Christ, shall result 
in an advance on the part of the Church really adequate 
to make Him known to all men, this Report is now laid 
on the conscience, the heart, and the will of every one 
who reads these lines. 



The study of the reports of hundreds of discerning 
missionaries has convinced the members of the Com- 
mission that the Christian Church has at the present time 
a wonderful opportunity to carry the Gospel simul- 
taneously to all the non-Christian world, and they are 
also profoundly impressed by the urgency of the present 
situation. They would call attention to considerations 
which manifest the opportunity and accentuate the 


It is possible to-day to a degree far greater than at any 
time in the past to give the Gospel to all the non-Christian 

I. It is possible from the point of view of the non-Christian 
world itself. The non-Christian world is known to-day 
as it never has been before. The work of exploration 
has been comprehensive, thorough, and, so far as the 
inhabited parts of the world are concerned, it 
is practically completed. The whole world is remark- 
ably accessible. Improved means of communication 
have within the past two decades been spread like 


a great network over nearly all of the great spaces of 
the unevangelised world, or are to-day being projected 
over these regions. For example, railway lines are being 
rapidly extended in different sections of Africa, in the 
Levant, in Central Asia, in the Chinese Empire, and in 
the more populous parts of the East Indies, giving 
missionaries easy access to hundreds of millions of people. 
Within half a generation extra-territoriality has been 
done away with by Japan in the revision of her treaties 
with western nations, thus permitting missionaries to 
travel, work, and reside in any part of the country. One 
of the most significant and hopeful facts with reference 
to world evangelisation is that the vast majority of the 
people of the non-Christian nations and races are under 
the sway, either of Christian governments or of those 
not antagonistic to Christian missions. This should 
greatly facilitate the carrying out of a comprehensive 
campaign to make Christ known. 

The minds of the people in most countries are more 
open and favourable to the wise and friendly approach of 
the Christian missionaries than at any time in the past. 
In Japan, including Formosa and the Lu-chu Islands, 
while there may be no evidence of wide acceptance of 
Christianity, there is almost everywhere a readiness to 
hear and to consider the Gospel message. The war 
with Russia opened many doors, and made the people 
much more responsive to the teaching of the Christian 
religion. The leaders of the nation and other thoughtful 
men are feeling the need of a new moral basis, and many of 
them are looking to Christianity to furnish it. 

Almost the whole population of Korea is now ready to 
listen to the Gospel. The troubles through which these 
people are passing are causing them to turn in great 
numbers to Christianity for comfort and strength. Con- 
tact with the outside world and the progress of education, 
as w^eil as the teaching of the missionaries, have swept 
away many deep-seated superstitions. The authorities 
are conciliatory, and in some cases directly helpful, to the 
Christian movement. 


It is said that in no part of Manchuria is there open 
hostihty to the Gospel. On the contrary there seems to 
be a marked readiness and wilUngness to hear and to seek 
to understand the Christian doctrine. Even in Mongolia 
the people are more open and responsive to the Gospel 
appeal than they were a decade ago. In nearly every 
part of China there are signs that the stolid indifference 
and the proud aloofness of the past are giving way. Not- 
withstanding the opposition manifested by some of the 
officials and other influential men, there is among the 
people in general a large measure of open-mindedness to 
what the teachers from the West may have to offer. The 
native mind seems to be clearer as to the aims and motives 
of the missionary. This does not necessarily imply that 
there is a higher valuation put upon Christianity, but it 
does mean that there is certainly less hostility manifested 
toward its representatives. This is due chiefly to the 
removal of ignorance, prejudice, and superstition by the 
dissemination of knowledge, and to the inflaence of the 
lives and teaching of the missionaries. A missionary, 
writing from a province which until recently was one of 
the most exclusive of China, says that he could not ask 
for greater friendliness than that with which he now 
meets from all classes of the people. He expresses the 
opinion that in no land is there greater liberty for the 
preaching of the Gospel. One missionary, writing from 
one of the westernmost provinces of the country, says 
that, in visiting 224 walled cities where he used to 
encounter opposition, he now finds none. 

A missionary secretary who recently visited all the 
principal mission fields of Asia has stated that in no other 
country of Asia except Korea are missionaries regarded 
with greater friendliness by the people of all ranks than 
in Siam. Throughout the island of Ceylon the wise 
missionary can to-day, without serious difficulty, obtain 
respectful audiences of non-Christian men for the presenta- 
tion of the Gospel. 

Owing to the great complexity of the situation on the 
Indian continent it is difficult to express concisely the 


situation throughout the whole field. By common con- 
sent the masses of outcastes and lower castes are more 
receptive to-day than ever. There is scarcely a limit to 
the numbers who would place themselves under instruc- 
tion by properly qualified Christian teachers. Many 
untutored non-Aryan tribes are awakening to the call of 
western civilisation, and are beginning to listen respon- 
sively to the Gospel message. It is said that the women 
of India of various castes are coming to have a realising 
sense of their needs, and are seeking for education and 
light. The zenanas are open to a degree which could not 
have been foreseen a few years ago. There is a desire 
among the men also, for the education of their daughters, 
sisters, and wives. Here and there thoughtful, earnest, 
spiritually-minded Hindus are reading the words of 
Christ and seeking to understand Him. If Christian 
intercourse with these important men could now be 
multiplied, large numbers of them would be led into full 
and open discipleship. It must not be forgotten that, 
notwithstanding the well-known facts about the movement 
toward Christ among the educated classes, gi'eat numbers 
of them are rapidly passing into a condition of practical 
agnosticism. There is most urgent need for more vigorous 
and systematic effort on their behalf while they are yet in 
a comparatively receptive attitude. 

Workers among Moslems in India all testify that their 
attitude toward Christ and His people is more friendly 
and favourable than it was a generation ago. The 
Parsees, owing to the increase of education and the friendly 
work of missionaries, are more accessible and responsive 
than theywere a fewyearsago. The situation in thevarious 
native states throughout the Indian peninsula, as well 
as in the states along the northern border, has improved 
over what it was in the last generation. Notwithstanding 
the many adverse influences and the more pronounced 
hostility and opposition in certain quarters, it is un- 
doubtedly true that, taking India as a whole, the field is 
more open than it was twenty or even ten years ago. 

The outlook for the spread of the Gospel in Arabia 


demands a strong faith and a zeal that knows no dis- 
couragement, but it is hopeful, and is growing more 
so year by year as a result of political developments and 
of the new railway. It is reported that the Moslems in 
the Russian Empire are approachable. Great external 
changes have taken place in the Turkish Empire during 
the past two years. Even if attention is confined ex- 
clusively to the Moslem population, there is satisfactory 
evidence that work on their behalf, if wisely and prudently 
conducted, is now possible to a degree which would have 
been incredible two years ago. Many restrictions have 
been removed with reference to travel, the holding of 
meetings, the printing and circulation of literature, and 
the conduct of schools. Moslems and non-Moslems have 
been placed upon an equal footing before the law and 
in the rights of citizenship. This fact alone inaugurates, 
a new era. Mohammedans in these lands have _never 
had an opportunity to understand and accept pure 
Christianity. Missionaries in different parts of Turkey 
report a willingness on the part of Mohammedans to attend 
Christian gatherings in large numbers, to talk about 
Christianity, and to study it in its simplicity and purity. 
The same thing can be said of the Moslems of Persia. 
Much is possible there now, provided the work be 
developed gradually and in a friendly and conciliatory 
spirit. Some missionaries believe that prior to a vigorous 
campaign of evangelisation what is most needed at the 
present time is to promote the work of educational missions. 
Throughout the larger part of the vast African continent 
there is a great and pressing opportunity for the presenta- 
tion of the claims of Christ. In Mohammedan Africa 
indeed there is considerable hindrance from Government 
opposition or restrictions. Moslem intolerance has still 
to be reckoned with among the people, but this intoler- 
ance is weakening, and, as the missionaries wisely adapt 
themselves to the conditions, the way is becoming more 
and more open. In Pagan Africa not only is the way 
open, but those to whom the way leads are awaiting the 
arrival of the messengers. We have been unable to learn 


I a;jy extensive fi<ji<l Ihrou/^lioiil llif. {^r;at Isl.m'l World 
'lji<:}j is absoluUily closed lo l}i<; wise .'unl ddvolcd iini- 
assador of Jcsiis Christ. 

VV)j<rn iji Die history of our religion has the ("hristian 
hureh Ih'mu ooulronted with surh a wide oppo/l unity 
s the orje now befonj her in tin; non-Christian world as 

wh(;l<; ? As always, opj;ortunity spells resj)onsibilily, 
lid this unparallel<;<l openness <;orn<;s to ns as a great 
.;st and frial of Ihe lealityand <he living str<;nglh of our 
lifh, and of our rapacity for coniprehcn-ivt! rhriifian 
lal<;snianshij) and gein-ialsliip. 

2. It is possihh; lo-day as nev;r l;if<)i<- to have a (;am- 
aign adequate lo carry the(jospe] loall Ihe non-(^hristian 
/orld so jar us the, CJtrisUan ('/iiirch is concerned. Hi 
'sources are nj(;re Iha/i adequate. I here are tens of 
lillions of connnunicant niendntrs. TIm; n)oney j)ower 
i llx' h.iii'l;, ol believing (^Inistian.s ol oui gttneration is 
nonnoiis. I h(;r(! are many strong missionary societies 
nd boards in l'Jiroj)e, Anieiica, Austrahisia, and South 
diica, .iml lli'-y h;ive acc;uniulat(;d a vast fund ol rxprri- 
UCe, .'ui'l h:ive d<!Velop<'(| a great vaiidy ol h(||.liil 
u;lhods and facilititts thrtnigh gcrnerations ol activity 
hri>ui;hout t h<^ woihL Surely tiiey poss(;ss dirccMive 
ner>;y auqly suIIk ieni to conceive, plan, and ex<!cule a 
anq)aif;u lilemlly worl'l-wi(I<t in its scope. TIk; <;xt(!nt, 
li:iract(M" :iiiil I'louiise ol the native < liii,li;Hi Cliurch 
uake ii by no me.-iii'; :in iuelhcienl jt.iil ol the I'ody of 


Allenlion iiliouM be (:ille(i lo Ihe abouil'lilig eiiei/^y 
ii'l I Klin ii<l<us possibilities of the inspiring inoviMuents 
econtly called into beuig lo l;i( ilitale the realisation of 
III- aims ol Ihe niission.ii y )tiopa/;anda ; for examph;, 
Ik' Sludent Vohmlecr Moveiiietit ; the more compre- 
lensive World's SliKJent (inistian I'Vdeiation ; the 
''oreign I )ep;ii imeiil', <l the Young Men's and Young 
Vomen's ("hiistian A.ssocialions ; the Young I'eople's 
klissionary Movement ; the; L.-iyuKMi's Missionary Move- 
iient ; :uit| the ellicient women'.s missionary sociitt ies ; 
lie various l'"orvvai(l Movements within dilteront Christian 


cotnmiinions ; tlic^ann}* of youth in tlic SmuU\y Schools, 
;uul various young people's so(ii>ties and puiKls. The 
Holy Spirit has certainly been prejiarin;^ ami niarshalling 
the forces for a canipaign eonuuensurate with the mis- 
sionary responsibility of the Church. Above all these 
are the superhuman resources : the dynamic power of the 
Gospel of Christ ; the unrealised jnrssibilities of inter- 
cession ; the triumjihant power of lu^ly lives Uses 
ilnrcscrveiUy yicKled to the sway of the risen Christ ; ami 
the i^resenceof Cht ist Himself in His Churt h b\- llisSpirit. 
the One who is able to subdue all thim-.s mdo Himself. 
Thus, as the followers of Christ look outwartl ov(M" the 
f;reat areas of the non-Christian world, and then tmu to 
survey the resources of Christendom, and to j^.i/e by 
f litli ujion their superhuman resouices, can they question 
the jiossibility to-day of making Christ kiunvn tn .dl 
people ? 

II. nil-: HKC.KNCV in vii;w di- ruKSHNT tknprnciks and 


I. The non-Christian rcli'^ions arc losing;, their hohi on 
certain classes. Missionaries who have been on the field 
from twentv to tortv years bear testimony tin* 
intluence of the non-Christian religions, especially oxer 
the educated classes, is waiiinf^'. whethrr they contiast 
the jiower of these religions to-day with what it Ji 
generation ago, or whether tliey cotitrasi the place and 
infUience of tliese religions with lii il d Christianity. 

Rud<lhism still has a mighty hold on the illiler.ite 
masses of Slam, Laos, Hurma, and Ceylon, and to a con- 
siderable extent also of Japan, Korea, and China. Never- 
theless, in most of these countries, particularly in (lima 
and Jajian, there are unmistakable signs that this grip 
is relaxing. There are many and imill i|Iving instances 
where the [)eo[)le have al)olishe(l idols and forsaki-n tho 
temjiles, although they may not yet have accepted some 
other religion as a substitute. In the cities Buddhism 
has far less influence even with the illiterate clas.scs than 


it has in the rural districts. In all of the countries named 
there are very few educated men who profess belief in 
Buddhism as a regulative, transforming, and energising 
influence in tlieir lives. Without doubt, however, large 
numbers of them have a deep interest in Buddhism as a 
philosophy and as a subject of study, and hold to it 
tenaciously on grounds of national or racial patriotism. 

Strictly speaking, Confucianism cannot be regarded as 
a religion. Ancestor-v.'orship, as upheld by Confucian- 
ism, whether we consider it a religion or not, still has a 
tremendous hold on multitudes of people in China and 
neighbouring countries. Confucianism, however, has 
been modified. The wonderful awakening in China and 
Korea during the past few years is turning the faces 
of the people away from the past to the future. This is 
notably true of the present generation of students. 

As a social s^^stem the power of Hinduism is still very 
great, although the spirit of caste is relaxing in many 
places, and even its regulations and outer forms are 
less scrupulously observed than formerly, especially in the 
cities. Missionaries and other observers writing from 
all sections of India emphasise the fact that compara- 
tively few of the educated classes adhere to Hinduism 
in an unmodified form, and that not many of them have 
a vital faith in it as a religion, though most of them partly 
desire and partly find themselves forced to adhere to it as 
a system of social and ethical life. A leading Scottish 
missionary of many years' experience has said that 
nowadays no bona fide idolater is to be found among 
university men. Their adherence to idolatrous cere- 
monies is either formal from fear of society, or is defended 
on the ground that such practices are a help to concen- 
tration of thought on religion. The students as a class 
are becoming freed from the religious and social restraints 
of old India, and, in Sir William Hunter's words, are left 
" witliout discipline, without contentment, and without 

Mohammedanism has as strong a hold on its adherents 
as has any other non-Christian religion. Apparently its 


grip is not relaxing so far as the more illiterate classes are 
concerned, save in parts of Turkey, Persia, Western China, 
and the East Indies ; but it is weakening in the case of 
the educated and better informed men. Statistics show 
that the proportionate increase in the number of Moham- 
medans in India has been by no means as rapid as that of 
the Christians. In parts of Turkey a loosening of 
the ties that bind many Mohammedans to their religion 
is evident. The newly proclaimed principles of liberty 
and the Koran are not found to be suitable yoke-fellows. 
Notwithstanding the aggressive advance of Moham- 
medanism in some quarters of the world, as a religion it 
is making no marked intellectual or spiritual progress, 
and therefore it is not able to command the full allegiance 
of many of its adherents, who are studying the modern 
learning. It seems to lack creative energy. The philo- 
sophical disintegration of Islam, shown in the rise of new 
sects and parties, is another indication of weakness. 
The application of modern critical methods in India and 
elsewhere is serving to undermine faith in the Koran, 
so that it is no uncommon thing to find Moslems who 
concede that this book does not have permanent authority 
in the realm of morals. Low ethical ideals, the degrada- 
tion of womanhood, and a fatalistic philosophy have 
steadily brought Moslem society to its present low level 
of intellect and character. 

It is not necessary here to dwell further on the causes 
explaining the weakening of the non-Christian religions. 
The principal point to be emphasised is that this breaking- 
up of the old faiths and their failure to satisfy the deepest 
longings and highest aspirations of men impose a serious 
responsibility upon the Christian Church. The danger is 
that, released from the restraints of their old religions, 
these peoples will give themselves up entirely to irreligion, 
indifference, and demoralising practices. The dying-out 
of old superstitions leaves hearts " empty, swept, and 
garnished," either for the Gospel or for the seven spirits 
more evil than the first. 

3, In some parts of the world the non-Christian religions 


are attempting to adapt themselves to modern conditions, and, 
are manijesting increased activity, enterprise, and aggressive- 

Notwithstanding all that has been said about the waning 
influence of the non-Christian religions over certain classes, 
it is true that in many countries there are evidences of 
increased activity in the non-Christian religions, and that 
efforts are being put forth to regain and strengthen 
their influence over classes who have been slipping away 
from their grasp, and to extend their sway over peoples 
who have hitherto not been reached by them. 

The revival of Buddhism is particularly noticeable in 
Japan, Burma, and Ceylon. This is seen in many ways. 
Temples and shrines have been renovated in some districts. 
The priests are manifesting greater activity. Most inter- 
esting is the semi-Christian modification of the methods 
and practices and to some extent the ideas of Buddh- 
ism. There are regular preaching-places where Buddhist 
preachers now expound their doctrines. The number of 
Buddhist schools and colleges is multipl5'ing, especially 
in Ceylon and Burma. A large Buddhist college has been 
planned for Tokio. Young Men's Buddhist Associations, 
Young Women's Buddhist Associations, and Buddhist 
guilds have sprung up here and there. Special work has 
been inaugurated on behalf of children, such as Sunday 
schools, catechism classes, and religious instruction in clay 
schools. Some ^uddhist orphanages have been estab- 
lished to prevent destitute children from seeking admission 
into Christian institutions. The press is also being largely 
used. Manuals of instruction, tracts, pamphlets and 
books are being used in large numbers. Better training 
is being afforded the priests, especially in Japan. A large 
Buddhist theological school has been established in Kioto, 
and young men are flocking there from all quarters. 
The most energetic workers, as well as the most generous 
givers, are the laymen. The most notable fact, however, 
is that Buddhism is seeking not only to defend itself but 
also to take the offensive or aggressive attitude. The 
Japanese Buddhists have organised a missionary society 


and have sent workers even to the mainland of Asia. In 
Burma the Buddhists are being reinforced by many con- 
verts from among the hill tribes. It is reported also that 
among the adherents of Buddhism in Ceylon and Burma 
are several Europeans. A general Buddhist society in 
Rangoon is raising funds for the translation of the Pali 
Buddhist scriptures into English, for spreading Buddhism 
in London, and for bringing out from lEngland a number 
of Englishmen to enter the Buddhist priesthood. 

In spite of all the activity and the introduction of new 
and important methods and the development of the spirit 
of propaganda, there is apparently little serious effort 
made to purify Buddhism of its corruptions. Rather 
they are condoned and explained away. One of the most 
serious aspects of the Buddhist revival is the attempt 
made to identify Buddhism with patriotism and to urge 
upon people that loyalty to the country implies loyalty 
to this religion. To meet this revival of the ancient 
religion it is necessary that we be able to place Christianity 
more effectively before the people. 

Attention should be called to many new sects which 
are springing up in Japan and China. In Japan in recent 
years a new religion called Tenrikyo has come into 
vogue. It is neither avowedly Buddhist nor apparently 
idolatrous. There' seems to be som^e thing attractive about 
it to the common people, for it is claimed that it already 
has between three and four millions of adherents. It 
has grown so rapidly that lately official recognition has 
been accorded to it by the Government. The growth of 
these sects is a sign of the unrest among the people and 
of their religious longings. It is a call to Christianity to 
come to their relief. 

There is a very resolute effort being made by many of 
the most influential men in China to exalt Confucia ism 
with its excellent ethical system above Christianity, 
which is belittled as a foreign religion. A comparatively 
recent edict raised Confucius to the rank of deity. 
Hitherto the worship of Confucius has been regarded as 
paying respect to the teacher par excellence the Sage of 


China. He is now exalted to equal rank with Heaven, 
possibly in order to give him a place corresponding to that 
of Jesus Christ in the worship of the West. This is 
significant, not as indicative of an increasing influence 
exerted by Confucius, but rather of a desire to conserve 
the influence manifestly waning as modern learning 
discloses his superstitions and ignorance of fundamental 
facts. According to imperial edict, divine honours are 
to be offered to him by officials and by Government 
students. Without this adoration of Confucius young 
men are not permitted to study in schools recognised by 
the Government and are excluded from holding Govern- 
ment offices. Those working on behalf of the educated 
classes find that the principal obstacle is this obligatory 
adoration of Confucius and the disabilities suffered by 
those who do not comply with the requirement. In a 
country like China exclusion from the official classes is 
regarded as a very serious matter, and until this obstacle 
is removed missionary effort on behalf of the educated 
classes will be carried on under a serious handicap. 

Hinduism is manifesting increased antagonism to 
Christianity. In chfferent parts of India there is a 
revival of orthodox Hinduism as contrasted with the 
Neo-Hindu propaganda. This doubtless means more 
opposition, and yet it indicates, too, that the people are 
getting alarmed, and testifies to the progress which its 
opponents see that Christianity is making. In this light 
the revival of Hinduism is inevitable and desirable. It 
will in the end only hasten the progress of Christianity, 
as was the case in the Roman Empire. Wherever there 
is strong opposition it is a sign that the minds of the 
people are occupied with the subject, and this enlarges 
the opportunity for Christian work. The Hindus, like 
the Buddhists, have been quick to learn Christian 
methods of religious propaganda. They are meeting the 
Christian methods by imitating the same in the interests 
of their own faith. They send out street preachers who 
give themselves largely to antagonising Christianity, 
rather than to promulgating Hindu doctrines. They 


have a tract society and issue many publications. They 
have Young Men's Hindu Associations and various other 
organisations patterned after Christian activities. That 
they have become alarmed by the inroads of Christianity 
is seen from the following extract taken from a pamphlet 
issued by the Hindu Tract Society and designed to 
arouse Hindus to sharper opposition : " Do you not 
know that the number of the Christians is increasing 
and the number of Hindu religionists decreasing every 
day ? How long will water remain in a reservoir which 
continually lets out but receives none in ? Let all the 
people join as one man to banish Christianity from our 
lands." One of the best indications of the new spirit 
of the Hindus is the aggressive efforts which they are 
putting forth to influence the outcastes. They are trying 
to raise the downtrodden classes and to give them a 
certain definite standing in the Hindu community. 
They are also seeking to influence the aboriginal tribes 
in the Hill Districts. If these and the outcastes become 
merged in the Hindu system, they will be much less 
accessible to Christian influences than they are at 

The ferment which Christianity has created among 
the educated classes of India is apparent even on the 
surface, but one of the most marked tendencies may be 
discerned in those schools of Neo-Hinduism which have 
developed during the past few decades. The most 
important of these are the Arya Samaj, chiefly in the 
Punjab and the United Provinces ; the Brahmo Samaj, 
in Bengal ; the Theosophists, principally in Southern 
India ; and the Radha Swamis, m Northern India. 
They differ in many respects, but they are alike in the 
respect that they have all been influenced by Christianity 
and have adopted Christian expressions and methods, 
and that they all magnify certain points of Hinduism. 
Chief among these movements in point of activity and 
influence is the Arya Samaj. While its leaders may 
condemn the practices of Hinduism and may adopt 
many of the principles and teachings and methods of 
COM. I. 2 


Christianity, they still remain within the pale of Hinduism 
and earnestly oppose the Christian movement. They 
have grown rapidly. They have schools and colleges, 
missionaries, and societies. They advocate the education 
of women, reject idolatry, and seek to reduce the number 
of castes. Though remorseless in their antagonism to 
Christianity, they mark a distinct advance upon popular 
Hinduism, and, in the judgment of many missionaries, 
are preparing the way of the Lord. Mr. Holland, the 
leader of the Oxford-Cambridge Hostel at Allahabad, 
expresses this well : " The ideas which the Arya Samaj 
raises without ability to satisfy them, and the manifest 
contradictions of its system, mean a not remote collapse 
into the arms of Christianity." They are just now 
putting forth great efforts to influence the low-caste people. 
They do not really give them any new religion, but they 
fill their minds with prejudices against the foreigners, and 
strive on patriotic grounds to keep the people in subjection 
to Hinduism. Just in proportion to their success in 
convincing these outcaste portions of the population 
that they may hope for recognition from the Hindus, 
will the door of Christian opportunity close. H 
Christian work for these depressed classes could soon 
be multiplied tenfold, this great section of the Indian 
people, numbering one-fifth of the population, would, 
within a generation, embrace Christianity in immense 

Of all the non-Christian religions Mohammedanism 
exhibits the greatest solidarity and the most activity 
and aggressiveness, and it is conducting a more widespread 
propaganda at the present time than any other religion 
save Christianity. In the Turkish Empire there has 
recently been a recrudescence of Moslem fanaticism. 
The forces that brought about the reactionary events 
of the Spring of 1909 and that were responsible for the 
Cilician massacres were grouped under a so-called 
Mohammedan League. It is intensely antagonistic to 
the spread of the Gospel among Moslems. The bigoted 
are becoming more bigoted. The Mohammedan League 


just referred to was intended by Abdul Hamid to intensify 
Moslem fanaticism and hatred of Christians, and its 
members, though now in hiding, form the body of the 
old orthodox party who look down with scorn upon all 
other sects. Islam is linking itself up with the atheism 
and deism of western lands, and is securing much 
protection and also added prestige by the support it 
receives at the hands of officials from the West who have 
broken with Christianity. These men carry over to the 
Moslem camp all the armoury of the deistic and atheistic 

In India, the greatest Mohammedan country, there is 
a renaissance of Islam. The power of the Prophet is 
still great, and Islam is ready to receive and seal per- 
petually, as her own, Hindus of low-caste who lose faith 
in their own religion or seek to better their condition. 
They are pushing their propaganda, sending out preachers 
and working hard to convert the low-caste and out-caste 
people. Their advance in India is proved by the increase 
m Mohammedan population in India by about six 
millions in the ten years preceding the last census. In 
some parts of the country large bodies of these depressed 
classes and also numbers of the hill tribes have gone 
over to Islam. It is many fold more difficult to reach 
them now for Christ than it was before. Dr. Ewing 
of Lahore expresses the belief that unless the Church 
avails itself of the marvellous opportunity now presented 
by the tens of millions of low-caste people, within the 
next ten years the bulk of them who have not been 
given a status in relation to the Hindus will have become 
Mohammedan. This would render them comparatively 
inaccessible to Christian influence. 

While there is no serious danger that China will become 
a Moslem state, nevertheless the Church of Christ 
should be forewarned and should lose no time in bringing 
to bear more of its power upon the Moslem population 
of West China, because Mohammedanism is there 
manifesting fresh interest and vigour. Moreover, even 
in other parts of China, in Chilili for example, there are 


similar indications of activity. The Moslems of Russia 
are showing great zeal. 

In the East Indies, Islam, which for a long time was 
but a mere veneer, is daily becoming a more pervasive 
and dominant faith. Greatly increased travel to Mecca, 
brought about by better means of communication and 
lower rates, is compacting Mohammedanism among the 
Malays. The returned pilgrims become henceforth 
ardent defenders and propagators of the faith. In 
Sumatra, Islam is advancing into hitherto pagan 
territories. Had Christian missionary work been prose- 
cuted vigorously a generation ago, Islam would not 
have gained such a strong foothold there. In Java, 
Mohammedanism shows new life in the establish- 
ment of a Moslem university, and in the production of 
an edition of the Koran in Javanese. The number 
of teachers of the Koran is multiplying greatly. The 
inhabitants are coming more and more under the influence 
of Mohammedanism, and are thus being made more 
inaccessible to the work of the Dutch missionaries. 
Unless the Church promptly does more to meet the 
desire for education and enlightenment, there is danger 
that the population will more and more accept Mo- 

Two forces are contending for Africa Christianity 
and Mohammedanism. In many respects the more 
aggressive of these is Mohammedanism. If things 
continue as they are now tending, Africa may become 
a Mohammedan continent. Mohammedanism comes to 
the African people as a higher religion than their own, 
with the dignity of an apparently higher civilisation 
and of world power. It is rapidly received by these 
eager listeners. Once received, it is Christianity's most 
formidable enemy. It permits a laxity of morals, in 
some cases worse than that of heathendom. It sanctions 
polygamy. It breeds pride and arrogance, and thus 
hardens the heart against the Word of God. It is 
spread by those who do not differ essentially from the 
natives in their ideas and emotions, whereas Christianity, 


until a force of native workers can be prepared, must be 
spread by Europeans who differ greatly from the natives. 
The absorption of native races into Is; am is proceeding 
rapidly and continuously in practically all parts of the 
continent. The Commission has had convincing evidence 
of this fact brought to its attention by missionaries 
along the Nile, in East Central Africa, in South-East 
Africa, on different parts of the West Coast, in Northern 
Nigeria, in the Sudan, in different parts of the Congo 
Basin, in parts lying south of the Congo, and even in 
South Africa. Mohammedan traders are finding their 
way into the remotest parts of the continent, and it is 
well knowm that every Mohammedan trader is more or 
less a Mohammedan missionary. The result of this 
penetration of the field by these representatives of 
Islam will be that the Christian missionary enterprise 
will year by year become more difficult. Paganism is 
doomed. Animistic faiths crumble quickly before any 
higher and more dogmatic religion. Either Christianity 
or Islam will prevail throughout Africa. Islam is push- 
ing hard to win the pagan states and peoples. Some 
missionary statesmen believe that Africa for the present 
has a pre-eminent claim on the attention and resources 
of those missionary societies which are related to the 
regions in which the ]\Ioslem advance is imminent. 
The challenge which comes to the Church now, is not 
only to occupy the great fields of Africa, Southern Asia, 
and Oceania which are so threatened by the Mohammedan 
advance, but also to press as never before upon the 
Mohammedans themselves the peaceful message of the 
Christian Gospel. The aggressive strategy has ever been 
the most successful. Moreover, we owe the Gospel to the 
Moslems no less than to the other non-Christian peoples. 


Just as the development of improved means of com- 
munication has greatly facilitated the propagation of 


the Gospel and the sending forth of the pure and hopeful 
influences of western civilisation, so the drawing together 
of the nations and races as a result of these improv^ements 
has made possible the more rapid spread of influences 
antagonistic to the extension of Christ's Kingdom. 
They have familiarised a vast and increasing number 
of non-Christian peoples with the worst forms and 
practices of western life. In every port, as well as 
in many interior cities of non-Christian nations, one 
finds concentrated the evil influences of the West. 
Scattered throughout Africa and the Pacific Islands, 
not to mention other sections of the world, are thousands 
of western traders, large numbers of whom are exerting 
a demoralising influence. Testimony is borne by many 
with reference to the corrupt influence of Japanese 
merchants and emigrants in Korea, Manchuria, and 
China, who are also regarded as representing in a measure 
the civilisation of the West. 

The multiplying of points of contact with the West 
through the expansion of its commercial and industrial 
system has introduced among non-Christian peoples 
new temptations, and has added intensity and virulence 
to old temptations. The increase of the drink evil 
and of gross immorality in many parts of the world 
is traceable directly to the W^est. With the influx 
of European civilisation into Africa and Asia there 
seems to have come a flood of pernicious influences, 
of vice, and of disease. The growth of habits of 
.luxury and self-indulgence is also due to the im- 
jproved financial situation of these peoples, incident to 
'the spread of western civilisation. It is commented 
upon by many observers, that whenever an eastern and 
a western nation impinge upon each other the contact in 
some mysterious way tends to bring out the worst there is 
in each. The vices of western life seem to work with added 
deadliness among men of the more simple civilisations, 
such as those found in Africa, in Oceania, and in parts 
of Asia, It is a sad but inevitable fact that as a rule 
the masses of the non-Christian people, and even many 


of their leaders, do not discriminate between the genuine 
Christians who come from western countries, such as 
missionaries and sincere and worthy Christian laymen 
in commercial and Government pursuits, and the vicious 
representatives of the West who go among them. It is 
not strange, therefore, that the following challenge is 
a typical expression of the opinion of a great multitude 
of Asiatics and Africans : " You come to us with your' 
religion. You degrade our people with drink. You 
scorn our religion, in many points like your own, and 
then you wonder why Christianity makes such slow 
progress among us, I will tell you : It is because you 1 
are not like your Christ." 

As the corrupt influences which have been mentioned 
constitute a deadly gift from the modern civilisation of 
the West, it is doubly incumbent on the Church to supply 
the antidote to such evil influences and to spread itself 
more widely among the people. Moreover, it is unmis- 
takably the will of God that the missionary movement 
be extended promptly and far more aggressively and 
widely in order that the cause of Christianity may pre- 
empt great regions and countless communities to which 
tlie vices and diseases of corrupt civilisation have not 
yet spread. The large plans for the extension of rail- 
way systems in different parts of Asia and Africa 
accentuate the urgency of the situation, because the 4 
advent of railways will bring a large influx of ungodly 
men, who will make the task of evangelisation much more 
difficult. It has always been true that while men slept 
the enemy came and sowed tares. This point has added 
force when applied to the peoples of Africa and the Pacific 
Islands. There are but a few primitive races or peoples ^" 
left in the world, and the opportunity afforded the Christian 
Church to reach them under most favourable conditions 
can last but a brief season. The present opportunity 
will pass away. Every year will bring new and powerful 
counter attractions within easy reach of the natives. The 
wise and experienced missionary workers show convinc- 
ingly that it is much easier to bring the Gospel to bea,r 


on the heathen in his natural state than it is upon the 
man who has become familiar with the worst side of 
so-called civilisation. 

Attention should also be called to the bad effects 
resulting from the spread of infidel and rationalistic 
ideas and materialistic views. From many parts of the 
non-Christian world have come reports from our corre- 
spondents telling of the wide dissemination of agnostic, 
atheistic, materialistic, and socialistic (of a destructive 
character) literature, traceable to western sources. 
The stream of this influence is flowing over China to-day, 
both directly from the West and also by way of Japan. 
The writings of Haeckel, Huxley, and Spencer, and the 
anti-theistic and anti-Christian articles, either original or 
translated from European magazines, are widely circulated 
not only in India and Japan, but also in such newly 
awakened countries as Turkey and China. The periodicals 
of the non-Christian religions are active and aggressive in 
publishing papers showing supposed mistakes in the Bible 
and the conclusions of destructive criticism. 

The increasing number of travellers from non-Christian 
nations, especially the wonderful migration of Oriental 
students to Europe and America, has in countless cases 
resulted in exposing these more enterprising representa- 
tives of the non-Christian world to the materialistic, 
j anti-Christian, and demoralising sides of the life of the 

' ' western nations. On their return, some of them as 
teachers, editors, and Government officials constitute a 

Jf great barrier to the spread of the Gospel. This has been 
notably true of many Chinese and Korean students on 
their return from Japan. Moreover, there is danger that 
the thousands of Japanese teachers who are going into 
Korea, Manchuria, and China will be apostles of materialism 
instead of being helpful in influencing the people in 
favour of Christianity. Facts like these constitute an 
irresistible challenge to the Christian Church to augment 
greatly its foreign missionary forces and to spread these 
forces with promptness, thoroughness, and great energy 
over the non-Christian world. Moreover, they summon 


to a well- conceived and supreme, effort to Christianise 
more largely the impact of Christendom upon the non- 
Christian world. To this end more adequate efforts 
are required, not only to surround the representatives of 
our commerce and industries vath strong Christian 
influences as they go forth to reside in distant port citfes, 
but also to make sure that the principles and spirit of 
Jesus Christ dominate all our social, political, and inter- 
national relations with the peoples and Governm.ents of 
non-Christian nations. The missionary forces cannot 
win the non-Christian world for Christ until Christian 
nations and the new world movements of all kinds are 
more thoroughly permeated with the spirit of Christ. 
Only the rdigion commended by_the most convincing 
examples in dominating individual and social .Jife and 
commercial and international relations will be earnestly 
sought after and permanently accepted. 


The Asiatic peoples, following the leadership of Japan, 
have awakened from their long sleep. Through the whole 
of Asia a ferment is in process which has spread from the 
intellectual leaders and is fast taking possession of the 
masses of the people themselves. It affects over three -_ 
fom-ths of the human race, including^^ peoples of high 
intelligence and ancient civilisation. The leaders are 
concerned with the question of enlightenment, of in- 
tellectual and social freedom, of economic development, 
and of national efficienc5\ In all history there has not 
been a period when such vast multitudes of people were 
in the midst of such stupendous changes, social, com- 
mercial, industrial, educational, and religious. Korea 
was known yesterday as the Land of the Morning Calm. 
To-day it is vibrating with the spirit of the modern 
world. Every department of its life is being reorganised 
with Japan as the model and the directing and energising 


China, which for thousands of years has been self- 
centred and self-satisfied, has turned her face from the 
past and has begun to go to school to the world. The 
changeless has given place to the changing ; and the 
number and variety of the changes are bewildering. 
A network of telegraph wires has been spread over the 
Empire, several railway lines have already been established 
and others are projected, great industrial establishments 
are multiplying, comprehensive plans for the conservation 
and development of the material resources are being put 
in operation, a modern postal system has been adopted, 
the first stage in preparation for constitutional govern- 
ment has been entered upon, radical and far-reaching 
social reforms are advancing apace, hundreds of modern 
newspapers have been established in cities all over 
the country, secular and religious presses are working 
to their limit in bringing out new works and translations 
of the books of important authors of western nations. 
All these changes seem incredible in view of the con- 
stitution of the Chinese mind and its unchanging attitude 
through centuries. In some ways the most significant 
and wonderful changes have been those in connection 
with education. The ancient system, which had been 
in operation for nearly two thousand years, has been 
completely abandoned, and in place of it there are spring- 
ing up all over the Empire modern schools and colleges. 
Hundreds of teachers are being imported from Japan 
and the West, and thousands of ambitious Chinese youths 
are going to Japan, America, and Europe to prepare 
themselves for the leadership of the new China. 

Siam and Laos are in a condition of metamorphosis. 
Persia also is sharing in the general awakening of the 
East and is undergoing a great transformation. The old 
is passing away ; the new is yet unformed. It is prim- 
arily a movement to establish civil freedom and to secure 
social progress. The aim is to establish a constitutional 
and popular form of government. Schools are springing 
up all over the country for the purpose of giving the new 
education. Even in Turkestan and Afghanistan the 


spirit of the modern movement is felt. Some families 
are sending their sons to other lands for education. 
These on their return spread the ideas and spirit of 
western civilisation. 

Turkey is another striking example of change. In 
some respects the recent Turkish revolution has been the 
most remarkable which has ever taken place in any 
nation. The autocracy has been done away with and a 
modern constitution has been granted. The key-notes 
of the revolution have been " Liberty, Equality, Frater- 
nity, and Justice." Great social and educational 
changes have resulted. The whole population is awake 
and thinking as never before. The bondage of custom 
has been shaken. New literature is pouring into the 
country. The mails have more than doubled in volume. 
Meetings for the discussion of topics pertaining to the 
development of the country are being held. Even the 
pulpit has become the forum of social and political dis- 
cussion, although this may well prove to be a hindrance 
to real religious progress. The fraternising of members 
of different religions is regarded by those familiar with 
the old attitude and spirit as highly significant. Not- 
withstanding the counter-revolution and the waves of 
reaction, it is clear that Turkey has set her face toward 
modern civilisation, and that no influences are likely to 
arise and prove powerful enough long to retard her in 
her progress. Quite apart from the political movement 
and agitation and unrest throughout India, the multi- 
tudes of that continent are still in the midst of great 
social and industrial developments and changes. Con- 
trary to the popular impression, Japan also was never 
more alert and intense in her desire and efforts to reform 
and increase her efficiency than at the present time. 
Similar facts could be mentioned showing the revolutions, 
transformations, and rapid evolution in the Island World 
and in parts of Africa. 

This state of flux among all these peoples constitutes y- 
a great crisis and opportunity. The present plastic 
condition of these nations wiU not long continue. It will 


be replaced by a more rigid and unyielding one. The 
present period of reconstruction will give place to some 
settled order. A country like China, because of the 
fundamental conservatism of the Chinese character, 
although it may be changing to-day is not changeable, 
and therefore may not change again in generations. 
It is true of any of these nations that when it once becomes 
settled it will be harder to move and to impress it than 
while it is in a transitional state. The great question 
with reference to aU of these countries is, Shall they be 
dominated by Jesus Christ and His religion or not ? Is 
their new civilisation to be cast in Christian or in pagan, 
moulds ? Unless the principles and spirit of Christ 
do shape the new civilisation it is sure to become material- 
istic and rationalistic. Move than this, these nations 
are sure to become increasingly antagonistic and hostile 
to pure religion and to constitute the most serious 
obstacles to the spread of the Kingdom of Christ. Those 
who have studied the matter closely are convinced that 
among the leaders of these nations are many who are 
anxious to secure all the material advantages of western 
civilisation while excluding its underl5dng principles and 
inspiration. Now is the time to impress upon their 
officials and other thinking men that it is only righteous- 
ness and integrity of character that can make a nation 
permanently great, and that these are the direct products 
of the Christian Gospel. No policy could be more dis- 
astrous than for the Christian Church to allow any people 
to become civilised without bringing the superhuman 
Gospel to bear upon them in their transition state. 
Whether or not Christianity shaU have the predominant 
influence in the making of the new India, the new China, 
the new Korea, the new Turkey, the new Persia, wDl 
soon be determined by the Church's sacrifice or by its 
inertia. Some of these nations, like China, are weak now, 
notwithstanding the fact that they possess the elements 
necessary to give them a place among the strongest of 
nations. Their strength will soon be organised. It is 
all-important that Christianity be deeply rooted in these 


lands before that day comes. Many missionaries report 
their conviction that if the tide is not set toward Chris- 
tianity during the next decade both in the Far East and 
the Near East, it may be turned against us in the decade 



In the two most advanced non-Christian nations, 
Japan and India, there are to-day great Government 
systems of education, including hundreds of thousands 
of students. With the exception of the mission schools 
and colleges of India aided by Government, these are 
pronouncedly secular. China and Korea are rapidly r' 
establishing similar systems. That of China alone will 
;oon number its pupils and students by the million. 
The Governments of Turkey, Persia, Egypt, and other 
non-Christian countries are rapidly developing secular 
educational institutions. From these, of course. Christian 
teaching is excluded. In Japan, as no religious instruc- 
tion is received in most of the homes, the educated 
portion of the population is already largely natural- 
istic and agnostic. Few of the Government school 
educators have any use for religion. Hence a process 
is going on which will make it increasingly difficult 
for the Gospel to find entrance to the minds of the edu- 
cated Japanese. The modern education inevitably ^ . 
undermines belief in the old non-Christian faiths and ^^' 
leaves the rising generation practically without religion. ^-c,,j 
The text-books in these modern institutions are _, in-. 
different, if not actually hostile, to rehgion. The 
men educated in the Government schools under non- 
Christian or hostile influence thus drift into agnosticism 
and materialism and become a great menace to the 
Church. ^ 

In China, " Science without Christianity " is the watch- 
word of many students. The aspiration for new learning 
seems to be fixing the minds of the Chinese upon the 


materialistic aspects of our modern civilisation. The 
Chinese accept quickly the agnostic explanations of the 
universe. They are apt to receive the impression that 
religion is not necessary to the life of a nation. As they 

^ are by nature an eminently practical people, when 
through the study of science they see the folly of their 
old superstitions they will give them up, and, unless 
influenced by Christianity, will be apt to put nothing 
in their place. This consideration is a strong ground 
for calling for immediate and aggressive efforts to supply 

I that which we know to be the really essential thing in 
our modern civilisation ; namely, the truth and power 
of Christ. Among the educated youth of China there 
is a real stirring of thought, and at such a time new truth 
comes with power and authority. This is pre-eminently 
the time to reach them with Christian truth. The latest 
scientific truth may be so presented along with the 
Gospel as to show how all truth is one, thus leading to the 
acceptance of the Gospel with science. The great demand 
for western learning and the difficulty which the Chinese 

Government is experiencing in securing a sufficient 
number of competent teachers, affords a great opening 
to Christian schools and colleges. There should be a 
great expansion of Christian educational missions. It 
is western education that the Chinese are clamouring 
for, and wiU have. If we can give it to them, plus 
Christianity, they will take it ; if we cannot give it 
to them, they will get it elsewhere, without Christianity 
and that speedily. If in addition to direct evangelistic 
and philanthropic work in China, the Church can in 
the next decade train several thousands of Christian 
teachers, it will be in a position to meet this unparalleled 
opportunity. In Siam the Government is starting free 
schools, but it is still possible to sustain an important 
relation to higher education, if the Church will but main- 
tain its present advantage. 

Pandita Ramabai, writing of India, says : " The 
majority of the higher classes are getting western secular 

_ education, which is undermining their faith in their 


ancestral religion. They are not getting anything 
better to take the place of the old religion in their hearts, 
and are therefore without God, without hope, without 
Christ, going down socially and morally, and becoming 
very irreligious." This crisis in India calls for a greatly 
increased number of efficient mission schools and colleges, 
manned with earnest Christian teachers, conducted so 
far as possible on the residential plan, with the view to 
giving the Spirit of God as carefully prepared an oppor- 
tunity as possible, so that He may create an atmosphere 
in which His power will be mightily felt. The unrest 
of the educated classes calls not only for a strengthening 
of the missionary institutions, especially in the direction of 
making their Christian influence more effective, but also 
for a multiplication at student centres of wisely planned 
efforts directed to influence those of the educated class 
after leaving college as well as the students now in non- 
missionary colleges. If Christians do not rise to the 
occasion, educated Hindus and Mohammedans will 
take things into their own hands and provide for edu- 
cational and philanthropic institutions to be established 
and carried on under non-Christian management. 

The great desire of the constitutional party in Turkey 
seems to be to establish a system of education like that 
of France, excluding all mention of God and religion. 
Facts like these could be drawn from all other sections 
of the non-Christian world where secular institutions 
of learning have been established. Taken together, 
they bring before us one of the greatest menaces to the 
Christian faith, and in many respects the greatest obstacle 
in the way of carrying the Gospel to all the non- Christian 
world. Only one thing will meet the situation, and 
that is a prompt, comprehensive, and thorough campaign 
to make Christ known to all the students and the educated 
classes as well as to the other classes in the non-Christian 
nations, together with a great strengthening of the 
educational missionary? astablishment of the Church. 



Since the war between Japan and Russia there has 
been, in all parts of the non-Christian world, a growing 
spirit of nationalism and, associated with it, a spirit of 
racial pride and antagonism. There is a widespread 
movement among the nations and peoples of Asia, 
Africa, and Oceania toward independence of European 
and American control and influence. For a long time 
Japan has furnished the most inspiring and pov/erful 
example of free and triumphant nationality. The 
extension of the protectorate of Japan over Korea, 
involving the loss of independence, while humbling 
the Korean people, has at the same time stimulated 
within them an intense and united spirit of nationahsm. 

In China we find a most marked example of grov/ing 
consciousness of nationality and of a desire to acquire 
independence and power. An equally wonderful illus- 
tration is afforded by Turkey. India and Ceylon also 
are throbbing with the consciousness of a new life and 
are deeply stirred by new national aspirations. This 
is especially true of the educated classes, and the influence 
of their agitation, as manifested in the Swadeshi and 
other movements, is gradually being felt among other 
classes. Persia, Siam, Java, the Philippines, Egypt, 
and the native section of South Africa, furnish other 
illustrations of the same spirit. 

This national movement in almost every place is the 
expression of the growing self-consciousness of the 
peoples. They are proud of their past ; they believe they 
have resources and ability to make their own contribu- 
tion to the hfe of the world. They wish to preserve their 
individuality and independence, and to develop and be 
true to their national and racial characteristics. More- 
over, the Orient is finding itself. These different races 
are coming to recognise that the}' have much in common. 
They are both consciously and unconsciously being 
drawn together. 


This national and racial spirit cannot and should not be 
crushed or checked. It is a matter of profound concern to 
the Christian Church. It will have much power to hinder 
or to facilitate the spread of Christ's Kingdom. Christ 
never by teaching or example resisted or withstood the 
spirit of true nationalism. Wherever His principles, 
including those pertaining to the supreme claims of His 
Kingdom on earth, have had largest right of way, they have 
served to strengthen national spirit and not to weaken it. 
And yet there is grave and imminent danger that the 
teaching and attitude of the Church may be misunder- 
stood among the non-Christian nations, and thus that the 
missionary propaganda may be greatly hindered. Pro- 
fessor Kato of the Imperial University of Tokio has raised 
the cry that Christianity is universal in its aim and 
therefore antagonistic to the intense national spirit of 
Japan, which many Japanese are taught to regard as divine 
both in origin and in world-wide mission. 

Some of the leading Chinese reformers who have been 
imperfectly mstructed as to what true Christianity is have 
apparently been dominated by a similar misconception. 
The awakening of a national spirit in China tends to close 
minds and hearts against everything connected wdth the 
foreign teacher. Chinese officials apparently cannot free 
their minds from the conviction that the missionary 
movement is after all only another form of political 
activity. They have had experience in the past with 
certain forms of Christianity which abundantly explains 
the strength of their conviction. It is not strange, 
therefore, that it is openly announced in Chinese news- 
papers that the programme of the new China must be to 
recover China's sovereign rights and to extinguish the 
Church. Without doubt the officials are indirectly doing 
much to prevent the people from accepting Christianity. 
China fears any teaching or movement which centres 
abroad. Thus the Mohammedan rebellion, with its 
centres in Turkey and Arabia, made her fear Islam. 
Her sentiment is not more against Christianity than 
against railways and mines worked or superintended by 
COM. I. 3 

-'^ y 


foreigners. In fact, she is more keen to redeem her rail- 
ways and mines than to expel Christians. It is not 
improbable that the Government when it becomes more 
strongly organised wiU draw up regulations to be observed 
by the missionary movement . This might not be without its 
, advantages, in that Christianity could then be propagated 
1 apart from aids of western governments and thus would 
not appear so much to be a foreign religion. The spirit 
of restiveness under dominant foreign influence manifests 
itself not only in the political and commercial relations 
of China, but also inside the Chinese Christian Church 
itself. There is indeed grave danger lest this Church turn 
its back on the foreign missionary while still sorely needing 
his instruction and help, to prepare it more fully for true 

In India also a false patriotism is prejudicing many of 
the people against Christ. The Swadeshi movement, 
notably in Bengal, is particularly dangerous in the villages 
because of its tendency to stir up hatred of Christ and 
of the Christians. This movement has employed 
lecturers to go over the country, especially to the 
places of pilgrimage, to create hostility toward Chris- 
tianity. Their literature exerts a similar influence. 
It opposes the Christian religion as a foreign religion. ; 
In the Indian Church, as weU as in the Churches of 
China and Japan, there is also strong feeling in many 
places against what they regard to be the too dominating 
influence of the foreign missionary. At the same time 
it should be noted that the new national movement 
in India and Ceylon, while in its first effect it is strongly 
anti-Christian and anti-foreign and a hindrance to the 
progress of the Gospel, wiU in time tend to abolish caste, 
hasten other reforms, and prepare India for a more 
rapid and thorough spread of Christianity. Already it 
is developing greater strength of character, greater power 
of initiative and of propaganda, stronger thirst for educa- 
tion, a new desire for social and religious reform, and 
strong indignation at the appalling abuses of Hinduism. 
It recognises the necessity of removing all divisive influ- 


ences and of enlisting all unifying and uplifting forces. 
This wiU inevitably lead to a larger recognition of the 
unique mission and power of Christianity. This move- 
ment has also affected the lower and middle classes the 
great bulk of the population sufficiently to influence 
them to consider the claims of Christianity, something 
which many of them hitherto have never cared to do. 

The development and spread of the spirit of national 
and racial patriotism constitutes a most inspiring summons 
to carry the Gospel of Christ to all these peoples. Pure 
Christianity should be brought to bear at once in order to 
help to educate, purify, unify, guide, and strengthen the 
national spirit. Who can measure the possibilities for 
the Christian Church of identifying itself freely and 
largely with all genuine and noble national aspirations ? 
Christianity must show that it has a message of salvation 
not merely for isolated individuals but for the nation as a 
whole ; that it has greater ethical power than the non- 
Christian religions and yet is not antagonistic to any 
truth that these systems contain ; that it can adapt itself 
to the people whom it seeks to save, and that it does not 
deem it essential, even desirable, that the ordered life of 
the Christian community in Asia and Africa should foUow 
in every respect the lines of European and American 
(Christianity ; that the so-called Christian nations really 
believe in Christianity, and' that, although they are 
still far from attaining to the Christian position, they 
are yet in the lead in character among the nations, and 
that their shortcomings and sins are not due to Christ, 
but to the lack of Christ ; that Christianity is uni- 
versally indigenous and will bear its richest and most 
abundant fruits in any soil where it is not choked by the 
weeds of error or falsehood. 


The movement toward Christ in many parts of the non- 
Christian world is increasing in volume and in momentum. 


There have been times in the history of missions when the 
spiritual tide was as high, if not higher, on certain fields 
than at present ; but there has never been a time when on 
so many fields there was unmistakably such a rising tide. 
In Japan, notwithstanding many difficulties and dis- 
couragements, the past ten years have without doubt 
been the most fruitful in spiritual results ever known in 
that field. In the recent past nearly every Christian 
communion at work in Japan has had encouraging results 
in conversions. In some parts of the country there have 
been revivals. The concentration campaigns waged 
largely by the Japanese workers themselves have been 
good examples of successful united evangelistic work. 
The revival among the prisoners in Hokkaido v/as 
truly notable. The evangelistic efforts put forth by 
the Young Men's Christian Association among the nearly 
one million Japanese soldiers during the recent war, and 
the circulation among them of the New Testament and 
other Christian hterature by the Bible Societies and other 
agencies, were followed by far-reaching results. The 
international deputations sent out to all the student 
centres of Japan in connection with the Conference of the 
World's Student Christian Federation waged possibly the 
most effective evangelistic campaign ever carried on 
among the students of an entire country. 

Korea presents the most striking example of a whole 
nation being moved by the Holy Spirit. Revivals are in 
progress in different parts of the country. There are now 
not less than 200,000 Christians, including catechumens, 
and their number is increasing at the rate of over thirty 
per cent, a j'ear. People of all classes are being brought 
under the sway of Jesus Christ. Dr. Yun, possibly the 
leading Korean Christian, expresses his conviction that 
the next ten years will tell more for the evangelisation of 
Korea than fifty years thereafter. If the home Church 
wiD, during the next few years, a.dequately sustain the 
present evangelistic campaign in Korea, that country will 
probably be the first non-Christian nation evangelised 
in the history of modern missions. The thorough evac^ 


gelisation of one nation actually accomplished would 
serve as an impressive object-lesson to the whole Church, 
and would inspire Christians to press on in other nations. 

In many parts of the Chinese Empire there have been in 
the last few years genuine spiritual awakenings. Atten- 
tion need only be called to the revival in Manchuria, to the 
transformations wrought by God among the Miao and 
hill tribes in the far west of China, the revival at Hinghwa 
in the Fukien Province, and the power manifested in the 
meetings conducted by Mr. Goforth in several provinces. 
Reports have come from all sections of the country 
telling of the conversion of large numbers of the illiterate 
masses. Encouraging as is this movement among the 
masses of China, when the number of persons involved 
is considered, the evangelistic fruitage among the educated 
classes has been even more remarkable. Where the 
Gospel hcLS been presented to the modern students of 
China, both from Christian schools and also from Govern- 
ment schools, during the past three or four years, it has 
as a rule met with a favourable response. The evangelistic 
meetings, Bible classes, and personal work carried on 
among the Chinese students in Tokio constitute by them- 
selves one of the most fruitful efforts on behalf of the 
educated classes ever put forth in any field. The ethical 
and social changes and transformations wrought in 
connection with this spiritual movement in so many 
parts of China leave no doubt as to its being a work of 
God. Missionaries writing from all sections of this field 
tell of the large number of applicants for baptism, number- 
ing in some cases into the thousands, and express their 
solicitude lest the Church of Christ fail to realise the 
significance of this movement and to put forth its strength. 
They believe that the revival movement now passing over 
China may become widespread if the Christians of our 
day will but see and seize the opportunity. 

\Vliile there have not been in Siam and Laos and in the 
Malay Peninsula extensive revivals as in China, Korea, 
and Japan, the reports nevertheless show the unmistakable 
work of the Spirit of God in the definite conversion of meo 


to whom the Gospel has been proclaimed. It is plain that 
there might be large harvests gathered, even in these 
difficult fields, were the staff of workers augmented. Two 
of the leading missionaries of Laos say that they would 
not be at all surprised to see its people become nominally 
Christian within their day. , "" 

Notwithstanding the unrest and disturbances in India, 
the past few years have witnessed real progress in the 
Christian propaganda. There have been large in- 
gatherings into the Kingdom of Christ. The awakening 
in the Welsh Mission in the Khasi Hills, leading to the 
conversion of thousands, and the quickening of the native 
Church, exerted an influence far beyond that region. It did 
much to strengthen the faith of the workers elsevv'here, 
and to fire them with the zeal of evangelism. The so-called 
" mass movements " in different parts of India are result- 
ing each year in turning a multitude of the outcastes 
and of the members of the lower castes towards the 
Christian fold. The readiness of these depressed masses to 
receive the Gospel and to accept baptism is indeed impres- 
sive. During a single year recently about three thousand 
souls in the south-east portion of the Nizam's dominions 
placed themselves under Christian instruction. Similar 
movements are reported in the United Provinces, in the 
Punjab, and in Western India. In one section of North 
India, at the present rate of in-gathering, it will be only a 
few years until practically all of the " sweepers " will have 
come in ; and there are at present signs of a break among 
a still larger class the leather-workers. Several lower 
castes are very accessible. Some missions are baptizing 
as rapidly as they can thoroughly evangelise and teach. 
Others testify that they could double or quadruple the 
number of baptisms were they able to double their force 
of workers. Missionaries insist that if the Church fails 
to prosecute a very aggressive movement to evangelise 
these prepared multitudes and to win them for Christ, 
they will be drawn elsewhere, and come under influences 
v/hich will greatly increase the difficulty involved in reach- 
ing them. They believe that tliis movement amongst the 


depressed classes of India constitutes a great opportunity 
for evangelisation, and that to fail to take advantage of it 
would be to neglect a crisis in the life of the heathen world 
which may be used for the extension of pure Christianity. 

The missionaries in touch with these movements in 
India are alive to the perils involved, and they may be 
depended upon to safeguard the Church from serious 
mistakes. The opportunity is certainly a great one, and 
is urgent. Dr. Murray Mitchell, in writing his book, The 
Great Religions of India, must have had in mind these 
modern mass movements when he said : " Ere long we ex- 
pect to witness such a rush or what we generally call mass 
movements in India." He was writing regarding certain 
movements in the Roman Empire in the fourth century. 
He then went on to speak of the problem of India moving 
in masses. This modern mass movement presents an 
appeal to the Church to make a prompt and large advance. 
It will not be without its powerful influence on the higher 
castes and classes of India. May it not be that the 
Bishop of Madras is right in his contention that the future 
of India lies more with the pariah than with the Brahman ? 
Be this as it may, the history of the Church shows that any 
great spiritual movement at the bottom of society sooner 
or later profoundly affects the upper strata. 

It should be noted that the movement toward Christ 
among the educated classes of India also affords grounds 
for thanksgiving and hopefulness. A survey of the 
Indian Christian community will show that the number 
of converts from the higher castes, while not large, is 
increasing. A prominent worker among students in India 
has pointed out recently that there have been more 
conversions among the educated classes of India during 
the last ten years than in any previous decade in the history 
of Indian missions. Christianity is coming more and 
more into its own in Hindustan, and the best thought 
of India is not toward Hinduism but toward Christ. 
As the Bishop of Lahore said not long ago, " There has 
been a gradual conversion of the attitude of the people 
toward Christianity." The point which so many mis- 


sionaries have brought out should not be overlooked or 
lose its force, namely, that scattered all over India are 
numbers, which in the aggregate must be very large, 
of secret disciples of Jesus Christ. Much that has been 
said about India proper could be said with reference to 
Burma and Assam, as well as Ceylon. Both among the 
educated classes in these regions and among the mass of 
the people there have been in recent years not a few 
conversions and other evidences of the work of the Holy 

In all parts of the Turkish Empire and in Persia since 
the recent revolutions, there is a widespread spirit of 
enquiry, as shown by the unprecedented demand for the 
Scriptures. It seems to be the general impression among 
the missionaries of these two countries that the time has 
come when we may expect to see an increasing number 
of conversions to Christianity among the Moslem popula- 

It is plain from what the missionaries write that by 
far the greatest progress of Christianity in Africa has 
been achieved within the past decade. Wherever there 
have been workers of holy life and strong faith to put 
in the sickle, they have gathered sheaves. This has been 
conspicuously exemplified in Uganda, in Livingstonia, 
and in parts of the Congo basin, but the mention of these 
fields must not exclude from view the fact that in other 
districts also the mighty working of the Spirit of God has 
been witnessed. While the results of work on behalf of 
IIoslems in the form of announced conversions have not 
been large, efforts of this kind have by no means been in 
vain. There are among Moslems many secret believers 
in Christ. A conference of Moslem converts was held 
recently in Zeitoun, Egypt. In Madagascar the repressing 
policy of the Government has forbidden aggressive 
operations, closed the large majority of schools, and im- 
posed severe restrictions on worship ; but, as in the earlier 
history of the Church in that island, the time of persecution 
s proving a time of remarkable ingathering. 

From almost every considerable ^roup of islands 


throughout Oceania, and particularly from the great 
islands in the Indies, such as Sumatra, Java, Borneo, 
Celebes, and New Guinea, there have come letters showing 
that there has been no period like the last one or two 
decades in triumphant power of the Gospel. As we look 
out over the non-Christian world, it is true that we may 
see some apparently barren fields and deserts, and observe 
certain sections and classes of the population in some 
countries which are not responding largely to the Gospel 
appeal ; but taking the non-Christian world as a whole, 
the present is without doubt a time of rising spiritual tide. 
It is always wise to take advantage of a rising tide. In 
the annals of Christianity there has been no time like the 
present. Surely it is a summons to the Church to make a 
prompt campaign, adequate to meet the opportunity. 


Where there have been great causes at work we may 
expect in due time to witness great results. There is 
no body of workers in connection with any human enter- 
])rise who have devoted themselves to their task with 
greater intensity, thoroughness, and self-denial than those 
have shown who have been engaged during the past one 
hundred ^^ears in seeking to carry the Gospel to the 
non-Cluristian world. While their numbers have been 
disproportionately small their ability has been of a 
high order, and their wisdom and zeal have been remark- 
able. This comment applies to a large section both 
of the foreign and native workers. There is one fact 
to which far too little importance is attached. Even 
those missionary efforts which have seemed to yield 
comparatively little valuable fruit have not been in 
vain. While thus far there may not have been many 
positive results to show, the negative effects have been 
none the less helpful in spreading the Gospel. They 
have helped to weaken the strength of heathendom. 
Even in the most difficult fields, such as sections 


of the Mohammedan and Hindu communities of India, 
the work of the ]3ast on e_ hundred years has been that 
of disintegration, and to-day we see the beginning of the 
breaking up of these gigantic systems. Were the Christian 
Church now to advance in the spirit and power of Christ, 
results could be achieved far surpassing anything 
accomplished in the past. 

As Dr. Fulton pointed out at the Qentenary Missionary 

Conference in China, the work of foreign missions has 

not been unlike that of the work of reclamation carried 

/on in recent years by the United States Government 

i:f I for the purpose of making ~pf odiictive great areas of 

\ desert land. The problem has been that of assuring 

to those lands streams of water that will bring fertility 

and fruitfulness water in steady or regular streams, 

^ and not in uncertain quantities or at unknown times. 
So the u^ork of the missionary enterprise hitherto 
has been largely that of tunnelling mountains and con- 
structing reservoirs and canals so as to be able to convey 
the water in adequate measure and continuity to the 
great multitudes in the waste and desert places of the non- 
Christian world. But this all-important preparatory work 
has now reached a stage where the life-giving streams 
should be released in far greater measure. 

While the missionaries on every field have more or 
less tried to secure immediate results, their principal 
tasks, whether they recognise it or not,^^have been con- 
h cerned with the preliminaries of a really adequate 
advance. Their work has been largely that of scouting 
and exploring, of organising and training the arms of 
the service, of forging the weapons, of evolving the 
tactics and strategy of the campaign, of sapping and 
mining, of experimenting. This necessarily prolonged 
labour is now in many fields complete, and 
as Mr. W. H. Findlay, formerly of South India, has 

! pointed out, " The effective advance, with victories 
eclipsing almost aU those of the past, may be confidently 
expected, jf the Church sends the arrny." For these pre- 
liminary stages the forces thus far employed have not 


been altogether inadequate. But for the work now at 
hand greater numerical strength is required. 
(Three greajt laws of God, absolutely certain in their 
working, Tiave long, been in operation throughout the 
mission fields ; and in the light of Church history we 
have reason to expect that they have made possible 
enormous results. The one thing necessary is for the 
Christian Church at the present time to enter into the 
heritage so fully prepared by the working of these un- 
changing laws. One of these is the law^ of sowing and 
reaping. It has ^en the unvarying rule of the Kingdom 
that where there has been proper sowing, in due time 
an abundant harvest might be reajDed. Seed-sowing 
has been going on in nearly all of the mission fields for 
a generation, and in many of them for two or three 
generations. The seed sown has been good seed seed 
with most highly-multiplying vitality. The sowers 
have been wise, assiduous, and faithful. The processes 
of watering and nurturing have been, generally speaking, 
efficient. The Lord of the Harvest has never been 
found wanting in bringing forth increase. The great 
thing needed is capable reapers, abounding in faith and 
sufficient in nurriber. Granted such we shall witness 
large harvests. Even in the most difficult fields of the 
Mohammedan and Hindu world we shall see the coming 
out into open confession of a great company of the no\v 
secj;et disciples of our Lord. 

"^Another one of God's laws, equally certain in its opera- 
tion, is the law of intercession. On the authority of 
Christ, which is fully supported in the experience of His 
followers, intercession^ has limitless^_achieving pov^^er. 
There is possibly no section of the Christian Church 
which has devoted itself more fully to real prayer than 
the leaders of the Christian propaganda in the non- 
Christian world, and the vital Christians on the home 
field have probably remembered no other cause in their 
prayers with greater faithfulness than the movement 
for the extension of the limits of Christ's Kingdom among 
the peoples who have not known Him. But of what 



use is this great and growing volume of intercession 
unless the Church goes forth in force to enter into its 
rightful possessions^ Wherever it has done so with 
"con fi dent apostolic spirit it has invariably been rewarded 
, with abounding fruitage. 
^^The law of sacrifice, like the other two laws which have 
'"been named, brmgs into operation a force adequate to the 
achieving of vast spiritual results. Christ enunciated 
the deepest principle underlying the spread of His King- 
dom in this language : " Except a corn of wheat fall 
into the ground and die, it abideth alone : but if it die 
it bringeth forth much fruit." On this ground may we 
not expect a wonderful fruitage in our day ? We need 
only recall the large number of missionaries and native 
leaders who, even within the past two decades, have laid 
down their lives for the sake of the Kingdom. And 
how true it is that the whole life and career of the mis- 
sionary is one of self-denial, in which the members of his 
family also participate. We should not forget, moreover, 
the large volume of sacrifice for the missionary cause on 

^ the part of many Christians on the home field. But 
the sacrifices of Christ's followers at home and abroad 
will have been comparatively fruitless unless the members 

^ of the Church of our day, in full recognition of the wonder- 
ful possibilities of the working of this law, both seek to 
harvest the fruits of the sacrifices already made and also 
( associate themselves more fully with Christ in the life 
of self-sacrifice. 


Unless the home Church greatly enlarges its missionary 
operations, that they may be commensurate with the 
opportunities and with the dernands made upon the 
forces of Christendom, there Ts danger lest its repre- 
sentatives at the front break down in health, and that 
their work be of an inferior type. The whole character 
of the work and of the workers may seriously deteriorate 


on account of the well-nigh irresistible demand that work 
be done and lines be extended without adequate pre- 
paration or sufficient provision for their equipment. 
The present undermanned condition of the missionary /?/'-:> 
enterprise' is driving missionaries at too high a speed, 
preventing that thoroughness of intellectual and spiritual 
preparation, and that recuperation of physical vigour, 
which are so essential if the work is to be thoroughly 
done. Moreover, not to put forth strength in view of 
the present opportunity means that because of unim- 
proved opportunities the difficulties of the Church in 
days to come will be greatly increased. 

For the Church not to rise to the present situation and -^^^ 
meet the present opportunity will result in hardening 
the minds "and hearts of its members and making them -iO 
unresponsive to God. If the situation now confronting 
fhe Church throughout the world does not move to 
larger consecration and prompt and aggressive effort, it 
is difficult to imagine what more God could do to move -"' 
the Church, unless it be to bring upon it some great 
cSIamrty. To know the awful need of the non-Christian 
world, to have available a Gospel abundantly sufficient to 
meet that need, to be fuffjTable to carry that Gospel to 
those who are in need of it, and not to do so, will inevitably 
promote unreality and hypocrisy throughout the home 
Church^ rt~is" an inexorable law of Christianity that no 
CKristian can keep spiritual Jife and blessing to himself, 
but must communicate to those in need. Not to do so 
damages the character of the Christian himself, promotes 
like hypocrisy among other Christians who are influenced 
by Him, leads unbelievers around him to lose confidence in /^ 
the reality of Christianity, and leaves in outer darkness 
multitudes of souls in non-Christian lands, who, were it 
not for such sham profession, would be ushered into the 
marvellous light and liberty of Christ. Without doubt 
the present halting and seeming inaction of the Churcli.j?- 
is bringing discredit on the name and power of Christianity. '^ 

The 'apologetic "value and influence of a widespread, 
thorough, and triumphant propagation of the Gospel 


should also be emphasised. In Christian lands many 

* have lost faith in Christianity as a power to uplift mankind. "" 

"If ~the foreign missionary propaganda furnishes from the 

aiVficult fields of the non-Christian world evidence 

I showing the ability of the Christian religion to transform 

I men individually, to elevate communities socially and 

t6"win whole nations, the effect on the life and influence 

of the home Church will be very great indeed. On the 

other hand, shoald the missionary enterprise fail, to meet 

successfully the present world-need and opportunity, the 

faith of many in the mission and power of Christianity 

may be shaken to the foundation. 

The only thing which will save the Church from the 
,, imminent perils of growing luxury and materialism, is 
the putting forth of allits powers on behalf of the world 
without Christ. Times of material prosperity have ever 
been the times of greatest danger to Christianity. The 
Church needs a supreme world-purpose a gigantic task^ 
something which will call out all its energies, something } . p^ 
too great for man to accomplish, and, therefore, something y^ , 
which will throw the Church back upon God Himself. />^<^' 
This desideratum is afforded by the present world-wide '''''''/(/ 
missionary opportunity and responsibility. To lay hold 
in particular of the lives of the strongest young men and 
young women, the Church must offer them some such 
masterful mission as this. May it not be that God designs 
that the baffling problems which confront Christianity in 
the non-Christian world shall constitute the battle- 
ground for disciplining the faith and strengthening the 
character' of His followers ? To preserve the pure faith ^^-r- 
of Christianity, a world-wide plan and conquest are j-^'- 
necessary. This lesson is convincingly taught in the 
pages of Church history. The concern of Christians 
to-day should not be lest non-Christian peoples refuse to 
receive Christ, but lest they in failing to communicate Him 
will themselves lose Him. i- 

A programme literally world-wide in its scope is indis; 
pensable to enrich and complete the Church. Jesus 
Christ must have all the races and all the nations through 


which to make known fully His excellences and to com- 
municate adequately His power. Informed, transformed, 
enlightened, enlivened by the reception of Christ and the 
indwelling of the Holy Spirit, Asia, Africa, and Oceania 
win surely exercise a^profound influence upon the western 
Church and ^ help greatly to enlarge and enrich its concep- 
tions of Christ and His Kingdom. The movement to carry 
forward an enterprise to make Christ known to all mankind 
will inevitably widen the horizon and sympathies of the , 
Church. It will be impossible to plan and wage a world- 
wide campaign w ithout b eing enlarged by the very purpose ' 
itself. The life of the Church depends upon its being 
missionary. Revivals of missionary devotion and of 
s piritu al life have ever gone hand-in-hand. The mission- 
ary activites of the Church are the circulation of its blood, /; 
which would lose its vital power if "Trne ver fl owed to the 
extremities. The missionary problem of the Church 
to-day is not primarily a financial problem, but it ishow 
to ensm"e a vitality egual to the imperial expansion of the ^ 
missionary programme. The only hope of this is, for 
Christians to avail themselves of the more abundant life 
through Christ bestowed in the pathway of obedience to 
Him. Moreover, to have God manifest mightily His 
power in the home Church so that it may be able to 
grapple successfully with the problems at its own doors, 
it is essential that the Church give itself in a larger way to 
the carrying out of His missionary purposes. Is it not true 
that when this main purpose is forgotten or subordinated, 
a paralysis comes upon the Church, incapacitating it for 
other efforts ? World evangelisation is essential to a- ^ 
Christian conquest aTTiome. The only faith which will 
conquer Europe and America is the faith heroic and 
vigorous enough to subdue' the peoples of tKe non- 
CTiristTan world. 

Christ_emphasised that the mightiest apologetic with 
whicFlo convince the non-Christian world^ of His divine 
character and claims would be the oneness of His disciples. 
Experience has already shown tharEy far the most hope- 
ful way of hastening the realisation of true and triumphant 



Christian unity is through the enterprise of carrying 
the Gospel to the non-Christian world. Who can measure 
the federative and unifying influence of foreign missions ? 
No problem less colossal and less bafflingly difficult will 
so reveal to the Christians of to-day the sinfulness of their 
divisions, and so convince them of the necessity of con- 
^ certed effort, as actually to draw them together in answer 
to the intercession of their common and Divine Lord. 

The cumulative and crowning consideration calling the 
Church to undertake promptly and to carry forward 
earnestly and thoroughly a campaign to take the Gospel 
to all the non-Christian world is seen in the coincidence 
of the series of convincing facts and providences which 
have been summarised in this survey. Never before have 
such facts and mjovements synchronised. The non- 
Christian world now accessible, open and responsive ; . 
the non-Christian religions losing their age-long hold on 
certain classes on the one hand and yet on the other hand 

/) stirred to new activity, enterprise, and antagonism ; the 
alarming and rapid spread of un-Christian and anti- 
Christian influences from so-called Christian lands ; 
peoples waking from long sleep and whole nations in a 
plastic condition, but the character and spirit of their 
civilisation soon to become fixed ; the threatening menace 
of the great development and enlarging plans of systems 

u , of secular education ; a growing spirit of nationalism and 
of racial pride and antagonism, vv^ith all this may mean 

5 'for or against the spread of Christ's Kingdom ; a spiritual 
tide of missionary success rising and in many places at'its 

/] flood ; the possibility of reaping enormous fruitage as a 
result of the long working of God's certain laws. Surely 
all these facts and factors, together with the perils and 
possibilities of the home Church as determined by its 
attitude at such a time and in face of such an opportunity, 
constitute a conjunction brought about by the hand of 
the Living God, and should be regarded by the Christian 
Church as an irresistible mandate. 

Well may the leaders and members of the Church 


reflect on the awful_seriousness of the simple fact that 
opportunities pass. If "must use them or lose them. 
It cannot play with them or procrastinate to debate 
whether or not to improve them. Doors open and 
doors shut again. Time presses. " The living, the 
livings ie shall praise Thee." It is the day of God's 
power. Shall His people be willing ? 

COM. 1.- 

PART 11 




Rarely if ever before in her history has the Church 
attempted to Christianise a people so advanced at once 
in intellectual, moral, and material culture as the Japanese. 
A people in whom the spirit of progress rests upon so 
deep a substratum of conservatism cannot be moved 
from their old beliefs in a day. The expectations enter- 
tained by some observers twenty years ago that they 
would be swept into Christianity en masse, have been 
replaced by conservative views. The recent celebration 
of the semi-centennial of the modern introduction of 
Christianity into Japan has thrown into relief the broad 
scope of the evangelism already accomplished and the 
substantial character of the results attained. 


Japan's geographical position destines her to play an 
important role in the evangelisation of the Far East. 
Although covering only 161,000 square miles, she forms an 
island rampart circling the coast of Asia from Siberia to 
Southern China. Her indented coasts and the sea-loving 
disposition of her people, her supplies of coal and her 
skilled labour, combined with the intellectual energy of her 
people, guarantee that her traders^teachers, and_dilomats 



yK> P^ -^^ j.^ ^y^;.^(^y^^ 

will penetrate to every city between Kamchatka and 
Bombay. Japan is peculiarly fitted to become in mental 
and moral, no less than in material civilisation, the 
mediator between the Occident and the Orient. Whether 
we will or not, the words still ring in our ears, "Japan 
leading the Orient but whither ? " 

The Japanese race is prolific. Increasing at the rate 
of one per cent, a year, the people now number 52,000,000, 
besides 3,250,000 Formosans. The climate is in general 
salubrious, though in experience it is found to be 
trying to westerners. Conditions of living and travel 
offer no peculiar hardships. The entire Empire is now 
accessible to the Christian worker by means of 5300 
miles of railway and numerous steamship lines. All 
restrictions as to residence have been removed since 
1899. The population is comparatively congested ii 
the centre and south-west, but there are no very sparsely 
settled regions except the northern island, Hokkaido. 
The emigration of many thousands of Japanese each 
year to the mainland of Asia is constantly widening 
the responsibility of the missions at work in Japan. 
The Japanese language is very complex and difficult, 
but when once mastered, it becomes a means of com- 
munication with people of all classes throughout the 
Empire. By resorting to the Chinese ideographs, all 
the shades of thought involved in the presentation of 
religious truth can be fairly well conveyed. The absence 
of sharp caste distinctions and the relatively high social 
standing of the missionary secure him access to the upper 
as well as the lower classes of society. 


The character of the people is the chief ground of hope 
for the Christian worker. But like all peoples, the Japanese 
have the defects of their qualities. They are singularly 
open-minded and tolerant, but not free from changeable- 
pess and lukewarm ej;lecticism. They possess a capacity 


for mass movements, particularly under superior leader- 
ship, but often lack the courage to stand alone against 
the tyranny of family and social opposition. They have 
a talent for minute organisation and prevision in military 
and political affairs, but are unsystematic in private life. 
They glorify patriotism, but tend to interpret it in a 
nationalistic sense antagonistic to Christianity. The 
spirit of h_erQ-worship powerfully lifts their aspirations, 
but, carried to the point of apotheosis, it withdraws atten- 
tion from the true idea of God. There has been until 

\ recently, even among Christians, a tendency to value 
Christianity for its utility to the State, but a failure to 
prize it for its. absolute spiritual truth. On the side of 
personal morality, laxitxjn relations between the sexes is 
one of the chief secrets of moral failure among both Chris- 
tians and non-Christians, especially in the country dis- 
tricts, although Japanese wives are singularly free from this 
failing. Yet when all allowances have been made, there 
are left such vigour and winsomeness, such masculine 
valour and feminine sensitiveness as have already given 
the world fresh and beautiful types of Christian character. 
The age-long dominance of Buddhism has probably 
been more of a hindrance than a help to Christianisation. 
It has bred superstition, fatalism, and a low conception 
^ of sin and of salvation by faith ; still, it has taught the 

i law of suffering for sin, the need of spiritual enlightenment, 
and the seriousness, the mystery, and the eternity of 
existence. Fortunately, perhaps, it was the northern 
more spiritual, instead of the southern semi-atheistic 
Buddhism that came to Japan. Confucianism has proved 
in many respects to be a schoolmaster leading toward 
Christ, and a corrective for the defects of Buddhism. It 
has inculcated a high moral code, emphasised self-mastery, 
and discouraged superstition. On the other hand, it has en- 
couraged agnosticism and self-satisfied rigidity. Shintoism 
has contributed an appreciation of sin as an offence against 
the gods, and the beauty of spontaneity and simplicity ; 
but it has too often tended toward unbridled natural- 
ism, polytheism, and one-sided nationalism. Bushido, 


with all its defects recalling the weaknesses of Spanish 
knighthood as depicted by Cervantes has^nurtured many 
noble qualities. But its suspiciousness and combativeness 
need to be expelled by Christ's apirit of Love and service. 
Other favourable factors are : the constitutional 
guarantee oT religious liberty ; the prevalence of the 
English tongue, with its Christianised literature ; the^^^- 
alliance with Christian Britain ; the recruiting of the 
first generation of Christian leaders from among the 
Samurai, with their culture and their capacity for leader- 
ship ; the intense national and individual ambition for ^. 
progress ; and the recogiiised insufficiency of material 
prosperity, leading to the revival of the old faiths and the 
patronage of the Hotoku teachings of Ninomiya Sontoku, 
^ by- the Goverriment : many thoughtful men, however, are 
convinced that all of these together are inadequate to 
meet the nation's need. 

Other unfavourable factors are : the inherited suspicion 
of Christianity, ever since the proscription of the Portu- 
guese missionaries ; the contempt for religionists, bred 
by the corrupt lives of the Buddhist priests ; the rein- 
forcem.ent of Confucian scepticism by the anti-Christian 
thought of the West ; the grovv'ing circulation of baneful . > 
Russian and French literature ; the heavy dependence 
hitherto upon foreign money for evangelisation, so that 
ardent patriots Kave spiirned Christianity as an alien pro- 
paganda ; misunderstandings arising from ignorance of 
the Japanese language and customs on the part of some 
missionaries, or from Japanese sensitiveness ; the_extreme 
socialistic views of -a fevY,men.-who are generally regarded 
as Christians ; the unexpectedly strong attachment of 
Japanese Christians to sectarian distinctions ; the large 
number of derelict professing Christians ; the godless 
lives of many Europeans in Oriental ports, and the 
apparent impotence of Christianity in_ the West to _^ 
cure such evils as-gross impurity , 'pauperism, "domestic ' 
discord, industrial strife, international bitterness^ and 
the race prejudice exhibited in connection with the 
anti-Oriental agitation ; the rationalistic attack upon the 


person of Christ; the opposition of revived Buddhism 
and Shintoism ; the struggle for wealth since the Russo- 
Japanese war, crowding out the study of Christian 
truth ; and, finally, the self-confidence begotten by 
victory in war, making religion seem unnecessary. 

All these forces and counter-forces are fighting for 
mastery among the Japanese people to-day. The wonder 
is, not that the Kingdom of Christ advances no faster, 
but that it has advanced so remarkably as it has. 


Beginning at the two open ports in 1859, Protestant mis- 
sionaries have steadily progressed in the occapation of the 
country, until to-day every one of the forty-eight pi-ovinces 
has been entered. The restrictions upon living outside the 
treaty ports at first necessitated the^concentration'of the 
missionary force in the larger cities. 'Even yet we fmd 
that 60 per ' cent, of the missionary body reside in 
eight cities, namely, Tokio, 279 ; Kobe, 72 ; Yokohama, 
67 ; Osaka, 62 ; Kioto, 40 ; Sendai, 37 ; Nagasaki, 35 ; 
and Nagoya, 33. But it is important to remember that 
fully one-half of all those in these larger cities are engaged 
in educational or literary work, or in the general adminis- 
tration of mission work, or in the study of the language. 
Many of the remainder are chiefly engaged in itinerant 
evangelism in the surrounding towns. 

The tendency has been for the number of stations to 
increase more rapidly than the number of missionaries. 
Thus, in 1900, the 757 missionaries (including wives) 
were located in only 63 stations, whereas, in 1908, the 
1034 rnissionaries were in 97 stations. This tendency has 
apparently reached the limit, unless the missionary force 
be increased, or more economically utilised by co-operation 
and division of labour. 

The work of the past fifty years has included all 'phases, 
although the industrial has been insignificant and the 
medical has steadily decreased. Emphasis has from 
the first been placed upon education, preaching, and 


women's work. Children's work has been extensively 
carried on in Sunday Schools and kindergartens with 
excellent results. The exceptional intelligence of the 
Japanese Christian workers is largely accounted for by 
the early attention paid to education. This attention 
was due T)0th to the foresight of the missionaries and 
to the thirst for instruction on the part of the intelligent 
middle class of Samurai descent. After the restoration, ^ 
of 1868 the Samurai became officials, teachers, professional ^'^^ 
men^ and students. The result has been that Christian- 
ity has made most rapid progress among men of those 
occupations. Conversely, the farmers, merchants, ^ 

labourers, and the aristocracy have been comparattively 
inaccessible and therefore neglected. While this pro- 
ce3ufe has given the Japanese Church a high inteUectual 
standing, it has kept it financially poor. Yet, with the 
increasing commercialisation of the nation, the Christians,, /j/y 
are winning their share of wealth and are giving it gener- y^^^t^ 
ously for the faith. This is evidenced by the growth f^cnr 
in the proportion of self-supporting churches from 13 /^^^^ 
out of 93 in 1882 (14 per cent.), to 95 out of 443 in 1900 9/-i>^^ 
(21 per cent.), and to 169 out of 554 in 1908 (32 per cent.). 
The growth in Church membership, including all 
bodies except the Roman and Greek Catholics (which 
claim 62,000 and 30,000 members respectively), has been 
as follows : < 



1882 .... 4,367 - 

18S9 .... 31.875 

1900 .... 42.451 

1908 . . > . 73.422 

This shows an extremely rapid growth between 18S2 
and 1889, a very slow growth between 1889 and 1900, and 
a normal growth during the subsequent eight years. These 
figures correctly reflect the temper of the periods, which 
may be called the advance, the reaction, and the recovery ; 
they were characterised in turn by inflated enthusiasm, ,4/'' 
sceptical indifference, and balanced faith. . , , . ^ 


The direct evangelisation of the country has been 
powerfully aided by the excellent Christian schools and 
kindergartens, and supported at every point by the 

f j- widespread activity of the Bible Societies, ^ which since 
1874 have circulated over 5,000,000 copies of the Bible 
or its parts. It has also l5eeh effectively supplemented 
by man}^ forms of applied Christianity, such as orphan- 

V6 ages, Young Men's Christian Associations, hospitals, 

studefrT'liostels, rescue and temperance work. The 

- eminently pragmatic character of the Japanese has 

^ made them quick to perceive the, value of Christ'anity 
in these manifestations, and they have thus been more 
or less influenced to seek for the power behind the forms. 
There have been several striking demonstrations on 
a large scale of the vigour of the Christian movement 
in Japan, such as the nation-wide union evangelistic 
campaign of 1900-01, the work in Manchuria, and in 
the military hospitals during the Russo-Japanese war, 
the " free cessation " anti-brothel movement, the relief 
for the famine sufferers in the north-eastern provinces, 
and the relief_,work for th^ Osaka fire sufferers. All of 
these efforts have either directly or indirectly aided in 
the evangelisation of the country. 


The regions most neglected hitherto are, broadly 
speaking, the whole littoral of the main island bordering 
the Japan Sea, and large portions of the north-eastern 
provinces. The results in proportion to the effort put 
forth have seemed most meagre in the prefectures of 
Niigata, Fukui, Toyama, Ishikawa, Tochigi, Shimane, 
Saitama, Nara, and Oita. 

The comparatively neglected classes of people are : 
(i) Farmers, scattered in towns and hamlets, which 
can only be reached and evangelised by wide and repeated 
itineration. They constitute more than half the popu- 
lation of the Empire. They are conservative, unedu- 
cated, hard-working, and under the influence of the village 


priest, but docile, kindly, and loyal. They are open 
to the Christian message if it is tactfully presented, 
and generally make faithful, self-sacrificing Christians. 

(2) Factory employees, numbering 743,000 in 1907, an 
increase of 250,000 since 1902. The still more numerous 
classes of artisans and day-labourers are equally neglected. 

(3) Railway employees, numbering 87,000, one of the most 
accessible, progressive classes, already somewhat evangelised, 
but not in a comprehensive way. (4) Shopkeepers and 
merchants, numbering probably one-sixth of the popula- 
tion, hard to get hold of, and as yet only slightly affected, 
but yielding staunch Christians. From them must 
come most of the money needed to make the Church 
self-supporting. Bishop Evington declares : " Until we 
make some real impression on the agricultural and 
trading classes, the backbone of the nation has not 
been reached, so far as evangelistic work is concerned." 
(5) Army and navy men, numbering 250,000 and 50,000 
respectively, in active service. The army officers are one 
of the most anti-Christian elementsTn the nation, largely 
because they suspect Christianity of being unpatriotic 
and tainted with socialism. The real sentiment of many 
high officials is distinctly anti-Christian. (6) The aris- 
tocracy and men of wealth, few in number, intelligent, 
but generally ignorant of genuine Christianity, and 
difficult of approach. (7) Fishermen, numbering perhaps 
1,000,000, unlettered, poor, and scattered in villages. 

One weakness of the Christian, jnovement is the fact 
that the majority of the members of the city churches are 
not drawn from the permanent old residents, but from the 
newcomers and transients,-. Although it would yield slower 
returns, it might in the long run be wiser to lay heavier 
siege to the older residents. It should be said, however, 
that the newcomers are generally freer from social opposi- 
tion, and consequently easier to approach ; like all 
pioneers, they are apt to be enterprising, and hence, when 
once won, make active workers. 

The larger cities seem at first glance to be well occupied, 
yet an examination of Tokio, Osaka, and Kioto shows 



that fully one-half of all resident Christian workers are 
engaged in institutional work. Even the student field, 
which is so accessible, cannot be said to be adequately 
occupied in any large city. Unfortunately the evan- 
gelistic efficiency of many Christian schools is seriously 
handicapped by the necessity of employing as certificated 
teachers many who are non-Christians, in order to secure 
Government recognition. And the factory, mercantile, 
and labouring classes in the large centres can be only 
barely touched by the present force and equipment. 


I. The Workers Needed. By the evangelisation of Japan 
is meant making the Gospel message readily accessible and 
thoroughly intelligible to the mind and heart of every 
man and woman in the Empire. It means not only that 
the Church must present an opportunity for the repeated 
hearing of Christian preaching, but also for direct contact 
with Christlike men and Christian institutions. By 
the adequate occupation of the -' field 'we shall under- 
stand here that part of the programme'bf evangelisation 
which falls within the next twenty-five years, and we 
shall emphasise the part to be taken in it by the mis- 
sionary body, although the part of the Japanese workers 
and laymen will be of far greater consequence. A 
spiritual enterprise like evangelisation manifestly can- 
not be computed on the basis of population or the 
number of workers. But both Japanese and missionary 
leaders are almost unanimous in believing that the 
missionary force should be increased. Bishop Honda 
favours doubling it. No one advocates decreasing it. 
A conservative consensus of opinion calls for an increase 
of 25 per cent., and all are agreed that this increase should 
jj^.take place within the next ten years. The increase desired 
^ in the force of Japanese workers is practically unlimited, 
provided they are of sufficiently high character. Upon 
them will fall more and more the burden and heat of 


the day. And if the equipment of Christian schools and 
churches is adequately increased, as hereafter specified, 
it is reasonable to expect that the ordained Japanese 
force will be steadily, even rapidly augmented, as has 
been the case during the past decade, which has been 
characterised by an increase more than fourfold. 

2. Principles Governing the Increase of Force and Eqviip- 
nient. Before entering upon the discussion of the equip- 
ment needed and the distribution of the forces, it is 
important to state four cardinal principles of missionary 
policy : (i) The leading part in the evangelisation of 
Japan must henceforth be increasingly taken by the 
Japanese Christians themselves. (2) Only missionaries 
of genuine spirituality, culture, broad-mindedness, 
sympathy, and willingness_ to hide^s_e]f should be sent. 
In Bishop Honda's words, " Piety, sympathy, self-denial, 
these three in one, are indispensable for a missionary." 
But, in addition to missionaries of general culture, it is 

to be noted that a number of specialists in education, jst 
theology, and i)hi]osophy are needed. (3) The Chris- 
tianity to be propagated should be vital and essential. ^' 
(4) At the present stage, even more important than an 
increase in the number of missionaries is the strengthening 
of existing work, particularly by the provision of large (^-y 
funds, wisely administered, for equi]:)])ing and endowing 
educational institutions, and for sending teachers and 
Christian graduates abroad that they may enjoy the oppor- 
tunities of study open to the teachers and graduates of the 
higher Government institutions. With these principles 
in mind, it shotdd be emphatically repeated that the 
missionary's work in Japan is by no means accomplished. 
There are fields and lines of work that will long be 
neglected unless the missionary force is not only kept up 
to its present strength, but increased. 

3. Institutional Equipment. The fourth principle 
mentioned above is of extraordinary importance in any 
plan for the evangelisation of Japan. Even though it 
be impossible to increase the missionary force, the funds 
from abroad should without fail be increased. But 


both are needed and desired. The Japanese Church 
is seriously crippled for lack of proper tools. It is 
impossible for many of the congregations to erect for 
themselves suitable places of worship, or to equip and 
endow the Christian and social institutions so essential 
for the Christianisation of an advanced people. The 
provision of ample funds is one thing that the Christians 
of the West can do for their Japanese brothers with 
ti<tf i advantage, ' always provided that the autonomy of the 
s^*-*"' Japanese Churches is respected, and that the scale of 
equipment is proportioned to the standard of living in 
Japan, so that the Japanese Christians can maintain it 

The institutional equipment most needed, in the 
interest of the thorough evangelisation of the country, is 
as follows : (i) A Christian university that will rank 
with the universities of the West. President Harada voices 
the conviction of many m.en in both educational and 
evangelistic work when he says: "The need for a 
first-class Christian university seems to me paramount. 
At the same time, the existing colleges should be greatly 
strengthened." (2) The strengthening of all the existing 
Christian schools of middle and higher grade, especially 
making a few of them colleges and theological schools 
of conspicuous excellence in every respect. Twenty years 
ago Christian institutions led in education, but schools 
now are far behind the public and non-Christian private 
institutions. Dr. Ibuka forcefully writes : " There is 
nothing, at this juncture, in which the friends of missions 
in America and Great Britain can do a greater service 
to Christianity in Japan, than by liberal aid in the estab- 
lishment of well-equipped and, as far as possible, suffi- 
ciently endowed Christian educational institutions of a 
higher grade." . . . They " do not realise how essential 
strong Christian educational institutions are as instru- 
ments for the evangelisation of a nation." (3) The creation 
of a Christian literature foundation which would keep pace 
with the increasing demand for a scholarly, progressive,. 
^ and constructive presentation of_jChri3tian truth. The 


late Dr. Bennett rightly declared that " Christian litera- 
ture calls for less outlay of money than almost any other 
evangelistic agency, in proportion to the nujnb^rjreached.'^ -^ 
As Pastor Uemura has^said, " We are Ughting now without 
big guns," so far as first-class Christian literature is 
concerned. Pastor Imai feels the need for periodicals, 
including a Christian daily Times. (4) The erection and 
endowment of such concrete aids to evangelisation as 
Young Men's and Young Women's Christian Association 
buildings, student hostels, orphanages, a school for 
foreign children, and a Union Church for foreigners in 
Tokio. The present disbursement of all missionary 
societies in Japan, outside of the support of missionaries, 
is about 175,000 gold a year. To realise the above 
programmeV'the annual expenditure should average at 
least $400,000 a year for the next twenty-five years, not 
including the outlay for the Christian university. 

4. Distribution of the 'Forces.- ^The wisest distribution 
of the 200 additionaf missionaries, excluding wives, 
called for by the conservative consensus of opinion 
indicated above, is a moot problem. Upon certain 
principles all experts seem to agree, namely : (i) New 
missionaries should be sent out for specific work, as 
determined in advance by the various missions in con- 
ference with the related Japanese Churches. (2) Their 
location should as a rule be determined on the principle 
of occupjdng the strategic centres, but also of advancing ^/.' 
along the lines of least resistance, rather than accord- 
ing to uniform units of population, (3) They should 
always be assigned to places where they can be associated 
with competent Japanese colleagues. 

Beyond these principles the opinions of leaders range 
all the way from those of Pastor Uemura, Prof. E. W. 
Clement, and Dr. D. B. Schneder, who favour the con- 
centration of missionaries in the large centres, to those 
of the Rev. D. Ebina, Bishop McKim, President Ibuka, 
the Rev. J. Imai, Dr. O. Cary, Dr. A. T. Howard, and Dr. 
J. D. Davis, who favour considerable diffusion into the 
smaller cities. Bishop Honda, Dr. Motoda, Rev. St. Geo. 


Tucker, Dr. D. C. Greene, Dr. Wm. Imbrie, Bishop 
Evington, and the Rev. C. T. Warren take middle ground. 
Mr. Uemura holds that the talents of the missionary are 
not as a rule given scope in the small city and country 
work, and that he and his family deteriorate because of 
the isolation. Other Japanese feel that town and country 
work by the missionary yields good results provided he 
is always 3'oked up with a strong Japanese colleague and 
avoids starting preaching places unattached to any local 
or national Japanese body. The diffusionists hold that 
the missionary is peculiarly fitted to open up new fields 
because he has from the nature of the case more in- 
dependence, resourcefulness, and prestige than the Jap- 
anese pastor, and because many of the strongest Japanese 
candidates for the ministry have been discovered in the 
country by touring missionaries. Pastor Imai says : 
" Except in the case of specialists and other exceptional 
men, missionaries do not shine in the larger cities, but 
the farther they go up into the country, the more esteemed 
and influential they are." The concentrationists believe 
thaf^'fhe missionary's chief function is to stay in the 
cities and train up a body of Japanese leaders who will 
themselves by an irresistible impulse carry the Gospel 
to the towns. Archbishop Nicolai has achieved some 
success by following this policy. 

Striking a mean between these divergent views, we may 
say that the additional missionaries should be divided 
equally between the larger and the smaller cities. In 
" the smaller cities " would be included a number of 
provincial capitals as yet occupied by only one or two 
missionaries and, say, thirty of the seats of Government 
middle and nonnal schools where no missionaries now 
reside. If missionaries are stationed in the smaller 
cities, there should be in each two missionary families and 
one or two unmarried missionaries. This would prevent 
breaks on account of furlough, and would allow resident 
and touring evangelism to be carried on simultaneously. 

A valuable way of supplementing the efforts of the 
regular Japanese and foreign forces, especially in the 


smaller cities, would be to help to maintain thirty or forty 
unmarried teachers of English, not necessarily ordained 
men, in the provincial Government schools in the interior. 
A score of such teachers have for some years done success- 
ful work on a self-supporting basis under the auspices of 
the Young Men's Christian Association. The extension 
of the plan to other schools would require a grant of only 
$600 a man per annum on the basis of a three-year con- 
tract. This would not crowd out professional teachers, 
because such schools rarely employ the whole time of a 
foreigner, and only men with a Christian purpose are 
willing to put up with life in the interior. 

The additional Japanese force would naturally be 
distributed more widely than the missionaries. 

5. Economy of the Forces. ^The plans outhned above will 
be effective only on condition that a high degree of co- 
ordination of the forces and equipment be achieved. 
We have become so hardened by custom to the present 
loose co-ordination and, at times, competition between 
the different missionary societies, missions, and Japanese 
Churches that few of us realise even faintly the serious 
waste and inefficiency entailed. Instances are constantly 
arising and will multiply as the field is more fully occupied, 
unless prompt corrective measures are taken. What is 
wanted is that the home boards and societies and the 
missions on lhe_ field shall carry much farther the steps 
already taken in the direction of the joint determination 
of pohcy, the co-ordination and combination of institu- 
tions, and the united backing of every move of the 
Japanese Churches toward co-operation. The Standing 
Committee of the Co-operating Christian Missions in 
Japan is valuable, but its scope should be enlarged. 

Especially should every encouragement be given the 
movement now on foot among the Japanese toward an 
inter-denominational Federation, which seeks to establish 
points of contact between various branches of the Church 
without affecting their pohty or doctrine. In time a 
joint council composed of representatives of the Federated 
Christian Missions and of the inter- denominational Federg.- 


tion of Japanese Churches could, in the judgment of 
leaders in Japan, render invaluable service in such ways 
\tt as the following : (i) Make an accurate study of the 
,-*f*l whole field and formulate a'plan forrfs" evangelisation : 
-<--^" an_.obviDus preliminary, but one that Ijas jiever been 
attempted. (2) Determine a common standard of^jnqral 
discipline for communicants of all Churches a matter 
on which there is now not only difference in practice but a 
^ lack of Christian public opinion. (3) Facilitate the co- 
ordination and combination of educational institutions. 
The tendency for each denomination to develop its own 
higher school, theological school, and college or university 
can be checked only by a division of the field and by the 
development of a mutually supplementary system of 
schools, with one or two universities to crown the whole. 
(4) Advise as to the location of workers and institutions, 
and as to denominational spheres of preponderant responsi- 
bility. Missions and Japanese Churches, almost without 
exception, honestly desire to avoid overlapping and 
interference, but under the present system there is no 
representative body to advise or arbitrate on such 
problems. It is perhaps impossible now to give any 
mission exclusive privileges in any of the larger cities, but 
it is possible and desirable to set aside provincial spheres of 
preponderating responsibility. Had such a body existed 
twenty years ago when a number of new missions came to 
Japan, it is likely that several of them would have settled 
in secondary cities, whereas now nearly all of them have 
their headquarters in Tokio, Kioto, Osaka, or Kobe. (5) 
Promote national conferences for the culture of the 
spiritual life and the discussion of principles and methods 
of work. (6) Act as the dignified spokesman of Japanese 
Christian sentiment to the non-Christian world. 


The surest ground of hope for the early evangelisation 
of a considerable proportion of the people, is the fact 


that within a generation of the founding of the first 
church, Christianity lias become natuialised, has given 
birtli to leaders comparable in character and ability to 
tliose of the West, and has created some aggressive, self- 
gdverffing denominations. 

There is a general absence of men of means in the 
Japanese Church. Yet out of their poverty and in the 
lace of economic conditions which leave a very small 
margin above living expenses, it should be recorded to 
their honour that they have given liberally. The passion 
for independence at one time the source of friction 
between the missionaries and the Japanese leaders has 
driven the Churches to strive for self-support. In the 
Kumiai (Congregational) body, 68 out of 95 are totally self- 
supporting, and the remaining 27 are supported entirely 
by Japanese gifts through the Home Missionary Society ; 
and in the Nihon Kirisuto Kyokai (Presbyterian) no 
organisation is called a church and admitted into the 
synod until it has attained self-support. The Methodist 
Church and other bodies are pressing in the same direction. 

TJic zeal for independence has of late been supplemented 
by the missionary spirit. All the larger bodies carry on 
more or less home missionary work among their countrymen 
in Japan itself, and in Korea, Manchuria, and Formosa, 
The contributions of the Nihon Kirisuto Kyokai and 
Kumiai bodies totahed $12,000 gold in 1908, an average 
of thirty-four cents a member. The Methodist and 
Episcopal bodies contributed $4300. 

One of the immediate effects of the above-mentioned 
developments has been to attract .strqijg young men to 
the ministry. Between 1890 and 1904 no graduates of 
the Government universities entered Christian callings. 
But since 1904 three graduates of Tokio Imperial Uni- 
versity have entered the ministry, two have entered the 
Young Men's Christian Association secretaryship, and 
several undergraduates are preparing for these callings. 

The attainment of a large measure of self-support and 
self-government by the churches has brought in its train 
a better adjustment of the relationship between the 
COM. I. 5 





^. missionaries and the churches. Now that the chief 

V points of friction have been removed, sweeping criticism 
' of the missionary by Japanese Christian leaders has 
given place to discriminating appreciation and a desire 
to see the number of missionaries of the right sort increase. 
Yet there is still need for a careful study of this whole 
question of relationships, not merely for the sake of 
Japan, but to save other less advanced mission fields 
from repeating her painful experience. 

In view of all these tendencies and the facts previously 
brought out, it should be emphatically reiterated that 
the issue of the Christian campaign in Japan hinges upon 
the Japanese Christian forces incalculably more than 
upon the foreign missionaries. Any missionary policy 
that puts the missionary's work above 6r_joutside the 
Japanese Church, or that relies upon the numbers of 
j^.\ missionaries more than upon their quality and their 
^ '' ability to work^congenially with the Japanese, will stir 
up strife and end Th disaster. Nothing should be con- 
strued so as to obscure the fact that the _ke^ to the 
whole problem of evangelising Japan is the raising up of 
. a large body of Japanese leaders of power and the placing 
of the chief responsibility and authority in their hands. 
On these conditions, but only on these, Japan calls insist- 
ently for a limited number of new missionaries and for 
liberal gifts of money from the West for institutional work. 


The evangelisation of Japan is not an isolated question. 
It is intimately involved with the strategy of the world- 
wide campaign. This does not imply that Japan is to 
^extend her political sovereignty; but her jnoral and 
intellectual influence is already powerfully affecting 
China, Korea, Siam, India, and even Turkey. 

The Koreans by the thousand are accepting the Gospel, 
but their childlike faith will soan be imperilled by the 
j^/ rationalism and materialism of Japan unless the Japanese 
themselves are speedily Christianised." 


China is to-day taking lessons of Japan. The presses 
of Japan are sending Hterature throughout China, and 
much of it is materiaHstic and irrehgious. China's, 4000 
students in Tokio are marvellously open to the Gospel, 
and are being aggressively evangelised by workers from 
China, but most of them are untouched by Japanese 
Christianity because it is as yet so obscure and weak. 

Looking at the whole Far East dis2a.ssionately, we are 
led to say: "What is done ior Japan is done for the -" '' 
whole Orient. What we do for her we must do quickly, 
ofT5trlate~ mourn our shortsightedness." We would not -^jy^ 
be "alarmi-sts, but the facts are disquieting. As Dr. ^_ 
SHiiieder' writes, " Religion is excluded from the schools. 
There is practically no religious instruction in the homes. 
. . . The educated portion of the population is already ^^'^^ts- 
largely naturalistic and agnostic. Few educators have 
any use for religion at all. Hence there is a process going 
on which, if unchecked, will make it very difficult for the 
Gospel to find entrance. Meanwhile, also, the transition ^ 
stage will pass, and the country will settle down to more 
fixed modes of thought. It is therefore necessary to act 
quickly and give Japan without delay all she needs in 
the way of missionaries and educational institutions." 


1. Population. The total population is about 3,250,000, 
of whom 2,800,000 are Chinese. Dwelling in the 
mountains are about 120,000 savage aborigines, the 
hereditary foes of the Chinese. On the eastern plains 
are about 200,000 civihsed aborigines, who have accepted 
Chinese civilisation, and are known as Pepohoans, or 
barbarians of the plains. There are in addition 55,000 
Japanese who are a controlling force inasmuch as 
Formosa has become a part of the Empire of Japan. 
Formosa is thus practically a Chinese mission a fragment 
separated from the great m.ass. 

The population is accessible. Distances are not great, 
the island being only 250 miles in length, and at its 
widest point only 80 miles wide. A. railway extending 
throughout the whole length of the island touches the 
principal centres and has brought all other communities 
within easy reach. The problem of travel is further 
simphfied by the fact that owing to the widening of the 
mountains at a certain point the island is divided into 
two sections, the northern section containing about 
one-third of the total population and the southern 
about two-thirds. There are thus two naturally 
defined constituencies, compact and self - contained, 
capable of cultivation without the expenditure of time 
and strength involved in travelling long distances. 

2. Work already Done. The English Presbyterian 
Church has occupied the southern portion of the island 
since 1865. They have six ordained missionaries, 
three medical missionaries, and six unmarried women 
in the 'field. A good plant has been established at 



Tainan, and from that centre, throughout their southern 
tenitory, ninety-five stations have been opened, thirty- 
one of which are organised congregations. 

The Canadian Presbyterian Church occupies the 
northern field. Their first missionary, Dr. G. L. Mackay, 
in 1872 made his headquarters at Tamsui on the north- 
west coast, which at that time was looked upon as the 
future chief seaport of the island. That expectation 
has been disappointed, Kilung having been chosen by 
the Japanese as a more desirable harbour. Taipeh, 
the capital of the island, lies about fifteen miles south 
of Tamsui, and has become a city of 109,000. There 
is a population of about 300,000, including the city, 
within a radius of less than ten miles. Thus by remov- 
ing its headquarters from Tamsui to Taipeh, which they 
propose to do, the Canadian Mission will have nearly 
one-third of the whole population of the northern section 
of the island within easy reach. 

It would obviously be of advantage if these two con- 
tiguous Presbyterian missions were united as are the 
Scottish and Irish missions in Manchuria. There ought 
to be one strong theological college instead of two small 
ones, each inadequately manned. The placing of such a 
union college in the middle part of the island would leave 
the normal, upper, and lower schools to be carried on by 
each of the missions within its own boundaries. At 
present both missions have educational and medical 
institutions which are being improved and are in the 
heart of their constituencies. Whilst each mission 
cultivates different phases of mission work the chief 
characteristic of both has been the development of a 
native ministry. The English Presbyterian Mission has 
four ordained and forty-six unordained native pastors. 
The Canadian Mission in the north has sixty native pastors, 
five of whom are ordained. This feature of their work 
can be developed indefinitely until the needs of the entire 
population are met by the native Church. Doors are 
open and the people responsive. But there is need of 
further educational facilities for the training of men. 


The advent of the Japanese has proved helpful. They 
have introduced a progressive government, and have 
established public schools. This has both raised the 
standard of education required of the native ministry 
and made it possible to get students for the ministry 
with higher educational attainments. The Japanese 
have expended much money on hospitals and medical 
k^ education, greatly to the relief of suffering. Their policy 
in this respect tends to obviate the necessity for any 
further development of medical missions, and calls for 
giving increased attention in the future to the evangelistic, 
pastoral, and educational branches of the work. 

It has to be added that the Presbyterian Church of 
Japan is engaged in direct mission work in Taipeh, 
Kilung, and Tainan, and whilst doing efficient work 
themselves are co-operating cordially with the other 
missions labouring in the same fields. Thus the prestige 2 
of the dominant race is given to Christianity in the eyes , 
of the heathen. 

Everything is conducive to an aggressive forward 
movement in Formosa. In few lands are obstacles so 
few and conditions so favourable for speedy and thorough 



In 1887 seven Koreans gathered behind closed doors 
in the city of Seoul for the first celebration of the Holy 
Communion in Korea. To-day, including adherents, 
there are fully 200,000 Koreans who acknowledge Jesus 
Christ as their Lord and Saviour. This numerical 
growth, wonderful as it is, only partially measures the 
influence and development of Christianity amongst the 
Korean people. The age-long isolation of the nation 
has terminated. Christian missions have worked a 
peaceful revolution. New ideas of medical practice 
have been inculcated. The educational system has been 
reformed along modern lines, and to-day two-thirds of 
all the boys and girls in attendance upon school are in 
Christian schools. A new literature is being created for 
the Korean people. Far-reaching social changes, such 
as the raising of the age for marriage and the gradual 
doing away with the custom of concubinage, are taking 
place ; torture has been eliminated from the penal code ; 
factional hatreds have disappeared in the unity which 
the Christian Church brings ; and the grip of those 
religious beliefs which chained the soul in bondage to 
dark and terrifying superstitions has been loosened. 
While the task is very far from being completed, and in 
fact can be said to be only in its beginnings, yet such 
has been the success of the Christian propaganda in 
Korea, that it constitutes one of the marvels of modern 
history, an inspiration to higher and nobler efforts on 
the part of the Christian Church. 



Compactness and accessibility are the physical 
characteristics of Korea. Openness oi heart and rapidity 
of response mark the people. Occupying a peninsula 
71,000 square miles in area, it is surrounded by three 
great empires China, Japan, and Russia, with whose 
destiny it has been so far more or less related. Its 
climate is one of the best in the world, being that of the 
North Temperate Zone. The land has great natural 
resources in mines, which are now being worked on a 
large scale. The Government has granted 184 mining 
concessions, thus adding annually to the national wealth. 
Fully forty per cent, of its area is said to be capable 
of cultivation, and the rice crop alone is estimated to 
be worth 130,000,000 yen. There are valuable fisheries, 
the annual output of which amounts to millions of 
pounds. The greatest economic asset of this nation lies, 
however, in this peaceful and naturally diligent people. 

The Government census gives the population as about 
9.600,000, but this is confessedly an incomplete enumera- 
tion, and the missionaries estimate it at twelve millions. 
There is some inequahty in the distribution of this 
population. It is densest in the south, where two-fifths 
of^ the population live on one-fourth of the area ; and 
sparsest in the north, where conditions of life are more 
rigorous. There are few large cities, the bulk of the 
people living in small towns and villages. Seoul, with a 
population of 200,000 ; Songdo, with 60,000 ; Phyeng- 
yang and Taiku, with about 50,000 each, are the largest 
cities, and aU are occupied as mission centres. A trunk 
line of railway is making communication along the main 
routes of the Empire easy, and steamer traffic is penetrat- 
ing to the seaboard and river towns ; but away from 
these lines the mountainous character of the peninsula, 
lack of communication, and primitive methods of transport, 
make some sections difficult of access. 

In character the Koreans are a quiet, mild, gentle 
race, marked by hospitality, generosity, pa.tience, loyalty, 
and gimplicity_.ofiaith^ These qualities, under the 
restraining and refining influences of the Gospel, make 


of the Koreans admirable followers of Jesus Christ. 
Probably no_]angiiage has been more modified and 
changed in such a short time by the injection of Christian 
thought and terminology than the Korean. The old 
native term for the Supreme Being has been transformed 
by_nie_Christian .concept, of _His unity^ as opposed to 
polytheism, spirituality as opposed to idolatry, and 
infinity as opposed to limited and finite being. 

The Christian terms for sin, holiness, eternitj^, love, 
soul, spirit, and many others have been made a constituent 
part of the thpyght of Korea. The translation of the 
Bible and a Christian hymnology, the creation of a 
Christian literature, and the preaching of the Gospel far 
and wide by missionaries and Korean preachers are 
saturating Korean speech with Christian ideas. 

Three great faiths have gripped the Korean in the 
past Confucianism, Buddhism, and spirit worship. 
These had permeated his whole life and thought and 
moulded him to their own forms and ideals. But even 
before the coming of the missionaries the hold of these 
religions had become visibly loosened. In 1892 a Korean 
prince, speaking of his belief that Christianity would 
become the dominant faith of his people, declared that 
Confucianism had been practically dead in Korea for 
three hundred years, no' really great exempler of its 
teachings and practice having arisen during that period. 
Buddhism was, until recent years, under the ban of the 
law, and its priests and nuns regarded as of the abj.ej:t 
classes. Spirit worship, while said to be as strong in 
tliis~lahd as anywhere in Asia had been relegated to 
the women. There has, therefore, been an absence of 
that organised opposition to the teachjug of Christianity, 
which would have been the case had the Korean religious '; , 
faiths been_iaatmct with Ufa, and in a position to set ^ 
up an antagonism to Christianity. 

It is impossible to estimate with accuracy the extent 
of literacy among the Koreans. As a nation they have 
ever held scholarship and the_ scholar classes__in_ the -f- 
highest__veneration. School facihties, however, wefe 


both primitive and limited, and literacy varies greatly 
in different parts of the country. As a general rule it 
can be said that all members of the nobility and of the 
higher middle class can read, but the men of the lower 
classes with the great majority of women are uneducated. 
During the past twenty-five years, as the result of 
Christian missions, this condition has been materially 
improved. The missionaries adopted the Unmum, an 
admirable native script which, up to the time of their 
coming, had been despised by the literati, and have 
slowly introduced it as the chief medium of Christian 
literature. Schools started on an extensive scale have 
resulted in the general education of the Christians while 
the work of Bible-women has lifted thousands of Korean 
Christian women out of the class of illiterates. ' - 


Eight Christian communions are at work in Korea 
the American Presbyterian Church, North, the American 
Presbyterian Church, South, the Australian Presbyterian 
Church, the Canadian Presbyterian Church, the American 
Methodist Episcopal Church, the American Methodist 
Episcopal Church, South, the Church of England 
(Society for the Propagation of the Gospel), and the 
Seventh Day Adventists. Besides these, the Roman 
Catholic Church has a mission staffed with 45 European 
priests, and professing a native membership of 60,000, 

By an amicable adjustment of boundaries_ the^eight 
first-named missions have occupied the country in outline, 
and it only remains to strengthen the w^ork within the 
territories mutually assigned under these agreements. 

As auxiliary agencies there are the Young Men's 
Christian Association, the Bible Societies, the Salvation 
Army, and a few independent missionaries. The Missions 
in Korea maintain 307 missionaries including wives, who 
occupy twenty - three mission stations. Five of these 
stations are places of joint occupation ; namely, Seoul, 
Phyeng-yang, Chemulpo, Fusan and Wensan. 


Every one of the thirteen provinces has its own mission 
station, and through the work of Korean evangehsts, 
Christianity has secured a foothold in greater or less 
degree in nearly every one of the 330 counties which 
constitute these provinces. The work done at some of 
these mission stations has been remarkable both for its 
ra^dity and its permanence. One of the Phyeng-yang 
Churches, in the course of a history covering only sixteen 
years, has become five churches and, still the congregation 
of the parent Church, numbering 2500, is so large that 
the men and women have to meet separately. The mid- 
week prayer-meeting averages iioo in attendance and is 
probably the largest prayer-meeting that assembles any- 
where in the world. 

Certain striking features stand out markedly in the 
work in missions in Korea. Special prominence has been 
given to the Bible, which to-day is the book having 
the largest sale among the Korean people. It has gone 
into the remotest villages of the Empire and much of the 
splendid harvest in Korea must be credited to this broad- 
cast sowing of God's Word. In this connection special 
emphasis has been placed upon the work of Bible training 
classes in which fully one-sixth of the entire membership 
of the Church in Korea are enrolled. These classes are 
held at mission and circuit centres, are attended by 
missionaries, Korean pastors, and helpers or assistants, 
and continue from a few days to three weeks. Bible 
training classes for women are particularly fruitful of , * 
results. " "^ ^ 

The activities of the individual Christian in Korea 
challenge admiration. The Church is essentially a 
witnessing Church. Often the test question in connection ; ^^ 
with admission to communicant membership in the "^ ^^ 
Church is, " Have you led some other soul to Jesus Christ ? " ^-^-g^ 
And it is usually the case that those who become members '^ 

in the Korean Church have led others to like precious 
faith with themselves. The progress of self-support has 
been of a most encouraging character, and it is safe to 
assert that fuUy eighty per cent, of aU the work in the 


:_Korean Church is self-supporting. The reports of the 
various missions show that many hundreds of groups of 
Clmstians are ministered to by leaders and lay preachers, 
who serve without compensation. Already the total 
offerings of the Korean Church amount to over ^^25,000 
annually, the value of which may be judged from the 
fact that the smallest Korean coin is of the value of 
one-fortieth of an English penny, while the wages 
of the labouring man in America and Korea shov/ a 
disparity of seven and one-half times against the Korean. 
Therefore, if the gifts of the Korean Church were 
translated into terms of modern purchasing power, 
they should be multiplied sevenfold. The Koreans are 
heroically undertaking the cost of constructing their 
church buildings and Christian school houses, while at the 
same time doing splendid service in the support of pastors 
and teachers. One Korean sold his ox, and hitched himself 
to the plough, that a chapel might be built ; others have 
been known to mortgage their own houses that mort- 
gages might be removed from the Houses of God ; to sell 
their crops of good rice, intended for family consumption, 
purchasing inferior millet to live upon through the winter, 
and giving the difference in the cost for the support 
of workers to preach among their own countrymen. 
Korean women have given their wedding rings and even 
cut off their hair that it might be sold, and the amount 
devoted to the spread of the Gospel. The Korean Church 
is generously awake to its financial responsibility. It is a 
missionary Church, and the Gospel has been transplanted 
among the colonies of Koreans in Hawaii, California, 
Mexico, Manchuria, and Siberia. A Korean came to a 
missionary and said that he had heard that in Chientao, 
where there are 100,000 Koreans, there were many 
brigands, the rice was not good to eat, and many of the 
people lived in holes in the ground ; he wished to go there 
and preach the Gospel, and as he had three sons, he 
thought that, growing up among the Chinese, they would 
learn the Chinese language so well that they could become 
missionaries to the Chinese. With men of this character 


there is no wonder that the Korean Church grows by 
leaps and bounds. 

Both medical and educational work are agencies of the 
highest order in evangelism. One hundred and fifty 
thousand sick people are ministered to annually by 
missionary pTiysicians. ^ Every mission school in Korea 
is "a centre for aggressive evangelistic work, and in the 
years to come the benefits which accrue to the Church of 
Christ in Korea from these arms of missionary service 
must be great indeed. 

During recent years, one of the most conspicuous 
features of mission history in Korea has been the Korean 
Revival, which has been a genuine Pentecost. Fifty 
thousand Korean Christians passed through its refiningfires. 
and to-day, through that experience, the Korean Church 
knows the terrible character of sin, the power of Christ to 
save, the efiicacy of prayer, and the immanence of God. 

The Korean Church is singularly free from movements 
toward complete independence of control from the great 
mother Churches. On the other hand, one of the healthiest 
signs "of the time is the achievement of local autonomy by 
two of the Korean communions. On September 15th, 
1907, the Presbytery of Korea was organised in the city 
of Phyeng-yang, with forty-nine ministers and fifty-seven 
elders ; seven Korean theological graduates were ordained 
to the ministry ; and a mission to the island of Quelpart 
was founded. In March 1908 the Korean Annual 
Conference of the Methodist'^' Episcopal^ Church was 
organised, with twenty-five full members and fourteen 
probationers. There are two training schools for workers 
in Korea, reporting 411 students under instruction. 

With the breaking down of old customs and conditions 
in Korea, there has been an increased turning of all classes 
to the Christian faith. Of the many political changes 
which have taken place during the past twenty-five years, 
not one has apparently been inimical to Christianity. The 
political disasters which have overtaken the nation have 
caused the people to seek the comfort and consolation, the 
strength and patience to endure, which can only be found 


in vital Christianity. The Imperial family has always 
been Triendly to Christianity, and during recent years 
many of the old Yangban, or nobility, have found their 
way into the Christian faith ; so that Christianity now 
has secured a foothold in every social class. 


The final achievement of the task of the Church in 
Korea appears to be within reach ; but it should not 
be supposed that it can be accomplished without the 
most careful planning, vigilant watching, and persistent 
pressing of the effort along all lines. The growth of the 
Church has been marvellous, but its membership con- 
stitutes but a small percentage of the population of the 
Empire, and, according to the missionaries' estimates, fully 
11,800,000 still remain to be Christianised. The task 
which confronts the missionary societies at work in Korea 
is that of providing an evangelistic force sufficient to give 
direction to the activities of the Church during this genera- 
tion ; a teaching force sufficient to man a strong Christian 
university, theological and medical schools, and a normal 
college, and to direct the educational work which must 
centre around each mission station. A start has been 
made in work, for unfortunate classes such as the blind, 
deaf and dumb, lepers, opium victims, and orphans, work 
which needs to be developed and strengthened. There 
is special call for an adequate staff to carry on the work 
among women, whose openness of mind and responsiveness 
of heart constitute them one of the most hopeful classes. 

The awakening of the youth in Korea and the rise of a 
numerous student body, eager for the best education and 
anxious to qualify themselves for worthy living, constitute 
one of the greatest opportunities before the Church in 
Korea. While the political power of the old nobUity has 
been broken, they still enjoy the prestige which comes 
from birth and social standing, and the work among the 
' higher classes in Korea should receive special attention. 
Tlie survey of the various provinces indicates that there 


is a special call for the opening of new mission stations, and 
the strengthening of those which already exist, in such 
provinces as North Kyeng-sang, Kang-wen, and the 
Ham-gyeng provinces. It would seem wise that more 
mission stations should be opened in these regions by the 
missions concerned. It would appear also that some of 
the already existing mission stations in other provinces 
stand in need of immediate reinforcement, and the 
missionary societies should see to it that the forces are 
raised to the basis of efficiency. 

In the replies received by the Commission from the 
missionaries on the field there is practical unanimity that 
the present missionary staff should be increased from about 
300 to 480. It should be noted that some of the societies 
are more fully manned than others. The Northern 
Presbyterian Church now has a staff nearly adequate to its 
needs. It is practically impossible to estimate the 
number of Korean workers essential to the work of 
evangelisatioii^ but it would seem clear from the extra- 
ordinary activity of the Korean Christians, and the vital 
spirituality of the Church, that this problem is working 
its own solution. From all sides comes the statement 
that the chief need is proper facilities for the education 
and training of the native ministry and lay workers of the 
Korean Church. It has to be regretfully recorded that 
up to the present time no really large gift has gone to 
Korea for educational purposes. There is a crying need 
for a propef~eqiiipraerit for institutions of both academical 
and theological character. Two well-manned theological 
schools, one in Phyeng-yang for the North, and one at 
Seoul for the South, would meet the immediate needs of the 
field. There seems to be a real need also of establishing 
uidustrial schools as a means of strengthening the hands 
of native Christians for their work of evangelisation. 

The most compelling aspect of the evangelistic situation 
in Korea is its remarkable response to every fresh effort. 
Such conditions do not permit of delay. The present is 
the rare hour, which comes so seldom in the history of a'' 
people, when all national conditions combine to favour 


the speedy evangelisation of the land. Korea is 
perhaps the most attractive and responsive field in 
heathenism to-day. The old civilisation, with its accom- 
panying beliefs, customs, and practices, is thoroughly 

4- disorganised. A new Korea is emerging under our eyes. 
The national consciousness has been impressed by the 
supernatural character of ..the Christian faith. A native 
Church, sturdy, fearless, enterprising, instinct with' n^gr 
hfe, possessing its own spiritual history of a Korean 
Pentecost, determined to do, and, if need be, to die for 
God that its people may be won to Jesus Christ, pleads for 
our co-operation. The life of the nation has been touched 
by the fundamental truths of Christianity. No agency 
competing for the attention of the nation has been able to 
dislodge Christianity from its premier position. Taken 
full advantage of now, it may mean the complete evan- 
gelisation of the nation within this present generation. 
On the other hand, it is equally true tha.t failure to take 

^ advantage of the present opportunity 'may result in a 
reaction, disheartening in the extreme to the splendid 
native Church now coming into existence, and giving right- 
of-way to the forces of materialism, rationalism, and 
scepticism. All reasons combine to urge upon the 
missionary societies the wisdom and the necessity of 
marshalling their forces for the prompt and thorough 
evangelisation of Korea. 

*'^ ''^^" h('^^' 



In addressing itself to the evangelisation of China the 
Church confronts one of her most important and inspiring 
tasks. A land which has four thousand years of fairly 
credible history, and which possesses to-day in their 
integrity all its original resources except forests, is one 
whose material foundations for a strong Church are almost 
incomparable. It is in a zone " where man has attained 
his highest development physically and mentally," and 
largely within the " culture zone wherein have originated 
and flourished all the great centres of civilisation in ancient 
and modern times." Of the nations which flourished 
when Babylonia and Egypt were in their glory, this 
people alone survive, and after these long millenniums 
they are of surpassing vigour and have as well-grounded 
a hope of survival as the fittest nations of this modern 
age. When Europe, even on its Mediterranean fringe, 
was the home of barbarous and savage tribes and nations, 
China possessed a culture and a literature which still 
abide. Her literary remains are even now regarded as 
remarkable in their ethical and political teachings. Her 
youth, fired with the new spirit of the West, are learning 
the best gji^he worst that our civilisation can teach 
them, as by thousands they frequent the educational 
institutions of Japan, America, and Europe. Religiously, 
this wonderful nation makes its strongest appeal, for 
while the people have .seen God dimly through the thick 
veil of nature, China is more nearly agnostic than any 
other great nation. Her three great religions claim the 
allegiance of all, except a handful of Catholic and Pro- 
testant Christians and a large number of Mohammedans, 

COM. I. 6 

ht*^ /7'=>^^-*j c/^At^i, 



whose influence upon their neighbours is so harmful, that 
it would have been better in some respects if the Moslem 
/ view of God and religion had never entered the Empire. 
Such a land, with so unique a history, a race of such 
unexampled vitality and strength, together with the 
unrealised yet awful need of God, are factors which in 
their combination constitute a responsibility not sur- 
passed even in India and the Moslem world. Here the 
Gospel, if the Church so wills, can win a numerous, power- 
ful, and enduring contmgent for that spiritual Kingdom 
which shall outlast even this hoary Empire, 


1. /is Area. ^To evangelise the Chinese Empire calls 
for the traversing and occupying of 4,277,170 square 
miles about one-twelfth of the habitable globe. In 
the present survey China's new province, Sin-kiang, and 
its lofty dependency Tibet, are not enlarged upon, and 
Mongolia also is practically disregarded. We are thus 
concerned with a territory as extensive as India without 
Burma, as the Turkish Empire plus Egypt, or, to use a 
more famiUar unit, as a dozen United Kingdoms. So 
large a territory, most of it densely peopled, calls at the 

7 outset for a large' company^' of missionaries and an ade- 
^ quate evangelistic programme. 

2. Resources of this Field. Except in Mongolia, in a 
section along the Yellow River, and in some of the moun- 
tain regions, China has little waste land. Its deposits 
of coal are undoubtedly the largest in the world, those in 
Shan-si alone being estimated to contain a supply for the 
world for thousands of years at the present rate of con- 
sumption. In nearly all the provinces, especially in 
Yiin-nan and Kwang-si, where thirty billion tons is 
the estimate given by the distinguished geographer, 
M. Richard, coal is abundant, and as iron ore of excellent 
quahty and the necessary flux also abound, China is likely 

f to be the coming power in our age of steel. Other minerals 
are found in profitable quantities, but next to iron and 


coal in importance are the great agricultural resources of 
China. One or two somewhat uncertain crops in the 
North, two in some sections three dependable ones in 
Central China, and three in many sections of the South, 
particularly in the low plain of the West River, are 
sufficient to supply home consumption, and yet are 
uncertain enough to make life strenuous and labour 
universal. The preponderance of agriculturists of an 
industrious, peace-loving sort, furnishes a good basis for ^^^^ 
evangelistic work. With the certain and vast enlarge- y,^^ 
ment of manufacturing interests, due to China's mineral -^ 
wealth and a corresponding supply of labour, the ability '^^ 
to aid the churches financially, which at present is small, 
will increase, and will greatly promote self-support and ^ 
z*^ independent evangelistic effort, ^ - tl' 

""3. The Climate. This, too, is more than usually 
favourable to the Gospel propaganda. Missionaries may 
feel the enervating effects of the summer heats and the 
depression arising from the rainy season, but in the 
North the winters are very bracing, and even in the 
South the increasing use of beautiful and healthful 
sanitoriums, where overworked or invalided missionaries 
may spend the most trying months, makes it a com- 
paratively healthful field even for persons not at all 

4. Accessibility of the Field. Four thousand miles of 
seaboard, counting all indentations ; the great artery of 
the Empire, the Yang-tsze-kiang, with its 12,000 miles 
of waterways ; and the extensive canal system of Central 
and Southern China, furnish the missionary with a 
relatively easy though slow access to portions of this 
extensive field. As for the so-called highways, even the 
twenty-one Government courier roads leading from 
Peking to the principal provincial capitals, faint praise 
can be given them. It is probably true, as M. Richard 
writes, that " in no civilised country of the world are 
communications so difficult as in China ; " yet this 
condition is rapidly yielding before the new passion for 
steam traffic on water and land. Steamer lines run a 


distance of 8000 miles ; some 4170 miles of railway are 
now open, and trunk lines are projected that will bring 
the missionary within a relatively short distance of his 
field. Isolated workers are free to avail themselves of 
the post office in 3493 towns and cities, and missionary 
emergencies are relieved by 25,913 miles of wire con- 
necting with 490 telegraph offices. These changes, cost- 
ing the societies nothing, and even saving them great 
expense, are adding in ever-increasing measure to mis- 
sionary efficiency through economy of time. 


1. Their Number. The most varied estimates for 
they can be little else are given of China's population. 
The Statesman' s Year-Book, 1909, puts it at 407,253,030 
for China proper, and 433>553.030 for the Empire. 
Dr. Arthur H. Smith, who has not only travelled more 
extensively than most missionaries, but has also taken a 
census of limited districts, holds that 350,000,000 or 
360,000,000 is a nearer approach to " the inaccessible 
fact " than the figures just quoted. Assuming the Year- 
Book's estimate to be approximately correct, two and a 
half times as many people await the Gospel in China as 
make up the entire population of Africa. Indeed, if to 
the Dark Continent's millions be added the population 
of all other non-Christian lands, except India, the total 
would fall short of China's inhabitants by some 35,000,000, 
a little less than South America's population. 

2. Density in Various Sections. ^The average number 
per square mile in China proper is 266, according to the 
authority just quoted. That of the United States in 
1900 was 21-4 ; that of the United Kingdom in 1901 was 
345*8 ; that of Germany in 1905 was 290*4. 

So far as sparsity affects evangelisation, the problem of 
reaching large numbers is greatest in Mongolia. In 
Manchuria the density is two and a half times as great as 
in the United States. Kwang-si in the South has but 67 
per square mile ; the north-western and south-western 


provinces of Kan-su and Yiin-nan come next with 82 and 
84 respectively ; all the rest have upward of 100 per square 
mile, culminating in Hu-pei with 492, Fu-kien with 494, 
Ho-nan with 520, and Shan-tung with 683 per square 
mile. For densely populated districts of China, Dr. 
Arthur Smith gives from 1000 to 1500 per square mile, 
and Colonel Manifold, 1700 to the square mile for the 
Cheng-tu plain. In general it may be said that with 
the exception of the valleys of the Ganges and the lower 
Nile, no other large sections of mission territory are so 
densely populated as m,ost of China's provinces. 

3. Chinese Character as Related to Evangelisation. The 
Chinese are the opposite of certain decaying races with 
which missions also have to do. They are strong, 
energetic, enduring, and long-lived assets making them 
well worth saving, and enabling them when won to do a 
strong man's work in saving others. 

It is with their other and higher characteristics that 
the Church has most to do, and while they possess certain 
traits which are inimical to the Gospel, those which 
promise most as aUies to the propagation of truth are the 
following : love of peace and a high regard for law ; 
absence of all caste distinctions and the prevalence of a 
democratic spirit ; respect for superiors, whether in age, 
position, or intellect ; unusual docility and imitativeness ; 
domination by the historic instinct to such an extent that 
the past is not only reverenced but is a wholesome check 
upon ill-considered innovations in belief and practice ; 
a genius for labour, and thrift in making provision for the 
future ; a mental capacity and willingness to apply the 
mind unremittingly to study which may one day make 
them the greatest students in the world ; a perpetual 
emphasis of reason, albeit they lack greatly in logical 
clearness of thought ; a suavity and tact that will meet any 
hard situation and win unexpected victory from apparent 
defeat ; a talent for organisation which has made the 
Chinese past-masters in combinations, guilds, and societies 
of all sorts ; a sense of responsibility which is based on a 
high ideal of the duties of kinship ; an economy which will 


one day make the most out of every Christian resource ; 
and great susceptibiHty to the influence of a strong person- 
ality, be it the missionary or the Master whom he is 
trying to imitate. Men of such traits have already made 
superb preachers and teachers, as well as most consistent 

4. The Chinese Language and Evangelisation. Most of 
the diatribes directed against the language have been due, 
partly to ignorance of its real excellence, largely to 
intrinsic difficulties inevitably connected with a mono- 
syllabic tongue, which through a paucity of sj^lables calls 
for tonal distinctions, combinations of synonyms and 
classifiers taxing the mem.ory, and, above all, an ideo- 
graphic writing. Happily it lacks the drawbacks of 
declension, conjugation, and grammar. 
' The written style is divided into the ku wen, the extremely 
concise and hence obscure style of the Classics and early 
dynastic histories ; the literary style, or wen li, which is 
somewhat more diffuse, yet full of recondite allusions and 
word particles incapable of translation ; a simpler form of 
this, the hsiao, or easy wen li, largely used in Christian 
literature ; and the Mandarin as spoken at Court and 
among officials. The latter in its printed form is perfectly 
intelligible to 250,000,000 people, a far larger num.ber 
than can understand any other tongue. Owing to 
variations in tone and pronunciation, there are three 
forms of spoken Mandarin, the Northern, Southern, and 
Western, though the \vritten Mandarin is practically the 
same for all three sections. Christian literature in either 
the higher or easier wen li can be understood by scholars 
in every corner of the Empire, while a single version of the 
Mandarin Bible, when pronounced with the local pecu- 
liarities, can be understood by five-eighths of China's vast 
population. As for the remaining 150,000,000, many of 
the dialects so widely understood that the Church can 
well afford to prepare special literature for them. Thus 
it is estimated that the Amoy dialect is spoken by 
10,000,000, the Cantonese proper by 15,000,000, the 
Shanghai dialect by 18,000,000, and that of Ningpo by 


25,000,000. In the case of less widely understood 
dialects and, for that matter, all the dialects of China 
the Romanisation of Christian books simplifies the question 
of spreading the Gospel through the printed page. Good 
versions of the Bible in all but the least spoken dialects, 
mainly of the aborigines, are ready for the Church's use 
in spreading the Good News, while an exceptionally 
varied and unusually good assortment of Christian books 
and tracts still further aids evangelisation. 

5. Religious Condition of the Chinese. ^Three faiths are 
recognised by the masses, though a fourth, Mohammedan- 
ism, is also represented by several millions. Confucianism 
ranks highest theoretically, but, as at present held, it is 
mainly to be regarded as a system of political ethics, 
though the religious element is not entirely lacking. 
The purity of its canonical books and their comparative 
lack of the superstitious element, the sublimity of the 
imperial worship, despite its naturalistic basis, and 
throughout the centuries the numerically unparalleled 
influence of Confucius, its throneless king, are at once 
stepping-stones to higher truth and obstacles for those 
who are content with a lesser good. 

Taoism in its original form slightly antedates Con- 
fucianism. Its briefest of all historic canons, the Tao Te^ 
Ching, is one of the worthiest productions of China's ancient 
world, though its enigmatical, mystical, quietistic, para- i'r6^ 
doxical character prevents any wide use or appreciation ^^.^ 
of the volume. The later degradation of Taoist teaching """^^ 
has greatly harmed the Chinese and has furnished most 
of theii" superstitions and cunning frauds. Its present 
influence for good is practically nil. 

Buddhism is th^ religion most comt2ionly held by the 
people. It is an aHapfation of the teachings of the 
northern school, and hence is not atheistic, as is southern 
Buddhism. Yet it has little power over the people, 
except in the southern half of China, and ethically and 
religiously its fruitage in recent centuries has not con- 
tributed to the higher life of the Empire, It is not likely, 
however, to prove a serious obstacle to the Gospel, unless 


Japanese Buddhists succeed in imparting to it some of 
their enthusiasm, and also the measure of illumination 
that one or two sects have derived from Christianity 
of the Nestorian, Manichaean, and Protestant types. 

Mohammedanism, embraced by a population variously 
estimated at from five to thirty millions,^ is looked upon 
by the Chinese as an alien creed. Descended from Arab 
and Turkish soldiers and settlers, who long enjoyed extra- 
territorial rights, the Moslem can still be distinguished 
from his Chinese fellow-subjects, though his marriage of 
Chinese wives, has made him to-day more or less ap- 
proximate the Mongolian type. Judged by the stan- 
dards of Mohammedan countries the Chinese Moslems 
are woefully slack in their religious observances, and 
even those who make the pilgrimage to Mecca are not 
permitted to enter the precincts reserved for the faithful. 
The daily prayers are observed by few beyond the 
Mullahs and Ahongs in the mosques, the great majority 
being satisfied with a lax observance of Ramadan, circum- 
cision, and abstinence from idolatry and pork, though 
conditions are more strict in Kan-su, Sin-kiang, and 
Yiin-nan than elsewhere. The strong hand of China has 
compelled all officials and scholars of the Moslem faith 
to conform to the worship of Confucius and the Emperor, 
^ and every mosque has its Imperial tablet. These evils, 
^- however, they regard as of the "kismet " class. 

Through ignorance of Arabic on the part of all but the 
leaders, the ordinar y C hinese Moslems know but little 
of their religidiTTand through the healthy influence of Con- 
fucian ethics and Chinese public opinion the lot of their 
women is here greatly superior to that in most Moslem lands. 
-^ By correspondence in Arabic, the Mullahs are kept au 
coiirant with the political and religious movements of the 
world of Islam, and by the visits of Moslem missionaries 
from Arabia and elsewhere efforts are constantly made to 

1 A member of Commission I., Mr. Marsliall Broomhall, has made 
the latest and most exhaustive investigation of this subject. 
According to detailed information received from each province, 
thej' number only from five to ten millions. See the chapter on 
" The Moslem Population " in his book, Islam in China. 


revive the faith. The lack of power to discipline the i/f/^ 
members is, however, recognised by them as a main cause -^ 
of weakness. ^ 

Above all these forms of religion, and in connection 
with all of them save Mohammedanism, stands ancestor 
worship, which survives in strength after four millenniums 
or more of domination in the Empire. With all the light 
of science and Western philosophy, this conviction and 
its cult remain as the Gibraltar which will ever oppose 
the messenger of peace, until the Fatherhood of God, the 
Creator of the human spirit, drives out the fear of the dead 
and implants the sentiment of man's "sonship to the *. 

Divine. Confucianist, Taoist, and Buddhist disagree on ^^ 
many points ; on this rock of ancestral worship they 
stand undivided, and unite in protest against Christian 
views and practices as to the dead. India has the problem 
of caste among the living to call forth the prayers and 
energies of the Church ; contrariwise, China has as 
her greatest difficulty this worship of, and bondage to, 
the spirits of the dead. 

All these religions are utterly madequate to meet 
China's spiritual need, despite the laudations of Con- 
fucius' Tifghly ethical teachings and the attractive 
mysticism of Lao-tse. These religious systems have 
had full opportunity to be tested, and have failed. Con- 
fucianism has doubtless furnished a bond which has 
greatly aided in the prolongation of the nation's life and 
in promoting to a certain limit its intellectuaHty, but 
religiously all of them, and Mohammedanism also, have 
failed to satisfy spiritual hunger and give freedom from 
sin. Materialism, impurity, corruption, untruth in word 
and act, selfishness, superstition, and godlessness prevail 
to an extent which dwarfs the spiritual nature of muTfi- 
tudes and darkens their future. Confucianism, Taoism, 
Buddhism, Mohammedanism cannot .save the Chinese ; 
on a limited scale Christianity has proved that it can, and 
the wider application of its saving power is one of the 
greatest responsibilities and privileges of the Christian 



I. Occupation by Provinces. A glance at the carmine- 
underscored to\vns and cities of the China section of the 
Statistical Atlas, or at the red crosses of Broomhall's 
Atlas of the Chinese Empire, vnVi show to what extent 
China is occupied territorially. If stations having 
resident missionaries were a complete indication of 
occupation, Kwang-tung would rank first with 56 stations, 
Sze-chwan second with 47, Fu-kien third with 42, Kiang-si 
fourth with 37, Shan-si fifth with 35, Ho-nan sixth with 
33, Shan-tung seventh with 32, Hu-pei eighth with 31, 
Che-kiang ninth with 30, Shen-si tenth with 27, Chih-li 
eleventh with 26, Manchuria twelfth with 24, Ngan-hwei 
thirteenth with 22, Kiang-su and Hu-nan fourteenth and 
fifteenth, each with 19, Kan-su sixteenth with 17, Yiin-nan 
seventeenth with 9, Kwang-si eighteenth with 8, Kwei- 
chau nineteenth with 6, Mongolia twentieth with 4, 
Sin-kiang twenty-first with 3, while Tibet proper is with- 
out any station. 

That criterion of occupation is not so satisfactory, 
however, as is the number of missionaries in each province. 
Thus considered they rank in the following order : 
Kiang-su first with 503 missionaries some 200 of whom, 
however, are stationed at Shanghai and serve the whole 
Empire Kwang-tung second \vith 471, Sze-chwan third 
with 386, Fo-kien fourth with 378, Shan-tung fifth with 
343, Che-kiang sixth with 301, Hu-pei seventh with 280, 
Chi-li eighth with 277, Hu-nan ninth with 184, Kiang-si 
tenth with 169, Ho-nan eleventh with 165, Shan-si twelfth 
with 145, Ngan-hwei thirteenth with 123, Manchuria 
fourteenth with 107, Shen-si fifteenth wdth 95, Kan-su 
sixteenth with 70, Kwang-si seventeenth with 50, Yiin-nan 
eighteenth with 39, Kwei-chau nineteenth with 23, Sin- 
kiang twentieth with 18, Mongolia twenty-first with 10, 
and last Tibet proper without a missionary.- 

Perhaps the most satisfactory of all practicable 
standards is occupation as measured by the average 
population that would fall to each missionary in a province, 


if the responsibility were equally divided, though even here 
the number of Chinese fellow- workers should be known 
to make the estimate more just. Dividing the population 
by the number of missionaries in each province, we reach 
the following results in order of need after Tibet : Kwei- 
chau first with 332,621 people to one missionary, Yiin-nan 
second with 316,015, Mongolia third with 260,000, 
Ho-nan fourth with 214,041, Sze-chwan fifth with 178,044, 
Kiang-si sixth with 156,995, Manchuria seventh with 
149,533, Kan-su eighth with 148,363, Hu-pei ninth with 
126,002, Hu-nan tenth with 120,487, Shan-tung eleventh 
with 111,510, Ngan-hwei twelfth with 111,222, Kwang-si 
thirteenth with 102,847, Shen-si fourteenth with 88,949, 
Shan-si fifteenth with 84,141, Chih-h sixteenth with 75,585, 
Kwang-tung seventeenth with 67,654, Sin-kiang eight- 
eenth with 66,667, Fu-kien nineteenth with 60,520, 
Che-kiang twentieth with 38,474, and Kiang-su twenty- 
first with 27,794, which number would be nearly doubled 
if the Shanghai workers were not included. It will be seen 
that the most favoured province, Kiang-su, has but one 
missionary to 27,794 people, a larger field than the last 
Decennial Conference at Madras, as well as China's 
Centenary Conference of 1907, declared should be the 
maximum number for a single missionary. All these 
figures, as well as those in the footnote, are exclusive of 
Roman Catholic missions, which report a total of over 
1200 European priests and somewhat less than a million 
members in China and its dependencies. Looked upon 
from any point of view, China is greatly destitute of the 
Gospel. (See Table on p. 92.) 

2. Character of the Work Done. As the statistics of the 
Conference show a pYepohdefahce of women workers, 
including wives of missionaries, those varied activities 
included in the phrase "women's work" evangelism, 
education, medical work, literary activities, and tliose 
helpful ministrations of the Christian wife, mother, and 
hostess are doubtless in the forefront. When one 
recalls the fact that Chinese women are the most religious 
element in the population, as well as the persons who 



have most to do with the training of children and with 
the creation of future Christian homes and famihes, this 
emphasis of woman's work is a hopeful feature of evan- 

Direct evangelistic work doubtless occupies most of the 
energies of the men, education and medicine following in 
this order. Then come other lines of service, not usually 
entered in statistical tables, but, nevertheless, exceedingly 
important, notably, that of translating and writing 
Christian hterature, and the printing and distribution of 
the same. If one could tabulate the multitudinous 
demands made upon missionaries by the inquiring minds 
of New China intent upon learning a thousand things 
affecting the life of the new era, it would be a novel and 
encouraging exhibit. Remote as some of these activities 
may seem to be from evangelisation, all of them are used 
with the ultimate objective of making the Gospel known 
through word and deed. 

Statistics Relating to the Missionary Occupation of 
THE Chinese Empire. 
(Ordinal numerals indicate rank, beginning with 
the highest numbers.) 


Area in Sq. 

No. of 





No. of 
People per 





36,670 22nd 





30 9th 

301 6th 

38,474 20th 

Chi-li . 

115,800 8th 





26 nth 

277 8th 

75,585 i6th 


46,320 20th 





42 3rd 

378 4th 

60,520 19th 


67,940 i6th 





33 6th 

165 nth 

214,041 4th 


83,380 loth 





19 15th 

184 9th 

120,487 loth 

Hu-pei . 

71,410 14th 





31 Sth 

280 7th 

126,002 9th 

Kan-su . 

i25>450 7th 





17 i6th 

70 I 6th 

148,363 Sth 


69,480 15th 





37 4th 

169 loth 

156,995 6th 


38,600 2ISt 





ig 14th 

503 ISt 

27,794 2ISt 


77, 200 12th 




1 8th 

8 18th 

50 17th 

102,847 i3lh 

Kwang-tung . 

99.970 9th 





56 ISt 

471 2nd 

67,654 17th 

Kwei-chau . 

67,160 17th 





6 19th 

23 19th 

332,621 ISt 

Manchuria . 

363,610 4th 





24 1 2th 

107 74th 

149.533 7th 


1,367,600 ISt 





4 20th 

10 2ISt 

260,000 3rd 

Ngan-hwei . 

54,810 19th 





22 13th 

123 13th 

111,222 I2tll 

Shan-si . 

81,830 nth 





35 5th 

145 I2th 

84,141 15th 

Shan-tung . 

55,970 iSth 





32 7th 

343 5th 

11 1,510 nth 

Shcn-si . 

75i27o 13th 





27 loth 

95 15th 

88,949 14th 


550,340 2nd 





3 2ISt 

18 20th 

66,667 i8th 

Sze-chwan . 

218,480 5th 





47 2nd 

386 3rd 

178,044 5th 

Tibet . 

463,200 3rd 








146,680 6th 





9 17th 

39 i8th 

316,015 2nd 


In connection with the direct work of evangehsm there 
is an increasing emphasis being laid upon a better prepara- 
tion of Chinese evangehsts, preachers, and Bible-women. 
They must be better educated and trained if they are 
to make the Gospel known effectively in the new 
regime of better educated and more critical men. While 
in interior sections this need is less acute, yet everywhere 
more time and force are put into this branch than ever 

The various missions increasingly look upon auxiliary 
agencies as important factors in the direct evangelistic 
propaganda. Accordingly, they are emphasising educa- 
tion under Christian influence as a necessity for carrying 
the Gospel intensively and intelligibly to the future 
leaders of the Church, and to that other extra- and anti- 
Christian element of the population which cannot be 
reached except by this indirect line of approach. How 
really such education aids in extending the Gospel may 
be seen from the reports coming from the Union college 
at Wei-hsien and the Methodist University in Peking, both 
of which are devoted primarily to providing general educa- 
tion, yet in the former over a hundred students pledged 
themselves in 1909 to give their lives to the ministry, while 
the Volunteer Band at Peking exceeds that number by 
nearly a hundred. Some of the centres, notably the 
capital, offer indirect opportunities for bringing the 
Gospel to the higher classes, who will readily attend 
lectures of a general character, and who later, through 
the" friendships thus formed, listen interestedly to the 
claims of Christianity. The general publications of the 
Christian Literature Society are similarly useful in extend- 
ing the Gospel indirectly. In a word, the character of 
evangelistic work is broadening in those sections where 
the new regime makes it desirable, and the cause is 
profiting thereby. 

More hopeful than anything hitherto experienced, 
with the possible exception of what is stated in the next 
paragraph, is the advent within two years of special 
evangelistic campaigns. The late Dr. Lee and the pastors 


prominent in the wonderful revival in Hsing-hwa-fu last 
summer, on the Ciiinese side, and the Rev, J. Goforth of 
the missionary force, illustrate the fruitfulness of this 
hopeful advance. While it is more useful in communities 
where a large Christian nucleus is present, this method is 
Lp likely to become permanent, and the manifest blessings of 
1907, 1908, and 1909 will doubtless be many times greater 
in the future, 

3, Classes Reached Most Largely. Unhke Japan, where 
the middle class of Samurai were those earliest reached 
by the missionaries, in China Jesus' primary law, " To 
the j)oor the Gospel is preached," has most widely pre- 
vailed, largely because the higher classes were practically 
inaccessible until the present decade dawned. Indeed, 
the most despised of the poor, the aboriginal tribes, have 
recently been most open to the Gospel message. One corre- 
spondent labouring among the Nosu and Miao, tells of 
" many tens of villages that have become wholly Christian; 
in hundreds of viUages Christian bands are living and 
witnessing for Jesus ; . . . and the outcome of it all is 
that in 1909 there are probably 50,000 people nominally . 
y Christian." And he is describing an evangelistic move- 
ment of only five years' duration. 

As a definite class, women are being most specifically 
sought. For reasons already stated China's women are a 
strategic element to be won ; yet unless specially sought 
after, they cannot be largely affected by the Gospel. 
Attendance upon an ordinary street chapel is out of the 
question, and even attendance at Sunday church service 
calls for a willingness to face criticism and misunderstand- 
ing which few are ready to meet, particularly among the 
wealthy and official classes. It is a cause for thankfulness, 
therefore, that so large a number of women have been 
brought within sound of the Gospel by the loving and 
patient efforts of the women missionaries and the equally 
faithful Bible- women. It is interesting to hear of efforts 
for the higher classes, particularly in Peking, where even 
princesses have been influenced through a wise use of 
lectures, informal talks, and social intercourse. Here, 


however, as everywhere, the task is time-consuming and 
to some extent unprofitable. As Mrs. A. H. Mateer of 
Shan-tung writes : " Working for such ladies is most 
unsatisfactory ; for, as they have plenty of time, they 
cannot understand why the foreign missionary should not 
enjoy the frequent a.ll-day calls, in which they delight." 

Though the number is still small, relatively speaking, 
the greatest advance in the past five years has been made 
in reaching the educated men scholars, students, and 
in many cases officials also. A leading part in this 
advance, so far as officials and the literati are concerned, 
has been played by the Christian Literature Society, 
while effective work in general has also been accom- 
plished through the publications of the Tract and Bible 
Societies. The Young Men's Christian Association has 
rendered an excellent service in the same line. 


I. Governmental Opposition. It would be folly to 
paint the picture of New China wholly in roseate colours. 
" A great door and effectual is opened unto me," wrote 
St. Paul, " and there are many adversaries." It is equally 
true of the Church's position to-day in the Far East. 
Official opposition of various sorts is reported. Since the 
deat h of their Imperial Majesties, foreign influence seems 
to be feared more than ever. The rulings of the Edu- 
cational Board hold Christian institutions to be without 
standing and consequently the graduates and students 
of such schools are deprived of the franchise in connection 
with the new provincial assemblies. Missions are ex- 
periencing increasing difficulty in buying property and 
getting deeds signed, due ostensibly to local obstructions 
but supposed to be occasioned by higher powers ; in 
Hu-nan, Hu-pei, and Kiang-su, false churches caUing 
themselves Christian have been established to secure 
legal advantage, thus intensifying governmental dislike 
of Christianity. These and other cases are obstacles 
which for the time need great wisdom and patience. 


yet they do not especially militate against evangelistic 
work in new territory. 

2. The New National Spirit. This is both a help and a 
hindrance. " China for the Chinese " means opposition 
to many things foreign, and so sometimes occasions 
difficulty, since many look upon Christianity as a foreign 
religion. But it has in a few cases, at least, made the 
Church leaders decide to be more independent of foreign 
aid, and if rightly guided it will prove, on the whole, 
advantageous, as in India. Moreover, it forces the Church 
to prove its power to be the leaven of higher civic righteous- 
ness and of a helpful public spirit, and thus in Chih-li, 
vSze-chwan, and in some of the ports, it has led to the 
winning of the friendship of not a few influential persons. 
It calls, however, for a greater willingness on the part of 
missionaries to humble themselves and to be content not 
only to minister but to illustrate the spirit of John the 
Baptist by insisting that the native Church must increase 
and they must decrease. 

3. Failure to Appreciate the Chinese. A difficulty, 
which militates against the cordial acceptance of the 
missionary evangelist, is well set forth in a paragraph 
from the reply of Mr. D. E. Hoste : " It is clear that in 
the case of a strong and original race such as the Chinese, 
with a powerful and complex civilisation of their own, 
the problem of real influence to say nothing of leader- 
ship amongst them becomes a more difficult one. One 
essential factor of its successful solution ... is the vital 
necessity of those engaged in this work gaining an 
adequate knowledge and understanding of the existing 
civilisation of China. . . . This is essential to strong 
influence amongst the Chinese. Hence it is important 
that the adoption of practical measures for dealing more 
effectively with this side of the subject should go hand in 
hand with those adopted for increasing the number of 
foreign missionaries." Dr. Richard and a few others are 
of the same opinion. The Gospel can only be made 
known widely by missionaries who keenly appreciate 
the intrinsic greatness of the Chinese and who are able 


to use helpful elements in Chinese history and racial 
character for the extension of the Kingdom of God. 

4. Harmlul External Influences. Literature of in- 
decent or, more commonly, of agnostic and atheistic 
character, is an obstacle which is of growing seriousness. 
These books are from Japan and Europe mainly, and in 
some cases attack Christianity with the utmost boldness. 
Many of them are the more insidious because of their 
advocacy of materialistic views and extreme evolutionary 
positions. The increasing use of foreign liquors and new 
forms of gambling are other items of a similar kind. 
The importation of prostitutes and the immoral life of 
members of foreign communities, which is supposed to 
represent modern civilisation, has harmed the cause in 
Manchuria, as well as proved a bane to young Chinese. 
Western education at home and as obtained by students 

in America and Europe, has weakened the old moral teach- , .. 
ing in some cases without adding Christian correctives,* 
These examples suffice to show how important it is for 
Christianity to multiply its agencies for overcoming hostile 

5. Religious and Anti-Religious Movements. China 
is receiving from Japan, especially on the north-east, 
an impetus toward Buddhism, which has been sometimes 
openly hostile to Christianity. In Fu-kien it has been 
employed as a political and governmental leverage, and 
has won the nominal allegiance of a few. Confucianism 
shows signs of revival. A talented Chinese, M.A. of 
Edinburgh, has translated and anglicised Confucius in a 
manner that is sure to attract students and scholars. 
The Government also is promoting Confucianism. In 
January 1907, it was made the State religion in a more 
formal way than before, and the public teaching of its 
doctrines has revived. The Rev. G. H. Bondfield writes :, 
" Without question, attempts wiU be made to recon-l 
struct Chinese thought on the basis of Confucian teaching, \ 7^ 
with a little Western science and religion thrown in." ' 
To this Taoism wiU doubtless contribute some of its highest 
teachings. Irreligion is also at the front. In Canton 

COM. I. 7 


the Bible is being attacked as untrue and the product 
of designing priests, and it is argued that neither God 
nor devil exists. In Manchuria a " No God Sect " is in 
active existence, including in its membership some of 
the best Government students. This sect has followers 
among the student class in many parts of China. It 
has been stimulated by the wide circulation of an able 
translation into Chinese of Spencer's Evolution and Ethics. 
Of a quite different sort is the occasional agitation, once led 
by a censor, for the establishment of some form of Chris- 
M tianity as a State religion, that it may thus come under 
'^ Government control and undergo modifications fitting 
it to the needs of Chinese life. The Rev. D. L. Anderson, 
D.D., in commenting on this proposal, writes : " The 
discussion can hardly be taken seriously ; yet it shows 
that in the mind of the Government the most objection- 
able thing about Christianity, as they understand it, is 
the foreigner." Few of these movements, however, are 
anything but ephemeral. They are at least in hopeful 
contrast to the universal religious apathy of two decades 
ago, and are signs of an awakening religious longing for 
something different from what China has had in the 
past. They also are a call of opportunity to the man who 
has a Gospel to preach, and who strongly knows Him 
whom he has believed. r^ 


I. Virtually Unreached Sections. The two Atlases 
already mentioned must again be resorted to, if one 
would gain any clear idea of the territory not j^et entered. 

Omitting duplicates, 527 cities and towns in all are 
permanently occupied by resident missionaries. Any 
complaisancy occasioned by this figure will disappear 
when we recall that in M. Richard's list of places includ- 
ing and ranking higher than market towns, there are 
1971 in China and her dependencies. Thus of these 
important centres, only twenty-six and seven-tenths 
per cent, have resident missionaries. While all the 


provinces and, except Tibet, all the dependencies have 
mission stations, there are, nevertheless, large regions 
practically untouched. Tibet, as elsewhere explained 
in detail, is unreached ; Sin-kiang has but three stations, 
though as the table shows, owing to its sparse population, 
it has a larger percentage of missionaries to the popula- 
tion than all the densely inhabited provinces save Fu- 
kien, Che-kiang, and Kiang-su ; and Mongolia, equalling 
in area six German ys, and almost as large as China Proper, 
has but four stations and ten missionaries, plus the col- 
portage work of the British and Foreign Bible Society. 
Remembering that this vast expanse is mainly what two 
Chinese names of the country suggest, " Sandy Waste " 
and " Rainless Sea," we may find this not so regrettable 
as at first thought it may appear, though the destitution 
of these nomads is as real and appalling as that of 
dwellers in most sparsely settled pastoral regions. The 
northern half of Manchuria is without a missionary, 
and nearly half the remainder is absolutely unreached, 
the southern and western sections alone being occupied. 
One correspondent from this more favoured section 
thinks that two-thirds of the population in his field have 
not even been approached. 

Of the eighteen provinces, it is difficult to speak at 
all accurately as to what districts are wholly without 
the Gospel, since we have no reports of itineration. 
Apparently four-fifths of Kan-su, Yiin-nan, Kwei-chau, 
and Kwang-si are not only absolutely unreached, but 
are likely to remain so untU missionaries are near enough 
to be accessible to the people. If this is a fair estimate 
probably it is an underestimate the Church has in 
these four sparsely settled provinces a field as large 
almost as Burma and Bengal combined, with a popula- 
tion equalling that of the Turkish Empire plus Ceylon, 
without any regular preaching of the Gospel. These 
are perhaps the largest sections thus untouched, though 
extensive regions in Sze-chwan and Shen-si should not 
be forgotten. In addition, in aU the provinces there 
are great and populous districts whose inhabitants, 


humanly speaking, are not likely to hear the Gospel 
unless the Church makes adequate provision to make 
it known. Thus in Kv/ang-tung, the first province to 
receive a modern missionary, after more than a century 
there are stretches of territoryV^in the north, west, and 
south, equalling in jDopulation the entire number in- 
habiting the Pacific Islands and the Philippines, still 
without a preacher. Dr. Fulton reports that within 
140 miles of the scene of Morrison's labours there are 
three counties containing some 10,000 villages, averaging 
250 inhabitants each, and so near each other that in some 
cases from a central point 600 villages may be counted 
within a radius of five miles. In hundreds of these 
no missionary or Chinese preacher has ever set foot. 
Dr. Gibson, who labours in the north-east section of the 
same province, says, in explanation of his statement, 
that his field is somewhat " adequately occupied," that 
" there is hardly any village which has not now a Christian 
chapel or place of worship within at most a distance 
of six miles." Territorially and actually Fu-kien is 
only half-occupied, though theoretically all portions of 
the province have been allotted for evangelisation. 
Writing of Shan-tung, China's Holy Land, Dr. H. 
Corbett! asserts that "there are thousands of flourishing 
towns and villages where as yet there are no Christians, 
or schools under Christian influence." Even Kiang-su, 
which has both the largest number of missionaries and 
the smallest number of inhabitants to each worker, is 
so inadequately reached that there are many to'.vns 
of 10,000, and scores of villages of 5000, stiU without a 
preacher. This, however, is little to be wondered at, 
as the large proportion of workers located in Shanghai 
leaves each of those in other sections with a parish of 
over 50,000 to care for. 

2. Classes most Neglected. " A volume the size of the 
Encyclopisdia Britannica," writes the Rev. John Archi- 
bald, " would barely suffice to give particulars of the 
sections of our field and the classes of our people who 
are absolutely neglected, or but partially reached." 


Yet if individuals and larger aggregations from certain 
groups are regarded, most classes have to some extent 
been reached. Even the late Emperor and the Dowager 
Empress received and read in part at least the New 
Testament, His Imperial Majesty venturing to suggest 
improvements in the style. The Empress Dowager 
on more than one occasion showed special favours, 
and gave costly presents to women missionaries who had 
been at the Palace as interpreters to the wife of Minister 
Conger ; yet she remained to the end true to the received 
faiths, especially Buddhism. Those classes most neglected 
are wealthy men and officials to an even greater extent, 
their wives and children and the literati and Govern- 
ment students, the last two classes despite the com- 
parative success which has rewarded the efforts made 
to reach them. The aboriginal tribes, especially those 
in South- Western China, are largely unevangelised. 
As they number some 6,000,000 more than half of 
Korea's population and as they respond so readily 
to the evangelistic : message, this neglect is deplorable. 
The boat population, numbering millions, especially in 
Kwang-tung and Kwang-si, is likewise without workers, 
the Rev. I. Genahr stating that in Canton alone this 
means the neglect of 100,000 more than the population 
which in the New Hebrides has awakened such sympathy 
and effort. Manchus, clerks, and apprentices in shops, 
soldiers, beggars, defectives, lepers, fallen women, and 
mountaineers are other classes which are inadequately 
touched by Christianity. 

^China's ', many! millions of Mohammedans likewise arc 
as a class almost wholly untouched. While they may 
be reached in the street chapels or by open-air preaching, 
the workers who have given any special attention to them 
could be numbered on the fingers of one hand. Some 
few Arabic Scriptures have been distributed among the 
Moslem leaders, but there are only two tracts in Chinese 
specially prepared for use among them. Unfortunately, 
one of these is so polemic that few Mohammedans would 
read it through, and the other one has failed after many 


years to run into a second edition, not because it is un- 
suitable, but because the need for it has not been 
realised. China has several colleges whach are the 
stronghold of Moslem thought and the training-ground 
of the Chinese Mullahs. One of these in Peldng has 
235 students under the tuition of one of the Ulema of Al 
Azhar University in Cairo. Upon these strategic centres 
Christian effort should be focused, and one or two men 
specially set apart for this purpose. Such workers 
would need a knowledge of both Chinese and Arabic. 
While the rebellions of the last century greatly crippled 
Islam's cause in China, the recent, though fruitless, 
attempts to establish consulates for the protection of 
Moslem interests in China, and the starting by thirty 
Mohammedan students at Tokio of a quarterly magazine 
in Chinese, entitled Moslems Awake, for private circula- 
tion throughout China, are indications of an activity 
which needs no comment. Another indication is the 
dispatch of a Turk as " the first modern resident Moslem 
missionary in China." 


I. An Adequate Supply of Missionaries. This demand 
is self-evident, yet when workers at the front are asked 
how many are required, they vary widely in their replies. 
Some are deterred from stating their real views, lest 
they be regarded as unpractical and blind to the 
financial limitations. A few prominent workers would 
not advise any reinforcement just now, since the coming 
of a large number would probably occasion govern- 
mental opposition, and call forth the antagonism of 
a numerous body of patriots who are fearful of foreign 
influence. A still smaller number, and those in older 
portions of the field, argue against the sending of many 
new missionaries, on the ground that it would call for 
a large expenditure of money, which could be more 
profitably used in employing Chinese evangelists and 
preachers. The number of missionaries most frequently 


stated as desirable is 16,000, thus quadrupling the present 
force. While there are great differences as to figures, 
ratios to the population, etc., there seems to be a pretty 
general agreement that most walled cities should be 
entered for residence, as these are at once important 
centres and widely distributed. From a rough survey 
of the field as a whole, including the Fu cities of import- 
ance, as well as most of those of inferior rank, it has 
been calculated that an irreducible minimum of 10,000 
missionaries are required for the evangelisation of China, 
and that if it were feasible, a much larger number 
would be desirable. It should be added, however, that 
some experienced missionaries incline to the opinion of 
the Rev. John Ross, D.D., who says : " One missionary 
to a quarter of a million people is an adequate pro- 
portion, if he is the kind I desiderate." 

As to the proportion of men to women and of the 
various classes of workers, there is the utmost divergence 
of opinion. The missionaries apparently heartily agree 
with a section in one of the resolutions of the Committee 
on Evangelistic Work, passed by the Centenary Confer- 
ence two years ago : " Resolved, That for the complete 
prosecution of missionary work, educational, medical, 
and charitable agencies are indispensable, and in the 
working of such agencies their essential evangelistic 
purpose should always be emphasised ; further, we 
as a Conference desire to affirm that every missionary, 
whether engaged in pastoral, educational, medical, or 
charitable work, is first and foremost an evangelist." 
Yet there is little doubt that the opportunities of the 
hour and the deepest needs of China call for a larger 
number of evangelistic missionaries than of all other 
sorts combined. The women should share largely in this 
service. The best opinion seems to be that this larger 
force of workers should not settle in the old centres, 
particularly those already well provided with missionaries, 
but should be distributed more generally throughout the 
field. Yet there are men of wide experience, like the 
Right Rev. Bishop Roots, who hold the contrary opinion. 


2. The Chinese Force Required. Ks one reads the 
arguments and appeals for a larger number of Chinese 
fellow-workers than at present it seems possible to furnish, 
one feels the greatness of the Church's opportunity. 
As an item of economy, of effectiveness, and of states- 
manship, it is manifestly wise greatly to increase this 
arm of the Church. In general it may safely be estimated 
that from ten to fifty Chinese will be required to one 
missionary, the number varying with his strength and the 
fitness of his fellow-workers. The total number must 
manifestly be much beyond any thus far employed ; 
some missionaries suggest figures reaching 100,000. 
Professor Ding, a leading Chinese Christian, asserts 
that for the province of Fu-kien alone 15,256 Chinese 
preachers would be required for adequate occupation. 
A frequent reply is that the number of properly trained 
Chinese workers cannot be too great. These, as called 
for by our correspondents, should be in a ratio of three 
men to two women. 

3. Adequate Training for Workers. While this is the 
subject of the special inquiry of another Commission, 
a word may be said upon this point, in representative 
quotations. Such training Dr. Timothy Richard describes 
as the result of a careful " study of the science of success- 
ful mission work among non-Christians from the days 
of the Apostles until now, and the art by which all great 
religions have won the hearts of their followers." The 
Rev.C. J. Voscamp, in writing of the training that prepares 
for instruction of the Chinese staff, contends that such 
work can be properly done only by " those who have 
gained missionary experience and have obtained insight 
into the soul of the people." 

Desirable as such training is for the missionary, the 
Rev. Arnold Foster points out its equal necessity for 
the Chinese evangelists. " At present," he writes, 
" many of the Chinese employed in mission work are 
quite unfit for it. Merely to multiply their number by 
taking on others, who would probably be even less fit, 
would not be for the advancement of the Church of 


Christ." There is a consensus of opinion that their 
training should be such as will produce " a body of Chris- 
tian men of such culture and character that they shall 
take rank among the leaders of New China ; men' who 
are fitted to cast the leaven of the divine life into the 
hearts of this people, that through individual renovation, 
Government and society may be permanently renovated." 

4. Comradeship and Co-operation. It is refreshing to 
note the deepening spirit of brotherliness which is coming 
to be more and more noticeable in the relationships 
between the foreign and Chinese staff. A sense of genuine 
comradeship and Christian oneness is' growing in strength 
and commonness. In view of the present delicate rela- 
tions between the Chinese and all foreigners, which are 
affecting even the Chinese Church, this attitude is essential 
to evangelistic success. 

The outstanding features of the Centenary of Christian 
Missions in China were federation and co-operation. 
During the subsequent two years this has materialised in 
a gratifying way, particularly in West China and in Chih-li, 
the Imperial Province. This will affect the evangelistic 
phase of the enterprise more vitally than any other line 
of work except education and literature. It makes 
possible a distribution and allotment of the field, a trans- 
fer of church members from one body to another, and a 
genuine realisation of the phrase of the Creed, " I believe 
in . . . the communion of saints." Already, too, it 
has led to an interchange of preachers, especially in 
evangelistic services. The broader evangelistic campaign 
involved in ca.rrying the Gospel to aU the Chinese can only 
be successful when the banner of unity and co-operation 
goes before the Christian workers. 

5. Statesmanship and Er^vision. Not a few who have 
contributed to this survey have deplored the lack of plan 
and of vision manifest either in their own society's policy, 
or in that of other societies._ The too frequent absence 
of co-ordination between different branches of a society's 
work leads to friction between individuals, or to different 
missions having different policies, instead of their making 


the combined activities minister to a great and worthy end. 
A failure to foresee the probable future of the Empire and 
to prepare for its demands is also noted. What does 
the nation demand, unconsciously of course, of the Church ? 
Leadership of a Christian sort for one thing, and too little 
of that is aimed at in training promising young men and 
women. Through the Church's evangelistic arm the 
Empire should receive a wide dissemination of the simple 
Gospel, which one of the most prominent of the New 
Chinese, having his Ph.D. from abroad but a true Con- 
fucianist still, holds is the real need of his people ; since 
" our religions only make moral truths known to us, while 
Christianity furnishes with these truths an enabling power 
which ours wholly lack." When a certain evangelistic ><:, 
jnissionary in North China begins his work by polite and 
cordial visitation of officials and other representatives 
in order to acquaint them with his object in coming to their 
city, and succeeds in showing that Christianity cannot 
but aid the new national life, he is at once far-sighted 
and statesmanlike. Too few missionaries seem to imitate 
his example, or that of a society which in beginning educa- 
tional work sent its representatives, first of all, to the 
provincial governor to acquaint him fully with their plans. 
While he at first objected strongly to the decidedly 
Christian character of their scheme, the interview intel- . 
lectually convinced him of the soundness of the missionary 
position. As the evangelist is the pioneer in almost all 
cases, he can prepare the way for the Church, if he has 
the requisite Christian prevision, as no others can. But 
to be more specific, a few problems, present and prospec- 
tive, demanding wisdom and prevision, are the following : 
the proper development of Churches growing out of so- 
called mass movements in Manchuria and Kwei-chau ; 
the steady and slow work among the peasant class, not 
so attractive perhaps as that for students and some others, 
which awaits organisation and emphasis ; the securing 
of a considerable body of specially trained men for the 
production of literature and for work among scholars, 
involving great expense, relatively speaking, which should 


be wisely and liberally undertaken. Another problem 
of statesmanship is that of a wiser distribution of forces 
in accordance with prevalent ideas of comity. Possibly 
Bishop Bashford's " missionary Hague Tribunal," to which 
each mission proposing to enter a new field should submit 
its plans, might thus be enabled to plan " with states- 
manlike vision for the occupancy of the entire field." 

Yet it is the Church at home that is most likely to lack ^^< 
prevision. Here is a great Empire in a state of flux ; its 
doors are wide open and fuel of known value can be added 
to the flames. The plastic metal is just at the point 
where it can be moulded as the workers will, if a proper 
plant and force were at hand. But the Church only sees the 
demands at home, or is busying itself about some enter- 
prise over the sea which does not call for such immediate 
and energetic action. The opportunity passes, and in 
future years when a greater willingness and vision 
come, it may be too late. With China it is pre- 
eminently " an age on ages telling." Statesmanship and 
prevision, together with reliance upon the power of God, 
can secure Christianity's future. If all the Churches will 
now work unitedly, not as a foreign invading force 
but as a friendly company of men and women devoted to 
humanity and the Gospel, the coming centuries will 
praise the wisdom and foresight of our day. 


SiAM has a population of 6,686,846. Of these the two 
milUon Siamese or Thai are the dominant race, but they 
are an indolent people, and so lacking in energy that 
their exceedingly fertile country is but very poorly 
cultivated. For centuries they have been Buddhists. 
They possess an extensive literature in the Pali language. 
About sixty per cent, of the boys spend some time 
in the monastery learning to read and write. Thus 
these arts are general amongst the male popula- 
tion, although until 1874 the women and girls were 
forbidden to learn to read and write. Since the year 
1868, Siam, under the enlightened rule of King Chulalong- 
korn I., has been open to western culture in a remarkable 
manner. Wonderful progress has been made in all 
branches of administration. Even compulsory education 
has been introduced, the Government system of schools 
being in a most promising condition. But in spite of all 
this the soil is not receptive to Christianity. 

Closely related to the Siamese, really of the same 
stock, are the Laos or Lao, who occupy the tributary 
states in the north of the countrJ^ The Laos-speaking 
Thai extend far beyond the boundaries of Siam. It is 
safe to state that there are from 7,000,000 to 12,000,000 
of Laos-speaking people, about two or three million of 
whom live within the boundaries of Siam. The re- 
mainder are to be found in British Burma, in French 
Indo-China, and in Yunnan. The American Presbyterian 
Laos Press in Chieng-Mai, North Siam, is the only press 
in existence which prints the Laos language. More than 
half the Bible is already in print, and other portions are in 


SIAM 109 

process of translation. A monthly Christian paper is also 
issued in Laos. 

Since the close of the eighteenth century large numbers 
of Chinese have immigrated to Siam ; they are related 
to the Siamese in race and language, and at the present 
time number 2,000,000, or onc-thkd, and in the south 
one-half of the population. Those born in the country 
become completely naturalised, even in language. Over 
1,000,000 of the inhabitants are immigrants from Burma, 
the Malay Peninsula, and French Indo-China. 

Protestant missions in Siam, as in so many other parts 
of South-Eastern Asia, were, up to the middle of the last 
century, looked upon as preparatory to work in China. 
The London Missionary Society, the American Baptists, 
and the American Board worked here for several decades, 
but on the opening up of China all gradually withdrew. 
Thus the task of Christianising Siam has fallen chiefly to 
the lot of the American Presbyterian Mission, which 
entered in 1840. This Society has two missions in Siam, 
one to the Siamese, the other to the Laos-speaking Thai 
in the north. In both missions the important branches 
of work are the schools for boys and girls, which are mostly 
boarding schools, and medical mission work. Along 
these preparatory lines the success of the Mission has been 
remarkable. The Siamese have approved the introduc- 
tion of regular schools, of vaccination, and of well-con- 
ducted hospitals. By these means the Mission has v/on 
the general confidence and friendship of the highest 

In the Siam Mission five men have been engaged in 
evangelistic work, while several physicians and women 
have helped in it. In the Laos Mission such preaching 
is carried on more vigorously. Extensive itineration has 
been a marked feature of the work. Prolonged tours 
have been made repeatedly to the Laos Thai in Burmese, 
French, and Chinese territory, where the missionaries have 
found earnest attention to their message and have heard 
repeated requests that they should come to hve among 
the people. 


In spite of sixty-nine years of work only 805 com- 
municants have as yet been gathered from among the 
Siamese. The great mass of the population can scarcely 
be reached without greatly increasing the number of 
purely evangelistic missionaries. One correspondent 
writes : " Certainly I think the proportion of evangelistic 
workers should be increased. To occupy adequately 
the field and ensure the carrying of the Gospel to the 
people within a reasonable period, I should say at least 
twenty-five general evangelistic missionaries should be 
regularly employed, with adequate means of locomotion, 
and a sufficient number of helpers. Other classes of 
missionaries need not be much increased until the results 
of the work demand them." 

In comparing this field with the flourishing mission 
fields of the Presbyterian Mission in Korea, Shantung, 
and Japan, the insufficient native staff is particularly 
striking. In the native workers hes the secret of the 
success of the Presbyterian missions, but the Siamese 
seem as yet to be but little suited for this work. Mission- 
aries hold that this is mainly due to southern Buddhism's 
emphasis of religion as a personal matter every man being 
his own saviour, without any responsibility resting on any- 
one else. 

In Laos, statistics of 1908 report 3705 communicants. 
This number shows that a movement in the direction of 
Christianity seems to be gaining ground. 

French Indo-China is unfortunately closed to Protestant 
missionary influences. This is the more regrettable, 
since among the Kamoos in French Laos a real mass 
movement toward Christianity has commenced which, 
tmder competent leadership, would promise large results. 
Only one colporteur of the British and Foreign Bible 
Society and two Swiss Brethren missionaries are permitted 
by the French Colonial Government to work here. 



The Malay Peninsula, comprising the Straits Settle- 
ments with 572,249 inhabitants, the Federated Malay 
States and Johore with 1,178,000 inhabitants, presents in 
its population an unusual mixture of totally different 
elements. There are, besides the rapidly increasing 
immigrant population of Europeans and Americans, five 
distinct classes living side by side : (i) the Malays, who 
form the bulk, in most districts as many as three-fourths, 
of the population, and are almost all Mohammedans. A 
generation ago their Mohammedanism was merely super- 
hcial, but it is daily becoming a more and more pervasive 
and dominant faith. The greatly increased pilgrimage 
to Mecca, brought about by cheap steamer rates and 
better facilities, is consolidating Islam. The Hadji 
or returned pilgrim is henceforth an ardent defender and 
propagator of the faith, which gives him peculiar honour. 
Missionary work amongst these people has as yet been 
undertaken only sporadically. Missionary results are 
very meagre. (2) The Chinese born in the country, the 
so-called Baba, whose native tongue in Singapore is the 
Malay, in Penang certain Chinese dialects. Here, too, 
missionary work has been begun in earnest only in a few 
places. In large schools, especially of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church, thousands are receiving Christian in- 
struction with noteworthy results. (3) The chief work 
apart from the pastoral care of the European and American 
immigrants is concentrated on the increasing numbers 
of Chinese and Tamil immigrants, of whom many were 



already baptized, or had received Christian impressions 
at home. Unfortunately even amongst these Chinese 
immigrants there are representatives of at least four 
different dialects, the Swatow, the Hokkien, the Cantonese, 
and the Hakka ; there are also congregations of Foo-chow 
Christians. This diversity of races and languages makes 
the work exceedingly difficult. (4) The aborigines, very 
low in the scale of civilisation, and divided into many 
tribes speaking different languages, who are now only 
to be found in the jungles ; they have scarcely been 
reached at all by missionary effort. 

The occupation of the country is inadequate as regards 
the number of missionaries. The American Methodist 
Episcopal Church is most strongly represented, vv^ith nine 
men missionaries, eight missionaries' wives, and nine 
immarried women missionaries. The Society for the 
Propagation of the Gospel has, besides the bishop, 
a staff of five men missionaries, two schoolmasters, 
and six women missionaries. They have recently 
strengthened their work by separating this district as 
a distinct diocese from the older and larger diocese of 
Labuan and Sarawak. Besides these societies, the 
English Presbyterians have a station at Singapore, and 
the " Brethren " have also occupied a number of 
places. There are also some American missionaries 
working without official connection with a home 
society. But there is scarcely any connection between 
these different missionary agencies. Moreover, they are 
all too weak to deal systematically and effectively with 
the missionary tasks confronting them. All of them 
have gathered congregations from among the Tamil and 
Chinese immigrants, and look upon the care of these 
as their chief work. Recently the Protestant Leipzig 
Missionary Society has also founded a station for the 
pastoral care of its ov/n converts and catechumens among 
the immigrants. The work among these immigrants is, 
however, rendered difficult by the fact that few of them 
settle down permanently ; they either return sooner or 
later to their own country, or change their place of resid- 


ence, so that the missionaries often lose sight of them. 
The work of the Methodist Episcopal Church with its 
2000 Christians, that of the Society for the Propagation 
of the Gospel with looo, and that of the English 
Presbyterians and " Brethren " with a few hundreds, 
represents but a small beginning, especially as scarcely 
one-tenth of these are permanent residents in the country. 


In British Borneo, the Sultanate Brunei, Sarawak, and 
Labuan, with a population of 551,000, three societies are 
at work, namely, the English Society for the Propagation 
of the Gospel, the American Methodist Episcopal Mission 
Board, and the German Basel Society. For the Society 
for the Propagation of the Gospel only six men and six 
women missionaries are working in the British part of 
Borneo under the Bishop of Labuan, and these have 
also to minister to the white population ; the Methodist 
Mission has occupied a station in Sarawak ; the Basel 
Society employs but one European missionary, and one 
ordained Chinese pastor for the shepherding of the 
Chinese Christians, immigrants from the Kwantung 
province. As we have to do here with a territory of the 
size of England, Scotland, and Wales, with an interior 
to a large extent impassable, and with a diversified 
population, it will be seen that but a start in missionary 
work has been made. 

COM. I. 8 


The Dutch East Indies comprise the extensive stretch 
of islands from the Malay Peninsula to New Guinea and 
the Australian continent, except British North-West 
Borneo and Portuguese North Timor ; and they have 
a population of more than forty-three millions, of whom 
563,000 are Chinese immigrants and their descendants, and 
about 80,000 Europeans, including the garrisons. Nearly 
30,000,000 of this population are concentrated on the 
island of Java, which is one of the most densely populated 
regions not only of Asia, but of the whole world. 


The missionary problem in this Archipelago is of a 
threefold nature. 

I. To offer the Gospel to the Mohammedans, who 
form the large part about thirty-five millions of 
the population. Here Islam is advancing rapidly and 
persistently absorbing step by step the existing remnants 
of heathenism. It should be stated that Islam penetrated 
to the Malay Archipelago at an early period, occupying 
Sumatra about the year 1200, and forming small settle- 
ments in Java about 1400. But at the time of the 
Portuguese conquest the extent of its influence was incon- 
siderable. To-day it has almost undisputed possession 
of the principal island, Java ; also of the island of Sumatra, 
with the exception of a broad strip running across the 
middle of the island, where the Bataks dwell ; and is 
largely represented on the remaining islands right 
up to Dutch New Guinea at any rate in the coast 



districts. The Mohammedan propaganda is carried on 
here with much energy, thoroughness, and even fanaticism. 
The intercourse between Java and Mecca is extremely 
active ; thousands of Javanese proceed annually on a 
pilgrimage to Mecca, and no less than 20,000 Arabs 
carry on an effective and profitable propaganda on these 
islands as teachers of Islam. One can trace its course 
an Sumatra, the Celebes, Borneo, and other islands, 
where it has been occupying one district after another 
like an ever- advancing wave. In spite of all this, 
Mohammedans are more approachable here than elsewhere, 
women are not secluded and are easily accessible, and 
the fruits of missions among the followers of Islam are 
Qot inconsiderable. 

2. It is doubly important that the work of evangelisa- 
tion should be carried on among the animistic population 
not yet laid hold of by Islam. Of these aborigines, only 
some eight or nine millions are left in the whole Archipelago, 
mostly inland tribes difficult of access Islam having 
occupied almost everywhere the easily accessible coast 
districts. It is these tribes, which stand very low in the 
5cale of civilisation, are in part notorious cannibals, and 
lang but loosely together, that are most open to the 
jospel. As early as the seventeenth and eighteenth 
:enturies the missionary activities of the Dutch East 
[ndian Com.pany had notable results among these tribes, 
especially on Ambon. In the nineteenth century the 
Mifurs in Minahassa and the Battaks on Sumatra after a 
jrief resistance responded to the Gospel with remarkable 
eadiness, and an abundant harvest has been the result, 
riie same process is now going on among the Alifurs of 
Halmahera and the Toradjaes of Central Celebes (Posso 
District). Others again, like the Dayaks on Borneo, 
md the Papuans in Dutch New Guinea, have proved 
naccessible to the Gospel for more than half a century, 
)ut recently the Papuans have been manifesting ready 

3. From the beginning of the last century the Chinese 
lave been the object of missionary attention. It is true 


that they constitute everywhere, even in Java, where 
most of them are located, an insignificant minority of the 
population ; but in the first decades, when China itself 
was a closed door, the hope was entertained of reaching 
the Chinese more easily in their immigration centres, 
Batavia being, besides Malacca and Singapore, the chief 
point of entrance. And even now, though China itself 
is open to the missionary enterprise, the Chinese in these 
regions (on Java especially) claim special attention, 
since for a long time they have proved more accessible 
than the native Mohammedan population. As a result 
of the awakening of the East, and the rise of Chinese 
patriotism and of a semi-political Neo-Confucianism, the 
former responsiveness of these Chinese is now changing 
into an attitude of greater reserve toward Christianity. 


The missionary forces available for the Dutch Archi- 
pelago may be considered under three heads 

I. The Established Church (Protestantsche Kerk). 
The Government has undertaken the pastoral care of the 
native groups which exist as the result of missionary 
enterprise in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. 
These consist of 4850 members in Java, a separate body 
of 2469 in Kota Raja, in the north of Sumatra, 78,974 
members in Ambon and the Moluccas, and 18,617 in 
Timor and the adjacent islands, making a total of 104,910. 
In the seventies the Netherlands Missionary Society, 
owing to the lack of funds, was compelled to turn over 
its important Minahassa Mission (North Celebes) with 
178,771 members to the State Church, continuing, how- 
ever, its valuable educational work. The State, therefore, 
supervises 283,681 native Christians. These are cared 
for by twenty-seven assistant pastors (hulp-predikers) 
and also by the pastors of the European congregations 
(forty-one in number) of the Established Church, who 
have also the care of the native congregations in places 
where there are no assistant pastors, and who at times 


carry on quite extensive missionary work. In addition, 

there are 60,178 Protestant Christians on Sangi and 

Talaut Islands, partly descendants of Christians of the 

seventeenth century, partly converts of the last century. 

These are not officially cared for by the Government, 

but a large annual grant ('2650) is made, which defrays 

three-quarters of the cost of their spiritual oversight. 

They are shepherded by eleven missionaries, including 

one nurse and one educational man. The State does not , , .. 

interfere with matters of administration. *'" '^s 

2. The Rhenish Mission carries on operations among 
the Battaks of Sumatra, on the island of Nias (situated 
along the western coast of Sumatra) and its adjoining 
islands, and in the larger part of Dutch Borneo. In 
these regions three well-staffed missions are maintained, 
comprising seventy-two main stations, with ninety-three 
missionaries, eighty-three missionaries' wives, two medical 
and eleven women missionaries ; a total force, including 

wives, of 189, with 102,429 Christian adherents, of whom ^ 

47,729 are communicants. Promising as these statistics 

are, the missionaries workmg in these fields point out ''^^ 

that they are far from adequately manned. On Sumatra a 

keen contest is going on between Islam and Christianity 

a contest for the group of Battak tribes numbering 500,000 

souls which makes heavy demands upon the strength 

of those engaged in it. The Rhenish Society counts 

some 90,000 members and 8408 catechumens, and occupies 

the central districts, from which the work is systematically 

extended in every direction. The Mohammedans, whose ^/ 

adherents number 125,000, have laid hold of nearly all 

the districts surrounding the Battak lands. On the 

island of Nias operations have been mainly confined 

to the middle, forming a broad strip from the east to the 

west coast, and should now be extended both toward 

the north and toward the thickly populated south of 

the island. The Methodists occupy one station in 

Dutch Borneo at Pontianak. 

3. This extensive archipelago is primarily the field of 
work for the Dutch missionary societies. If we except 


the German " Neukirchen " Mission, with fourteen mis- 
sionaries working in the north-central part of Java, the 
Salvation Army (mainly in Central Java), and the 
Methodist Episcopal Mission, with four missionaries (one 
in Batavia, one in East Sumatra, and two in Borneo), 
none but Dutch missionary societies are at work here, and 
these have no other mission fields, with the exception of the 
small Calioub Mission in lower Egypt and a hospital 
in Amoy. This missionary work carried on by the 
Netherlands, with its population of 5,800,000, of whom 
about three and one-half millions are Protestant, is 
administered through five large and thi-ee smaller societies 
and several committees, organised for special purposes in 
connection with missionary work, a number of which 
are more or less organically connected with one or more 
of the principal societies. The total missionary contribu- 
tions from the Netherlands amount to about ;^5o,ooo, of 
which the Netherlands Missionary Society receives ;^io,5oo, 
the Utrecht Association ;^9000, the Reformed Churches 
^8500, and the Netherlands Missionary Association ;^58oo. 
The largest society employs twenty- seven missionaries 
and occupies sixteen principal stations. 

There are in Java in all fifty-eight missionaries, 
exclusive of wives, 20,000 Christians and twenty-eight 
principal mission stations.^ 

On all the other islands, apart from the work of the 
Established Church and of the Rhenish Mission, there are 
forty-three missionaries, forty mission stations, and 
11,000 Christians. While this occupation is quite inade- 
quate both for carrying on a strong evangelistic move- 
ment in Mohammedan Java and for meeting the demands 
of the other heathen islands, the steady increase in the 
missionary staff during recent years should be noted. In 
1900 there were 60 Dutch missionaries ; in 1903, 61 ; and 
in 1910 the number had increased to over 100. 

1 These numbers do not include those deahng with the Estab- 
lished Church, which in Java has 48 50 native Christians, twenty-live 
pastors, who also, and chiefly, serve the Europeans, and one assistant 
pastor. Nor do they include the fourteen " Neukirchen " mission- 
aries, with eleven principal stations. 


The Netherlands Missionary Society carries on mission- 
ary work : (i) On Java in the " Residentien " Madium, ' 
Kediri, and part of Surabaja and Pasuruan, having some 
five milHon inhabitants with a total force of twelve 
members (of whom live serve hospital and educational 
work), occupying six stations and ministering to 11,500 
Christians. Here is found one of the finest mission posts 
of the whole Archipelago. (2) On North-Central Celebes 
with five missionaries. On this island there is in the 
Posso District just now a very marked response to the 
Gospel. (3) In Dali, East Sumatra, with four mission- 
aries. The prospects of the work here, which is only a 
few years old, are very hopeful. 

Among some six and a half million Sundanese inhabiting 
the four " Residentien " of Western Java, Bantam, 
Batavia, Preanger, and Cheribon, the work is carried on 
almost exclusively by the Netherlands Missionary Associa- 
tion with a staff of thirteen missionaries, occupying ten 
mission stations. This band has to shepherd congrega- 
tions numbering 2314 souls, conduct a seminary, and 
attend to other duties. 

The Reformed Church considers as her field the three 
very thickly peopled " Residentien " of Banyumas, 
Kedoo, and Jokjakarta, besides the important town of 
Solo in the Soorakarta Protectorate, with an aggregate 
of 5,100,000 inhabitants. The workers here consist of 
five ordained missionaries, four teachers, three medical 
missionaries, and four nurses, a total of sixteen foreign 
missionaries, of whom eleven serve the hospitals and high 
school. This is a marked advance over the year igoo, 
when there were but four missionaries. In addition to 
its work in Java the Reformed Church has a mission in 
Sumba, with four ordained missionaries and seven teachers. 

The Utrecht Association occupies Halmahera, South 
Buru, and North Dutch New Guinea, with a total popula- 
tion of sixty to seventy thousand inhabitants. On these 
very promising fields the work is carried on by thirteen 
missionaries, who, besides the demands of the present and 
rare opportunities, have to minister to some SsooChristians. 


A happy tendency towards union now characterises 
Dutch missionary circles, which has already led to the 
forming of the Sangi and Talaut Committee by three of 
the Societies, to the union of the Netherlands Missionary 
Society and the Utrecht Association, and recently to the 
appointment of a missionary consul in Batavia by all the 
missionary societies for the safeguarding of their common 
interests. The Netherlands Missionary Society and the 
Utrecht Association have together established a training 
institute for missionaries, which is being used by five 
societies. Also in other ways a co-operation between the 
various societies can be noted. 


The Philippine Islands were hermetically closed to Pro- 
testant influence until, in the Spanish-American War of 
i8g8, the Archipelago was occupied by the Americans, 
and, after the Treaty of Paris, was formally handed over 
to them by Spain. The extensive group of more than 
2500 large and small islands, which is about as large 
as Great Britain and Ireland, and which has a population 
of 7,635,426, had been a Roman Catholic province since 
the year 1564. According to their own statistics (Krose, 
Katholische Missionsstatistik) 6,860,042 of the inhabitants 
belong to the Roman Catholic Church. 


The estimated non-Christian population of the Philip- 
pine Archipelago, including the non-Christian tribes, the 
Chinese, and the Mohammedan people, is 702,740. These 
non-Christian populations inhabit chiefly the island of 
Luzon and the Moro Province, and consist of the following 
groups : 

I. Igorots. These people are known under a variety of 
tribal names. They are a primitive Malayan race living 
in the mountainous interior of Northern Luzon. They 
number not less than 215,000. Their belief is animistic. 
They have no places of worship. They are superstitious 
and conservative, living in smaU communities for the 
most part, although here and there a large town is found. 
They are a cheerful people and show considerable intel- 
lectual capacity. The parents offer no opposition to 

their children accepting Christianity, but the adults in 



most places are difficult to reach. A variety of dialects 
are spoken. Every culture area has its own peculiarities 
of custom and language which are tenaciously observed. 
There is considerable rivalry and animosity between 
different sections, which finds expression in head-hunting. 
There are several centres of importance, now unoccupied 
by any Christian force, where the opportunity for evan- 
gelisation is ripe. 

2. The Chinese. These number about 55,000 and are 
found in the principal cities and towns of the islands, 
chiefly in the capital, Manila, where they form a com- 
munity by themselves. For the most part they are from 

3. The Moros. According to the last census (1903), 
these number 277,547. They inhabit Mindanao, Basilan, 
Sulu Archipelago, the Tawi-Tawi group, and all the small 
islands in the extreme south of the Philippines. The 
Moros are Mohammedans of a fanatical and ignorant 
type. They were at one time the pirates of the Philippine 
Archipelago and terrorised the whole region. If at any 
time the restraining hand of American sovereignty were 
lifted, they would be ready to revert to their former 
habits. Intolerant of Christianity, they are in sectional 
revolt in one place or another almost without intermission. 
The influence of Islam is extending among the pagan 

4. The Pagan Tribes of the Moro Province. The in- 
habitants of Mindanao have hitherto been vassals of the 
Moros. They number about 90,000, and have various 
names and dialects. They are of Malayan stock. They 
live in small communities, which makes it difficult to 
reach them from a common centre. Their belief, as far. 
as they have any, is animistic still, but they are likely 
to become Moslem unless Christianity preoccupies the 
ground. They are mild mannered and inoffensive. The 
Bagobos seem to have some characteristics different from 
the other tribes. The custom of offering human sacrifice 
has been continued by them up to the present time. 

5. Various Minor Tribes. Among these should be 


mentioned the Negritos (23,511), who are scattered about 
the Archipelago in the mountains. They are dying out, 
or else are being absorbed by the civilised peoples. The 
Mangyans (7269) of Mindoro can best be reached in 
connection with work among the civilised Filipinos of 
the island. Attention should also be given to the 
Tagbanuas (4696) of Palawan and the Bukidnons (56,189), 
a primitive Visayan people who retreated into the moun- 
tains before civilisation. They too can best be reached 
through work done among the civilised folk of the country 
in which they live. 


In addition to what the Roman Catholics are doing in 
this department of missionary enterprise, which thus far 
has been very little, no Christian work of any sort is being 
attempted among these non-Christians except by the 
missions of the Protestant Episcopal and the Congrega- 
tional Churches. The former has stations at three centres 
in the Igorot country, and the latter, one in the Moro 
Province. The combined force is as follows : seven 
foreign clergymen, two medical missionaries, two nurses, 
and four teachers. There are no native ordained workers, 
but there are two native catechists and two teachers. 
Three boys' schools and three girls' schools are conducted, 
and two medical dispensaries are in operation. In 
addition, the Protestant Episcopal Church has one foreign 
missionary and one native worker among the Chinese of 


Medical missions stand first in order of importance in 
this field. Educational work must have a chief place 
in the work among the young people of these primitive 
tribes, while industrial training is needed among the 
sluggish races which inhabit the Philippine Islands. 
Any direct effort toward evangelising the Mohammedan 



Moros would be attended with great difficulty. Medical 
missionaries could do more toward turning them to 
Christianity than any other agency. Christian philan- 
thropies cannot be started too soon among the adherents 
of Islam. 

These non- Christians are the most neglected and the 
weakest people in the Philippine Islands. What is called 
" civilisation " is rapidly advancing among them. It is 
impossible to shut them out from the material con- 
comitants of progress. The vices of western life are 
already contaminating these chUdren of nature, and 
unless powerful forces for good come in without delay to 
counteract the evil and to invigorate their spiritual and 
moral being, their fate will be worse than that of the 
North American Indians. 

They are ready and anxious for the Gospel. Many 
places would welcome the Christian Church with open 
arms, and several communities have asked for pastors, 
who so far have not been furnished owing to lack of 
missionaries. While formerly there was active opposition 
to that form of Christianity which prevailed, now in 
some sections there is as ardent desire for the knowledge 
of Christian truth as an untutored people are capable 
of showing. The present favourable opportunity of 
making a full conquest of the pagan tribes is rapidly 
slipping away. 


With the survey of Australasia, from the missionary 
point of view, it is convenient also to combine that of 
the island groups of the Pacific Ocean. The latter form 
an extensive field, stretching from Papua north-eastward 
to the Hawaiian Islands, and eastward to the Marquesas 
group, a distance in each direction of over 4000 miles of 
sea. Historically, and geographically also, distance not- 
withstanding, it is difficult to separate them. 

The early missions, from the days when the London 
Missionary Society first entered the field in 1799 with its 
mission to Tahiti, played an important part in the mission- 
ary history of the nineteenth century. Cook's epoch- 
making discoveries had already created a strong interest 
in the South Seas, and the early struggles and surprising 
successes of the pioneers of the Gospel not only called 
forth a succession of remarkable missionary heroes, but 
helped in no small degree to foster the missionary spirit 1 
oTtheCliurch, and to surround with dignity anxTTomahcel 
the whole cause of foreign missions. The gradual trans-' 
ference of the base of operations of some of the missionary 
societies to Australia and New Zealand, and the develop- 
ment of interest in other fields, have to some extent with- 
drawn these missions from public gaze in Europe and 
America, but they still contribute nobly to the records of 
the triumphs of the Gospel, and provide valuable material 
for the study of the science of missions. 

Since the days when the London Missionary Society 
entered the South Seas, and the Church Missionary Society 
established its mission among the Maoris of New Zealand, 
and the American Board occupied the Hawaiian Islands, 



the aspect of the missionary position has changed con- 


The colonisation of Australia, New Zealand, and 
Tasmania created a large European population which is 
now estimated to exceed five millions. The responsi- 
bility for the evangelisation of the decreasing native 
tribes devolved naturally in process of time upon the 
Christian Church of the new population, though its own 
spiritual needs were only met with difficulty. 

In Australia it is estimated that the aboriginal popula- 
tion numbers about 80,000. The evangehsation of these 
peoples has been greatly neglected in the past, but the 
burden of responsibility for their spiritual welfare is 
being taken up by the various Churches. The Moravian 
Mission continues its work among them at three stations 
(Mapoon, Weipa, and Aurukun) in Queensland in co- 
operation with the Presbyterian Church of Australia 
and Tasmania, which. pro vides^the necessary funds. The 
Church of England has also done a comprehensive work 
in Queensland, particularly at Yarrabah (near Cairns) and 
at Mitchell River on the Gulf of Carpentaria, and the 
Church Missionary Association of Victoria recently 
commenced a mission on the Roper River in the northern 
territory of South Australia for the purpose of reaching 
the many thousands of aborigines found there. The 
Presbyterian Church of Victoria has just begun a new 
and important mission on the north-west coast of West 
Australia. In New South Wales, Victoria, and Queens- 
land there are large settlements of Chinese, numbering 
roughly 26,000. A further 2500 in South Australia raises 
the total to 28,500. These also are coming increasingly 
under the purview of the different Christian communions 
as objects of their regular^ evangelistic operations. 
Missions are maintained 5y several denominations among 
tlie Chinese in Victoria. There are about 2000 Japanese 
in Queensland, and a fluctuating population of Poly- 
nesians, natives of India, and other non-Christians, 


constantly changing and correspondingly difficult of 

In New Zealand the evangelisation of the Maoris, 
numbering about 49,000, Ti^ jiot" yet been completed. 
A large number have embraced Christianity and are 
associated with the New Zealand churches, but there are 
still some sections, notably the Hauhaus, who, more 
from remembrance of old political wrongs than from real^ 
antagonism to Christianity, still keep aloof. 


The religious problems of the Hawaiian Islands are 
rapidly approximating to those of a settle d_Christianj^ 
country with a large immigrant non-Christian population. 
Originally a mission field of the American Board, it can 
now be said that nearly all the Hawaiian natives are 
Christians. But their numbers are not increasing, and 
they are now completely outnumbered by the Japanese 
and Chinese population. In igoo there were 26,000 of 
the latter and 61,000 of the former, as against 30,000 
native Hawaiians. More recently the Japanese have 
further increased, and in addition a large number of 
Koreans have settled in the islands. The tide of immigra- 
tion is being checked, but there is still need of strenuous 
missionary work on its present lines among these immi- 
grant classes. 

It would be impossible to ojnit a reference to the 
missionary spirit of the Hawaiian Church, as evidenced 
not only by the completeness and rapidity of the spread 
of Christianity within the Hawaiian Islands, but also by 
the missionaries whom God sentforth from among them" 
to be the evangelists of other islands in the Pacific. 


Australasia and Oceania are being increasingly linked 
together in commercial intercourse, and the bond between 
them is being further strengthened through the establish- 


ment in Australia and New Zealand of the headquarters 
of many of the missions to the islands. 

I. Societies. The work of the London Missionary 
Society in Oceania is being increasingly supported by the 
Congregational Churches of Australasia. Its present sphere 
of operations in the South Pacific includes the Cook Islands, 
the Samoan group, Niue or Savage Island, two of the 
three Loyalty Islands, the Tokelau and Ellice groups, the 
Southern Islands of the Gilbert group, and various small 
islets. The work is carried on by a European staff of 
fourteen men and four unmarried women. The native 
Christian community numbers upwards of 17,000 in full 
communion. There are 248 ordained pastors and 537 
other preachers. The Society has, in addition, a mission 
in Papua, stretching along the v/hole South Coast of 
British New Guinea from the extreme east to Daru on 
the western side of the Gulf. There are fourteen 
European missionaries in charge of as many stations, 
about 90 South Sea Island trained assistants, and 60 
New Guineans. The membership of the Church is about 
4500, and a vigorous effort is being made to reach the 
wUd tribes in the deltas of the great rivers and in the 
interior of the country. The total church membership 
of the Society's missions in Oceania is estimated at about 
20,000, with 50,000 native adherents. 

The Wesleyan Missions are now entirely under the 
direction of the Methodist IMissionary Society of Aus- 
tralasia. There are five districts : Samoa, Fiji, New 
Britain, Papua, and the Solomon Islands. There are 
nearly 2000 churches, 31 ordained and 6 lay missionaries, 
and about 100 native ministers. In addition there are 
1200 teachers and nearly 4000 local preachers. The 
church membership is about 47,800, and the schools pro- 
vide education for 30,000 scholars. The Melanesian 
Mission of the Anglican Church has its headquarters at 
Norfolk Island, and supports 22 clergy and over 600 
teachers. In the New Hebrides a united Mission, in 
which the Presbyterians of Canada and of Scotland co- 
operate with five Presbyterian organisations in Austral- 


asia, carries on a very successful work. Twenty-three 
ordained missionaries are located in the group, and 
already gathered into the Christian Church more than a 
fourth of the ninety thousand natives. The American 
Board has missions in the Gilbert Islands, the Marshall 
Islands, the Caroline Islands, and the Ladrones. The 
Australian Board of Missions (Anglican) supports a mission 
in New Guinea. There are German missions in German 
New Guinea and the Bismarck Islands. 

2. Melanesia, Polynesia, and Micronesia. The islands 
are divided according to the usual nomenclature, into 
the three groups : Melanesia (including New Guinea), 
Polynesia, and Micronesia. It is estimated that the 
native population exceeds 1,600,000. Papua (British 
New Guinea) has about 500,000, Dutch New Guinea (a 
very rough estimate) 200,000, and German New Guinea 
with the Bismarck Islands about 300,000, while the re- 
maining Melanesian Islands have about 200,000. In 
Micronesia the population is stated at 95,000, and in 
Polynesia, including the Fiji Archipelago, there are 
approximately 300,000. 

Polynesia, the earliest centre of large Protestant 
missionary enterprise in this field, has been Christianised 
with remarkable success. In almost every group a strong 
native Church has been established, imbued with an 
ardent missionary spirit. In Micronesia, where the 
American Board, aided by Hawaiian evangelists, were the 
pioneers, Christianity has gained a strong and influential 
following, some 17,500 Christians having been gathered 
in from an aggregate of 95,000 inhabitants. In both these 
areas the work of evangelisation has followed a uniform 
experience. The initial difficulties of approach and the 
natural suspicions of the inhabitants having been over- 
come, the surrender to the Gospel has been singularly 
complete and enthusiastic. Whole islands have accepted 
Christianity en masse, and the native Church has developed 
a high standard of Christian life and Church organisation. 
There have been, and still are, occasional relapses and 
days of difficulty ; but the main problem in many islands 
COM. I. 9 


is passing from the stage of evangelism to the period in 
many respects more difficult, of Church organisation and 
provision for the future. 

The early association of the native population with the 
peoples of European origin was unhappily marred by the 
wanton outrages inflicted upon the natives by irresponsible 
traders. The effectof such acts was not easily rernoved, 
but apparently the native mind learned in time to^_^dis- 
tinguish between the widely d iffering ^charjicters and 
designs of the missionaries and the traders. Still, gene- 
rally speaking, the intercourse with Western civilisation 
was comparatively slight, in that it was occasional rather 
than persistent. The small proportion of resident 
Europeans to the native population has left the latter 
more free to develop upon healthy and natural lines, 
without the restraints and tendencies which association 
with Europeans are apt to produce. 

The experience of Melanesian missions, and notably 
those of New Guinea, has not been so fortunate. Great 
results have been achieved, but at great cost of labour and 
life. Indeed, of the South Sea Islands generally, it may 
be said that their evangelisation has contributed a long 
list to the roll of martyrs ; but the sacrifice has borne 
rich fruits, and the question of their complete evangelisa- 
^ tion is largely one_of_tiniei^.pjatience,,ajid_p.erisiOTC^L^_ 

3, The Effects of Insulation. From one point of view 
there has been some advantage to missions from the 
peculiar insulation of the tribes inhabiting not only 
different groups, but often parts of the same islands. It 
has been possible to approach them in detail, and to deal 
with each tribe apart from the rest. The main obstacle 
has been always the initial difficulty of access. From the 
side of religion there has been little opposition. The 
presentation of a faith so obviously superior to their own 
/ animistic systems, would of itself have easily won the 
allegiance of the people without the added influence of the 
prestige of the missionary advocates. But before the 
days of missions and settled governments, practically 
the whole of Oceania was divided among innumerable 


small tribes, hostile to one another, and keeping abso- 
lutely apart. The law of revenge, tribal rather than 
individual, reigned supreme. Many of the earlier attacks 
upon missionaries are to be traced purely to this spirit 
of exacting from the first white man who visited the 
islands a reparation for some injiir^infiijcted^ bj'.a trad.^^ 
or other voyager. i^^-^ ^^-t y^-vr-^-^-^t^ 

As a natural result of this insulation, the linguistic "-'^ 
difficulties are enormous. However much the languages 
in the various groups may be traced to common sources, 
the entire absence of literature, and the inevitable changes 
which each generation produces under such conditions, 
have developed a diversity of speech almost without 
parallel in any other part of the world. Small islands 
close to one another have marked variations of usage 
both of vocabulary and grammar. In New Guinea, 
often every few miles, separated by some physical barrier 
of mountain or stream, are tribes which have never met 
except in warfare, and whose speech has little in common. 
In the New Hebrides group are no fewer than twenty-five 
languages, thirteen of which have been reduced to writing. 
It is difficult to estimate the total number of distinct 
languages spoken in Oceania, but already, for the use of 
missions, versions of the Scriptures have been prepared 
in over sixty. This is merely a fraction of what will be 
required if every dialect is to be furnished with at least 
a Gospel, but fortunately there are already indications 
that the stronger languages which have been endowed 
with the advantage of a literature are absorbing many of 
the neighbouring dialects or helping to unify the varieties 
pf one linguistic group. 

Still, from the point of view of missionary progress, this 
linguistic confusion is a serious obstacle. In many of the 
rmssiohs the training of native ..pastors, drawn from 
different islands, is increasingly being conducted in^ 
English, along with the language of the traming,.atatiQns. ^^^^^ 
\Vlthout, however, the aid of some native"orthe particular 
island which it is desired to approach, any attempt to 
reach the people must be a matter of extreme difficulty. 


Fortunately the native Church is producing an efficient 
staff of pastors and teachers full of enthusiasm and de- 
votion. Nothing is more encouraging than this develop- 
ment, joined as it is to a strong spirit of self-support. 
In many of the islands the need to labour is not great, 
but the missionaries have wisely encouraged agricultural 
pursuits and fostered habits of industry and thrift. 

4. The Present Situation. There is still a vast work to 
be accomplished in both the large and the innumerable 
small islands. The record of islands in which practically 
the whole population is Christian might suggest that little 
remains to be done. On the contrary, the peculiar 
insulation to which reference has been made, has created 
frequent instances of adjacent islands, one Christian, 
peaceful and well ordered, and the other, separated by 
only a few miles, still in a savage and heathen condition. 
Even on the same island, at least in Melanesia, there are 
to be found a district entirely under Christian influence, 
and at the distance of only a few miles a district where 
heathenism and even cannibalism is still practised. 
"There is abundant scope for missionary work at every 
stage of its development. 

The recent expansion of European and American 
administration and influence, promoting a greater inter- 
course with neighbouring islands as well as with the outer 
world, is having an effect upon the social and moral 
condition of the people, which is both beneficial and 
otherwise. Nowhere have the vices which have so 
invariably accompanied the progress of civilisation 
proved more sadly deleterious to the physical well-being 
and the moral tone of the people. It has been an untold 
blessing to the inha,bitants of these islands that the 
missionary has so far been the pioneer of civilisation. It 
is eminently desirable that this condMoii should continue ; 
but there is no time now for postponement. 

Again the breaking down of the isolation of the past 
is making more difficult in other ways the task of the 
missionary. A mixed population is _always harder to ^' 
evangelise than'"a homogeneous people. This inter- 


mingling is proceeding apace. There are already 35,000 
Indian coolies in Fiji, and the proportion between them 
and the native Fijian population is increasing in favour 
of the former. This new influx, which in other forms 
can be seen elsewhere in this wide field, presents a double 
problem. In the first place, there is a new class to 
whom the Gospel must be given. In the case of Fiji the 
Australasian Methodist Missionary Society has supplied 
the necessary forces, establishing not only a station for 
work among these Hindu coolies, but also a mission in 
the part of South India from which they mostly come, with 
a view to raising up native workers who will be evangelists 
to their own people in Fiji. 

But there is a second danger in this new tide of immigra- 
tion and intercourse. Hitherto Christianity has had no 
serious rival, but the presence of such large masses of 
Hindus is bringing an assimilating influence to bear upon 
the Fijian themselves." The establishment of European 
governments, protectorates, or spheres of influence is also 
modifying the conditions of missionary work. It is 
encouraging to note that for the most part the Governors 
of the islands have borne testimony to the value of the 
missions and regarded their efforts with sympathy and 
appreciation. The establishment of the French Pro- 
tectorate of East Polynesia and New Caledonia has not, 
however, been favourable to the cause of missions. 
Almost all the islands had been occupied by Protestant 
missions before the French occupation, and the Society 
Islands were akeady largely Christianised. Under French 
rule, Protestant missions find themselves thwarted and 
hindered. Fortunately the Paris Missionary Society has 
come to the rescue in a truly generous way, and saved 
existing Churches from utter destruction. The im- 
portance and urgency of this matter may be gauged from 
the fact that the aggregate number of natives under 
French rule in the South Seas is about 80,000. 

The future of Oceania is impossible to forecast. The 
physical conditions are varied, but, generally speaking, 
these islands of the seas are singularly attractive. They 


are capable of immense developments, and already there 
are signs that the old order is changing. It is imperative 
that the native populations should be completely won for 
Christ before the great testing time of advancing com- 
merce arrives. These peoples have given abundant proof 
of high spiritual power and supreme devotion to their 
J ^ Lord. They present a new aspect of the great_raciai 
V problem, for^ewjiative races have entered upon the un- 
conscious conflict with civilised peoples under more 
favourable conditions. It remains for the Church of 
Christ to ensure that those conditions should not only 
continue but improve. 


It is difficult to determine the relative importance of 
mission fields, since every nation or group of nations can 
make so strong a claim that the final estimate depends 
largely on the force with which the facts are presented or 
on personal inclinations. Three points stand out clearly 
with reference to India, however, which give it a unique 
place : 

1. Looking at the religious history of mankind as a 
whole, only two regions have been able to produce those 
religious systems which now include three-quarters of the 
human race : the Levant through the numerically small 
Semitic race in its Jewish and Arab branches, and the 
great peninsula of India through the Indian race. Apart 
from the Jewish people whose political history has been 
exceedingly chequered, there is no great nation or group 
of nations except India, the whole life and being of which 
have been dominated by religious interests. There are 
religious rules for every step of life from birth to death.__ 
The Brahmans have from time immemorial exerted an 
enormous influence both social and religious over the 
people of India. The history of India, political, literary, 
architectural, and social, is the history of its religious life. 
If this " people of religion " (Religionsvolk) is won for 
Christ one of the main strongholds of non-Christian forces 
will be conquered. 

2. The Indian civilisation is Aryan in its type and in 
its dominating influences. The great races of northern 
India belong to the same stock as the Anglo-Saxon and 
the German, but were separated from them at least 4000 
years ago, and have developed along widely different 




lines. The Western branch by a gracious Providence 
has long been under the influence of the Gospel. The 
Eastern branch, just as talented and promising as the 
Western, has been left alone and has developed an 
intricate, seemingly chaotic, system of religious belief. 
Now the more fortunate Western branch comes back to 
its counterpart and brings to it the blessings which have 
made it rich, and in coming near it feels the relationship 
of common deep-rooted tendencies and under-currents. 

3. This vast empire is the greatest trust given by God 
to any Christian nation. Clearly the deepest reason for 
this gracious responsibility is that the Kingdom of Christ 
may be established in India. It is Britain's greatest 
responsibility ; and is likewise the great opportunity for 
the Christian Churches of all parts of the world. 


In reviewing the mission field of India it is not the 
intention to enlarge on those general features of Indian 
missions which have so often been discussed. We merely 
give a rapid sketch of them to serve as a basis for what 
follows. Missionary work in India is largely influenced 
by the peculiar characteristics of the country from the 
point of view of ethnography, social conditions, and 
language. Each of these presents a wide range 
of variety in a field which is not one country, but 
a continent as large as Europe, excluding Russia. Its 
peoples differ in race, in language, in creed, in custom, 
; injtemperament as widely as the various nations of 
\Europe. Its population embraces one-fifth of the human 
race. Under such conditions exact generalisation is 
almost impossible, and all that can be attempted is an 
outline of the more prominent features and a brief 
summary of those points of difference which call for 
special attention as factors in the problem of evan- 

I. Ethnography. The 294,361,056 inhabitants of India 
are divided with the exception of the remnants of 

INDIA 137 

aboriginal tribes and of invading races into three great 
families which present distinct missionary problems. 
The north is occupied, generally speaking, by the Indo- 
Aryan races, the bearers of India's religion and civilisa- 
tion ; they are the representatives of the intellectual life 
of the country ; they have produced the sacred Sanskrit 
literature, the epics of the Ramayana and Mahabharata, 
and the pantheistic philosophy of Brahmanism. They 
are everywhere on a comparatively high level of civilisa- 
tion, are firmly consolidated by the system of caste and 
by the spiritual rule of the Brahmans, and ofier, as a rule, 
determined resistance to Christianity. 

The south of India is occupied by a second great and 
widely distributed family, the peoples of Dravido-Munda 
origin, forming as to language, though not ethnographic- 
ally, two distinct groups. In this great family the decisive 
feature is the degree to which they have assimilated Indo- 
Aryan civilisation. Many peoples have become entirely 
Aryan in language and thought, and have therewith ceased 
to be Dravidian, Other great and intellectually important 
races, such as the Tamil, the Telugu, and the Malayalam, 
have, whilst maintaining their racial individuality and 
their language, appropriated Aryan civilisation to a great 
extent, but have in part developed it along independent 
lines. Other tribes or sections of the population have 
remained on a low level of civilisation, some, for example 
the mountain and forest tribes, having withdrawn into 
the jungles of the mountainous districts, whilst others 
have become incorporated with the social system as 
members of the lowest castes or as forming the great mass 
of outcastes. The general tendency of these undeveloped 
Dravidian peoples is in the direction of progress. Wher- 
ever they come into contact with higher forms of civilisa- 
tion, the desire to advance awakes within them. The 
history of missions in India has been profoundly influenced 
by these vague aspirations after progress on the part of 
the Dravido-Munda races, and they have been the cause 
of its most important and far-reachmg developments. 

The third great family is that of the Tibeto-Burmese 


races, a great variety of tribes and peoples of the most 
varied degrees of civilisation, occupying Burma, Assam, 
and a large portion of Bengal. The most advanced 
of these are the ^urmese, who for many centuries 
have, in matters of civilisation, been under the influence 
- of the cognate races of China. A great many tribes are, 
however, on a low level of civilisation, and since coming 
into contact with European culture have shown an 
astonishing inclination toward Christianity, so that great 
hopes are entertained of them from a missionary point of 
view. Such are the Karens, and the Garo, Khasi, and 
Naga tribes. 

2. Social Conditions. As regards social position the 
masses in India may again be roughly divided into three 
groups. There are the loosely organised clans of the hill 
and forest tribes, whose primitive social conditions form no 
great obstacle to the advance of Christianity, and place 
no particular difficulties in the way of those who embrace 
the Christian religion. On the other hand there are the 
sixty-four and one-third millions of Mohammedans, to 
whose religion the system of caste is, properly speaking, 
in direct opposition, and who have in a large measure 
resisted its influences. The opposition of Indian 
Mohammedanism to Christianity proceeds, however, not 
from the conditions of social life but from their religion. 
In the third place we have the two hundred million 
Hindus, more or less held together by the social 
order caste. It permeates the entire life of the Indo- 
Aryan races, and of the Dravidian peoples in so far as they 
have assimilated the culture of these races, and it holds 
these peoples in a grip of iron. Caste is universally 
Z acknowledged to be the strongest bulwark of Hinduism, 
and the greatest obstacle to the spread of Christianity. It 
is an undeniable fact that the steady advance of Western 
y^ civilisation on every hand is slowly but surely undermining 
^ ' the caste system ; the process is slow but the results are 
^ plain and immistakable. Missionary work can, however, 

as yet reckon but little with it, and that only in the large 
towns and great centres of traffic. 

INDIA 139 

3. Languages^. The 147 languages of India are a serious 
difficulty in missionary work. There are, it is true, 
large populations with a uniform language, in which 
even differences of dialect are not very strongly marked. 
For instance, nearly forty-five millions speak Bengali, 
more than twenty millions Telugu, eighteen millions 
Marathi, seventeen millions Punjabi, sixteen millions 
Tamil, ten millions Kanarese, while Hindi in one or 
other of its forms is the language of over eighty millions 
more. There are missions, accordingly, which have to 
deal chiefly with but one language and one race of people. 
Still the multiplicity of languages is a difficulty which 
has to be faced in many districts. Almost ever5rvvhere 
in the towns and great centres of traffic there is a veritable 
confusion of tongues. Even some societies which work 
like the Basel Mission and the Gossner Mission, 
in comparatively circumscribed areas, have to deal 
with from four to six different languages. English 
is indispensable for all missionaries and must, therefore, 
be learned by those to whom it is not familiar. Then 
there are districts such as Burma, the hill countries 
of Assam, and the broad belt of the Himalayan 
valleys, where the diversity of languages is even greater. 
Since the climatic conditions of most parts of India 
are exceedingly trying for a newcomer, and since the 
young missionary, through pressure of work, is often 
obliged very early to take his place among the workers* 
it is not surprising that many are satisfied with an^-- 
imperfect knowledge of the language, and that the j ^^ AmA- 
knowledge of religions, folklore, and the^likg_ig much / "^^^ 
neglected. ~ *** 

Again and again in recent missionary literature the 
complaint is made that the knowledge of languages 
among the average missionaries is decreasing. And 
yet mission work in India TF confronted by important 
tasks demanding a thorough mastery of them. They are 
in the main of a twofold nature. On the one hand, there 
is the necessity for providing in the many languages of India 
an elenientary Christian literature, which shall help to 


lay the foundation of the new civilisation of the people 
or tribe. On the other hand, a most important task in the 
present condition of missionary work in India is that of 
creating for the native churches and by means of the lan- 
guages of the educated classes a Christian literature which 
shall suffice for the educational and devotional needs -^^ 
of church and school and also for apologetic purposes 
in the propagation of the Gospel. Leading mer are 
convinced that this fundamental task, so essential to the 
healthy development of the native Church, cannot be 
accomplished unless in each language area at least one 
missionary with adequate native help devotes himself 
entirely to this work. 


We must now concentrate our attention on three move- 
ments which characterise the })resent situation, namely, 
the influx of Western intellectual culture, nationalism, 
J/ and the revival of the Indian religions. These movements 
_J{ii I oftenjnteract upon each other. They are all of long stand- 
ing, but to-day they present new aspects and have new 
significance. To these may be added as a fourth move- 
ment, though of limited extent, 5'et of distinct promise, 
the Christian revivals which have happily been multi- 
plying in recent years. 

I. Influx of IV cistern Culture. The main channels 
through which Western culture has found its way into the 
Indian people areT'(i) lousiness ; (2) railways, the post, the 
telegraph, the steamship ; (3) the work of the British 
/ , Government, especially its action in the matter of justice, 
in philanthropy, and its desire to treat all men as equals ; 
(4) education ; (5) missions. 

These five causes are effective in bringing Western 
science, method, and thought to bear on the Indian 
people, but they vary greatly in efficiency. They are 
here arranged in ascending order so as to show what 
seems to be their relative force. The common people 

INDIA 141 

alljDver the land feel the effect of the first three, although 
in many outlying districts the influence must be slight. 
The fourth produces very powerful effects indeed, but 
only upon those who actually pass through the schools 
and colleges. We must also distinguish very carefully 
between vernacular education and English education ; 
for the latter produces immeasurably greater results 
than the former. The last is by far the most efficient 
instrument of them all, since it influences men through 
their moral and spiritual faculties ; but the action of 
this cause has very definite limits. First of all, we 
must recognise that Christian influence has made itself 
very distinctly felt wherever English education has '^^ 
gone : the class who have received an English education 
iT a conductor of Christian influence everywhere, whether 
voluntarfly or involuntarily. Apart from this class, 
Christian influence is very sporadic. Among the common 
people it is felt only where the missionary has gone. 
There are vast tracts of the country as yet absolutely 

Apart from nationalism and the various religious 
revivals, perhaps the most noteworthy by-product of 
Western culture in India at present is a widespread 
social ferment. Each of the leading classes of Hindus, ^ 
an3~many of the lower orders also, have begun to hold 
gatherings in which social problems are discussed and 
many reforms ^proposed. The same influence is visible 
among Mohammedans, Buddhists, Jains, and Parsis. ^" 

It may be~ added that though there are accompaniments 
of the influx of civilisation which just at present seem to 
act as impediments to missionary work, in a general 
way it must be stated that the introduction of Western 
culture into India has created an atmosphere favourable 
to the reception of Christianity. Not only have the 
crude and erroneous conceptions lying at the base of 
Hinduism been paralysed by the light of Western science, ^ 
but Christian ideas and ideals are percolating through the 
whole religious thinking of India. Hence Bishop Lefroy 
pf Lahore is undoubtedly right in saying : " Of this we 


may be certain, that_iin]ess at the present time, while 
almost everything is in solution, and the direction largely 
undetermined, Christianity really enters in as a potent 
factor, able in greater or less degree to exercise that 
commanding influence which is hers by right, if only she 
is given a chance ; and if the new life of India is allowed 
to set and take sliape and form, independently of her 
influence, then for generations to come the door to 
advance will be fast-barred to a degree of which we 
have hitherto had no experience whatever." 

2. Nationalism. The movement in India attracting 
most^aHenliorrat the present moment is Nationalism. This 
new spirit has its natural basis inxa^cjal solidarity and in love 
of country. It has been quickened into consciousness 
largely through Western education and development, 
and has received a fresh impetus from the reports of 
Japanese progress and success. Though excellent if 
rightly guided, it may become a great danger to the peace 
of the country, if directed into wrong channels, as when it 
is exploited by anarchist_leaders for their own ends. All 
kinds of valual^le developments are expected from the 
strengthening of this national spirit. The^jiational 
spirit recognises the necessity of removing all divisive 
;^ influences7'anttt!nhsting all i^ifting aii J unifying forces. 
Therefore it is condemning and discarding caste, which 
has been the principal obstacle to Christian teaching and 
Christian profession. Mr. Sherwood Eddy points out 
that "The national movement in India, while in its first 
effect stron gly anti-Christian and anti-foreign, and a 
hindrance to the progress of the Gospel, will in tinie tend 
to abolish caste, hasten reform, and prepare India for a 
more rapid .response to_ Christianity. Already it is 
effecting a new dream of national un ity, a new passion for 
h political liberty, a new enthusiasm for popular education, 
a new desire for social and religious reform, and a new 
ant ago nism to caste and the enthralling abuses of Hindu- 
ism." Therefore warning voices are raised against a 
harsh attitude toward the movement. The Rev. W. E. S. 
Holland well urges that "It cannot but demand our 

INDIA 14^ 

synipathy. We must franklA^share the IijiiiaiL's. ambition 
for his own people. In God's hands it may be our 
mightiest leverage to lift India to Jesus Christ." 

At present, however, we hear from all parts of 
India that hand in hand v/ith the anti-British current 
of feeling goes a strong anti- foreign prejudice which - 
has grown perceptibly during the past five years. 
Much of this feeling is very vague and unreasoning,^^/ 
and yet, until circumstances so change as^'To fender " 
racial _preju.dice less intense, the missionary will find 
hmiself and his message at a disadvantage. The 

political spirit has engendered a deep suspiciorL_of 

jthe^WfiSt, and this suspicion has deepened into a race 
antagonism, and this racial antagonism is closely connected 
with everything that comes from the West. It is natural 
that our faith, which has come to them from the West, 
should be a point of^tack. It is now the conviction of 
many that everything Oriental, including their faith, 
must be conserved at all hazards, and everything Occi- ^ ^' 
dental, including Christianity, must be withstood to the '^"' 
uttermost. It is said that both the Ar5^as and the Moslems 
in the Punjab are using every effort to prevent parents 
from sending their children to mission schools, or allowing 
Christian W'omen to enter their homes. Again, there has 
been a similar boycott of Christian literature, even of 
school-books. Booksellers will refuse to handle anj'thing 
known to be specially Christian. Members of school-book 
committees will decline to approve a text-book if it bears 
any suggestion of Christian thought ; a single sentence 
has been sufficient to condemn even a geography. 

In the liveliest colours Pandita Ramabai describes the 
opposition to missionary work which arises out of the 
Swadeshi movement in varying strength in different 
parts of India : " The Swadeshi Movement . . . has 
for one of its objects the opposition of the Christian 
religion as a foreign religion. The agents of the Swadeshi 
movement are printing a vast amount of literature 
which is greatly opposing Christianity and corru^pting the 
thoughts of the people. They are spreaHing tKis literature 


all over the country. They are preventing their children 
from going to Christian schools, and teaching them to 
hate Christianity and the Christians with all their heart. 
They are trying to keep themselves and their children 
away from Christianity and Christians by putting such 
people out of their caste as would work for, or with, 
Christians. This last course is adopted to a greater 
extent in villages than in the cities. The agents of the 
Swadeshi movement employ lecturers to go over the 
c^ntitry especially to the places of pilgrimage to create 
misunderstanding about and hatred toward Christians. 
The organisation of opposition bands to the Christian 
preaching bands is the order amongst them. What is 
worst of all is that their agents are trying to corrupt 
thoughts and work out ill-feeling towards Christianity 
among women and children and low-caste people." 

The fact and influence of this national spirit must be 
kept in mind in shaping our plans and hopes for a 
speedy evangelisation of India. In spite of strong 
sympathy with the deeper tendencies of the movement, 
we must recognise that at least for the present it will 
be a distinctly retarding movement. Perhaps it 
will influence in some degree the method of 
preaching. It will be wise in presenting the claims of 
Christianity to India to make prominent the superhuman 
and world-embracing character of the Gospel. 

3. Revival of Indian Religions. Closely allied with this 
national movement are the older, but at the present day 
more or less conspicuous, endeavours to revive or adapt 
the Indian religions. Thus in the Hindu sphere we have 
the Bharat Dharma Mahamandal and Mrs. Besant's 
propaganda, the Arya Samaj, Neo-Sikhism, and number- 
less minor societies ; in Mohammedanism, the New 
^ Islam of Sir Sayyid Ahmad and his Anglo-Orieirtal 
College at Aligarh, containing, though strongly tinged 
with rationalism, many Christian elements ; the fantastic 
charlatanism of the ambitious adventurer (the late) 
Ghulam Ahmad of Qadian ; and the various forms of 
Babism imported from Persia and similar movements 

INDIA 145 

amongst Buddhists and Zoroastrians. Three points are 
characteristic of these movements : 

(i) The Rev. Herbert Anderson writes : " There is no 
greater danger to the success of our enterprise tlian the / 
desire of the leaders of non-Christian faiths to assimilate , - 
Christian truth and claim Christ for their own systems-^ / ?^'*s= 
an addition that can Be ihade without radically altering -'i. 
the creed or conduct of those who accept Him. There -^ i.y, 
was a Parliament of Religions held in Calcutta a short 
time ago at which papers were read by exponents of 
many religious systems. Mohammedan, Hindu, and 
Buddhist exponents all claimed for their respective 
systems that the fatherhood of God and the brother- 
hood of men are the fundamental doctrines of their 
faiths." 1 '"" "~ 

(2) Moreover, we find that t hese Hin dus are quick to 
learn our Christian methods of religious propagandism. /^-^ 
They are meeting our methods by imitating them in 
the interests of their own faith. They send out street 
preachers who give themselves largely to antagonising 
Christianity rather than to promulgating their own 
doctrines. They publish tracts ; they have their Tract 
Society ; they have their Young Men's Hindu Associa-'' 
tion and various other organisations patterned after 
CHristian activities. In their tracts to-day Ingersoll 
and Bradlaugh are extensively quoted against our faith, 
and the most bitter and absurd arguments against 
Christianity which these infidels ever indulged have 
been translated into the vernaculars, and have been 
disseminated even in the villages of India. The syste- 
matic^introduction of European infidel literature and its 
distribution in the public free libraries, and also the 
spreading of the results of destructive criticism in tracts 
and pamphlets especially amongst the students, all 
work in the same direction. 

^ For remarkable evidences of this partial assimilation of Chris- 
tian truth in movements apparently openly hostile to Christianity, 
see the essay of the Rev. J. Frohnmeyer, lie. theol., in Warneck's 
Allgem. Miss. Zeitschr., 1909, 397 ff. 

COM. I. 10 


(3) Theosophy is another hindrance to the ac- 
ceptance of the Christian religion ; by its subtle in- 
geniiity and plausible casuistry it tends to produce in 
the mind of the educated Indian the belief that he has 
no need of Christianity. It may be added that the 
European press in India itself partly endorses this wrong 

Missionary leaders will watch these religious movements 
with interest. They are significant far beyond their 
present and temporary strength. They show that the 
old stagnation in Indian life is past, that the leaven is 
at work, and that strong rehgious forces are awakening 
in the hidden life of Hinduism. 

4. X^iristian_Revivah. Down to within a few years 
there were in India but few remarkable manifestations 
of the outpouring of God's Spirit. Mass movements 
towards Christianity took place, but they were not 
generally accompanied by marked demonstrations of 
spiritual emotion. Seldom were seen strong evidences 
of deep penitence or ecstatic joy. A missionary, writing 
as late as the year 1895, says, " We have had no Pente- 
costal outpouring where individuals exhibited profound 
conviction of sin and strong love for the Saviour, or where 
the hearers seemed to be swayed hither and thither by 
the irresistible impulse of a Superior Presence." But 
recently there have been marked spiritual developments. 
In the winter of 1895-96 a revival of extraordinary power 
began in the American United Presbyterian Mission of 
the Punjab, which has from that day to this continued 
with unabated force. Manifesting itself in various 
stations and forms, it reveals its best-known and most 
striking characteristics every year in what is called the 
" Sialkot Convention," where large numbers of mis- 
sionaries, Indian ministers, lay workers, and church 
members from missions near and far (some from a dis- 
tance of 1200 to 1500 miles) meet together for prayer, 
instruction, exhortation, and praise, and where scenes 
occur similar to those which appeared in Jerusalem on 
the Day of Pentecost. 


In Assam and especially in the Khasi Hills among 
the adherents of the Welsh Calvinistic Mission a condition 
in some respects still more remarkable has also existed 
for several years. So, too, Jubbulpore in the Central 
Provinces has become a centre of widespread spiritual 
effort and life. Further south, near Poona, in the Mukti 
School of Pandita Ramabai, a spiritual movement having 
extraordinary features of its own began several years ago 
and has continued to bear fruit since. 

These outpourings of divine grace have had a pow^erful 
influence on almost every class_ of ^Christians in the 
neighbourhood, elevating them to a higher plane of 
religious life, leading them to a more diligent use of the 
means of grace, increasing the practice of tithe-giving, 
developing pastoral self-support, stimulating work among 
non-Christians, and resulting in large additions to the 
Church. It is expected that such movements will 
multiply and spread to other parts of India. 


From the point of view of missionary work the people 
of India fall into five great distinct groups. 

I. The Fifty Millions of the Depressed Classes. The 
first group is formed by the fifty millions of " depressed 
classes," outcastes and those of the lowest castes, some 
of whom as regards culture are scarcely on a higher 
level than the pagan tribes of Central Africa. Their 
mental faculties have been blunted by long centuries 
of oppression and servile bondage, and they live in 
aj^ject terror of evil spirits. 

On the other hand it is coming to be more and more 
clearly recognised that the changed conditions in politics, 
commerce, and means of communication have the effect 
of rendering the lower classes, and especially the 
outcastes, more susceptible to the influence, not 
only of Christianity, but also and in a still larger 
measure of Hinduism, even in tribes and classes 
of the population which have hitherto held aloof. 


Among the Namasudras, a tribe in Eastern Bengal, 

2,000,000 strong, 'a social ferment is in progress, and 

Brahmos, Mohammedans, and Christians are all hoping 

for large accessions from the movement. It is said that 

the 800,000 low castes in the mission field of the American 

Presbyterian Church in the Punjab arejikely to become 

^ Mohammedans if not Christianised- The Santals also 

J are in a state of transition. They have kept themselves 

aloof from others even to the extent of moving whenever 

their freedom was threatened. But there is no doubt 

that they are being transformed by extraneous influences, 

both religious and social, especially from the side of the 

Hindus. Their former honesty and integrity, truthful- 

?/^/ ness, and uprightness, are not what they were ; they are 

adopting the grotesque and worst sides of the Hindu 

Hfe and religion, because they come most in contact 

with the lowest strata. The lower form of Hinduism, 

with the worship of Durga, Kah, and Siva and its 

^ sensuality and dishonesty, is distinctly creeping in. 

Perhaps the feature in the evangelistic situation, as 
it affects the depressed classes, which is at present 
attracting greatest attention, is the great^mass move- 
ments, which are either just beginning or are in full 
progress in several mission fields. Their significance 
is most strongly emphasised by the Bishop of Madras : 
"The main fact which ought, I think, to determine 
the use we make of the forces at our disposal in India 
at the present day is that there are 50,000,000 people 
in India who are quite ready to receive the Gospel 
message, to put themselves under Christian teaching 
and discipline, and to be baptized ; and that, if a prompt, 
aggressive, and adequate campaign were carried on 
among them, it would be quite possible to gather some- 
thing hke 30,000,000 of them into the Christian Church 
during the next fifty years, to raise them morally, spiritu- 
ally, and socially from the state of degradation and 
servitude in which Hinduism has kept them for the last 
two thousand years, and to furnish to the whole people of 
India, especially to the educated classes, a most powerful 

INDIA 149 

witness for the truth and power of the Christian faith. . . . 
At the same time, there is a real danger lest, if the 
Christian Church neglects this splendid opportunity now, 
it should pass away. . . . An aggressive and adequate 
campaign for the conversion and elevation of the pariahs 
throughout India would involve also an aggressive 
campaign among the whole of the village population 
of India, amounting to ninety per cent, of the population 
of all India. The pariahs live in every single village of 
India, and the experience we have had of a large mass 
movement among the pariahs in the Telugu country 
shows that it produces a striking effect upon the Sudras, 
and renders them far more accessible than before to 
the preaching of the Gospel. . . . My points are that 
the conversion of some thirty million of the depressed 
classes of India to Christianity within the next fifty 
years is a p erfectly pr acticable ..ideal to aim, at ; that 
the moral and social elevation of this large section of the 
population will be a marvellous witness to the truth 
of Christianity ; that the conversion of the pariahs 
will have a striking influence for good upon the whole 
of the village population ; and that this great work ought 
to have the foremost place in the campaign of the Chris- 
tian Church in India during the next half-century." 

Practically the whole of this vast mass of humanity 
is Dravidian in origin. Religiously, they fall into two 
groups, according as they have been Hinduised or not. 
Even those, however, who are recognised as Hindus 
have been so httle altered by this connection that they 
may be taken along with their Animist brethren. They 
are really one group ; for they are equal in their 
ignorance, their poverty, their degradation, and their 
superstition with those ; the same general type of 
mission is suitable for them all, whether they be classed 
as Animist or Hindu, and whatever part of India they 
may^belong to. The type of work which has hitherto 
been successful among them is the evangelisation and -Co 
education which have produced the mass movements 
referred to above. 


The chief question as jT'et undecided amongst 
missJonaries with regard to this kind of work is, whether 
these men and women should be baptized as soon as 
they are wilhng to receive baptism, or whether there 
should be delay until they give proof of Christian faith 

2. The One Hundred and Sixty Millions of Hindus. 
Hinduism, represents an immensely varied and multi- 
form system, ranging from the philosophy of the Vedas 
to the grotesque and uncouth superstition of the Puranas 
and Tantras and the devil-worship of the lowest castes, 
the outcastes, and the hill tribes, and presents ever new 
problems of missionary work. 

Between the extremes the educated and the depressed 
lie the two great classes v/hich represent the backbone 
and the strength of the Indian nation, viz. the uneducated 
Brahma ns, and, closely allied with them, the millions 
of middle-class folk of all. castes engaged in agriculture 
and business. The Brahmans feel that their position is 
at stake, and are often very hostile, but the common 
people are a simple folk, and need not be hard to win. 
Vast multitudes, however, have never come within 
effective reach of the Gospel at all. The rigid Brahmans, 
on the other hand, in many districts withdraw themselves 
from every outside influence, whether missionary or 

These classes of the artisan and merchant castes 
coffespond to the middle classes of Europe. Whereas, 
however, in Europe these classes stand for progress, 
liberalism, and modern thought, in India they are still 
rigidly conservative, and the guardians of tradition. 
It is something quite new that in the Telugu district 
in connection with the movement among the Malas 
several thousand Sudras have embraced Christianity, 
and that thus a kind of mass movement has begun 
amongst the Sudras. 

The solid mass of Hindu people here grouped together 
belong to many various races. They are also broken 
up into thousands of groups by the caste system, and 
are further redistributed into innumerable parties 

INDIA 151 

according to the sect or subdivision of Hinduism which 
they follow. All these varieties of social and religious 
grouping are significant for missionary work, and must 
be taken into consideration in the formation of detailed 
plans ; yet for a survey such as is attempted in this j. 
Report these many millions of Indians are to be taken 
as one homogeneous mass. They have three large 
common features which mark them off from all other 
peoples in the whole world, and which have to be seriously 
faced in all attempts at their evangelisation 

(i) They are the product of Hindu family life, Hindu 
customs and caste ; and their training has produced a 
deeply marked and conservative character. (2) They are 
steeped in Hindu thought, culture, and belief. (3) They 
are proud of their old ancestry, religion, and civilisa- 
tion, and fortified in their dense ignorance and their 
satisfaction with things as they are. 

But, as already indicated, solven t. influences are at ^l^j 
work among them. Very noticeable and encouraging is 
the change which is steadily taking place in the gradual 
loosening of the restraints and conventions which have 
hitherto kept the women of India secluded, illiterate, 
and, as a home influence, intensely conservative. This 
emancipation has awakened in them a thirst for learning. 
According to the census of igoi only one out of 144 
Indian women is able to read ; and even this rate is 
not reached in large districts of India ; in Assam 
it falls to three per thousand, in the Central Indian 
Agency, Berar, the Punjab, and Haidarabad to still less. 
Protestant missions have the honour of having been 
pioneers in the education of girls, and for a long time they 
alone shared the field with the Government. The change 
referred to seems to be in progress in many circles of the 
population. There is a strong desire among the men for 
the education of their daughters, sisters, and wives, and 
the women are generally ready to be taught. This has 
led the Government to take initial steps to meet this 
demand for education in the homes of the upper classes on 
a non-religious basis by sending out zenana teachers. The 


women of India of the various castes are awakening to a 
sense of need and opportunity. They are seeking educa- 
tion for themselves, and are meeting in conventions for 
improvement and self-assertion. Here a wide field is 
being opened up for the work of women missionaries, and it 
is not surprising that from all the mission fields the call 
comes for a great increase in the number of lower and 
higher grade schools for girls. 

3. The Sixty Millions of Mohammedans. Mohammedans 
regard Christianity with contempt as an antiquated 
religion which AUah has set aside and replaced by Islam. 
Moreover, they are proud of the tradition of their splendid 
day of supremacy in India and their claim to the dominion 
of the world. The remarkable, though widely diverging, 
relofin fnovements in Indian Mohammedanism are 
evidences that beneath the seemingly lifeless surface of 
Islam there are j^et processes of~fennent"ation going on. .?' 
It is the general impression that missions in India have 
hitherto sadly neglected the Mohammedans. In Southern 
India a few missionaries only have been specially set apart 
for this work. In Northern India special work amongst 
them is carried on only in the Punjab, in the Frontier 
Provinces, and in the United Provinces, where alone 
(except in Eastern Bengal) they are found in great 
numbers. In this large district, missions to the Moham- 
medans have the advantage that the majority of 
the missionaries live in the towns, where Urdu, the 
language of the educated Indian Moslems, is spoken. 

The Mohammedans of India are of many races, Aryan, 
Dravidian, Turanian, Mongol ; but within Mohammedan- 
ism race _is_a_small, matter when balanced against faith. ^ 
TKere is one large fact, however, which has to be taken 
into consideration in dealing with Indian Mohammedanism, 
and that is this, that in certain parts of the country, 
especially in Bengal, Hinduism has exerted such a 
powerful influence that Mohammedans observe caste 
and also worship many of the local Hindu idols. In 
dealing with this type of ignorant Mussalman missionary 
methods may well be modified. 

INDIA 153 

4. The Ten Millions of Buddhists. These people are 
practically all inhabitants of Burma, and are all Mongo- 
loid. They fall into two groups so distinctly as to 
require to be separately dealt with, the pure Burmans, 
and other tribes less cultured and less under the 
domination of Buddhism. 

5. The One Million of English-Speaking People. We 
turn now to that class of Hindus and Mohammedans, 
about one million in number (mainly Hindus), who, 
by means of the Anglo-Indian system of education, 
have acquired a more or less complete degree of Western 
culture, and read English literature and newspapers. 
They are_ of the greatest importance to the future of 
India, forming as they do the connecting link between the 
British rulers and the mass of the Indian population, whilst 
from their ranks are recruited the great army of officials 
and the leaders of modern popular thought and action. 
Owing to their knowledge of the Enghsh language, and 
their access to the entire world of Engli?]i Uterature, 
they are comparatively easj^ to apprgach. There is an 
increasing number of earnest seekers after truth amongst 
them. The ambitions and place-hunting propensities of 
this class, however, are in many cases fatal to higher 
aspirations, and they are_exposed to the full force of the 
reactionary movements within Hinduism. The import- 
ance of work among this class is repeatedly urged by 
missionaries ; but it must be entrusted to thoroughly 
qualified^ men, who are in close touch with all the culture 
ofjLhfi^Vest and of the East.aJso. The urgent necessity is 
felt of studying more deeply and systematically than 
hitherto the highest forms of Hindu philosophy, with 
a view to apologetic work and to overcoming them from 
within by the spfrit and truth of Christianity. Many 
educated Indians still comfort themselves with the idea 
that the Christian missionaries have never yet under- 
stood or done justice to Hindu Pantheism At least a 
few prominent missionaries should devote themselves 
entirely to this apologetic work of overcoming the 
Pantheism of India. 


This most interesting class of men is drawn from all 
the races, all the reUgions, and all the provinces of India ; 
yet their English education has exercised such a com- 
manding influence over their minds that for missionary 
purposes they have to be considered, at first, as homo- 
geneous. It has been found possible for the same men 
to deal with educated men of different religions. The 
differences between the three great rehgions of India 
Hinduism, Mohammedanism, and Buddhism are so 
great that it would certainly be an advantage if there 
could be specialists for each ; but the men are so scattered 
throughout India, and the races are so mixed in each 
of the larger centres, that it is scarcely possible to form 
any plan whereby the inner groups might be separately 
dealt with, except in the presidency towns. Far more 
important for the purposes of this survey is the dis- 
tinction between those who are students in missionary 
colleges or high schools, and all the rest, students and 

Students in missionary institutions receive Scripture 

'l^ teaching regularly. They thus stand out from all other 

^ , sections of the educated classes as being under direct 

1? I h Christian influence from day to day. The two groups 

will be considered separately. 

(i) Students in Missionary Institutions. Perhaps 5000 
out of the 25,000 students in colleges in India, and 
100,000 out of the 700,000 boys in high schools, are 
in missionary institutions. There are 37 mission colleges 
and hundreds of mission high schools in India. 

There are a few cities still left in India where there 
ought to be mission colleges, and there are many openings 
for high schools, but the present trend of opinion is in 
favour of concentration rather than expansion. Many 
mission colleges are still undermanned, and there is a 
pitiable lack of hostel accommodation everywhere. 
The following needs ought to be supplied at once : 

{a) More educational missionaries to fill up the teaching 

(6) Funds for hostels. 

INDIA 155 

(c) One man for each college to do a minimum of 
teaching and spend all the rest of his time in personal 

(2) All English-Speaking Indians, minus the Students 
in Mission Colleges. Tliis class falls into three groups : 
(.?) Students in Government colleges ; (6) students in 
native colleges; (c) educated men beyond the student stage. 
Apparently the problem of how to bring the Gospel to ail 
Indian students has not 3'et been fully solved. For a 
long tim.e missions have devoted their chief attention to 
bringing strong influence to bear upon the students in the 
missionary colleges and schools. It would be difficult to 
exaggerate the results of the work done by these pioneers 
of higher education in India. Their influence can be 
traced in districts far removed from the centres in which 
these missionary colleges have been established. The 
student who returns to his native village or occupies 
an official position in some other district may not be an j 
open or even secret disciple of Christ, but his attitude 
tQ^A'ards Christianity has undergone a change, and many 
a missionary has unexpectedly found the way made more 
open for him through the influence of such a student. 
The vast mass of students in the Government, Hindu, 
and Mohammedan coheges are only beginning to 
be touched through the founding of hostels, through 
the work of the Young Men's Christian Association, 
and through other means. In order to reach more 
effectively this important section of the community. 
Christian hostels should be established in connection with 
every Government college, and earnest consideration 
should be given to the best methods of drawing non- 
Christian students to Christ. 

There is not much need to emphasise the importance 
of this class. Although in 1901 they numbered in all 
only 740,000, yet one may say that the whole country 
is in their hands ; for, apart from the influence of 
Europeans, they control everything in Government, : 
Education, Law, Medicine, the Press, and have a very 
large share in the land and the business of the country. L 


This large and most important class of students and 
more advanced men is altogether untouched by the work 
of the mission colleges, and comes, if possible, still less 
under the influence of the vernacular missionary. As 
yet these men have been reached mainly by two types of 
work : 

(a) In many places one finds a missionary'-, sometimes 
a man, sometimes a woman, engaged in vernacular 
work, who gives an hour or two each week to work 
among students and English-speaking men. Their work 
has frequently borne fruit in sincere conversion. 
There have been also a few missionaries who have been 
set apart by their societies to give their whole time to 
work among the educated classes. The Baptists have 
a European in Dacca, and a Bengalee in Calcutta. The 
Wesleyans and^ jhe Daiiish Lutherans have each a man 
in Madras. 

(b) The Young IMen's Christian Association has large 
buildings in several centres in which a very varied work 
is carried on by its secretaries among both students and 
ex-students. Similar work, but not so varied, is carried 
on in the associations in the small towTis and villages, 
in associations in colleges, and in branches for boys. 
Besides the local associations scattered over the country, 
the Young Men's Christian Association has a national 
union, and there are a group of secretaries engaged in 
national work. Apart from the help they give to the 
local associations, these secretaries hold special 

\l evangelistic meetings, camps for Christian students, 
and frequent conferences. They also produce literature 
for Bible study and mission study. 

There is one subsidiary method of great importance 
which ought not to be passed over, the production of 
Christian literature in English suited for the educated 
classes. More attention is now being given to writing 
than formerly, but it is very noteworthy that there is 
no single man in the whole of India set apart for the 
production of literature in English. Such a man is most 
seriously required. Most earnestly is the creation of a 

INDIA 167 

special literature in English recommended, by which 
the gulf between the old, perishing Hindu world and 
the new Christian era may be bridged. 


The replies to the question as to the adequate or 
inadequate occupation of the various fields take up 
a considerable space ; but the impression remains that 
the data given are insufficient for a comprehensive 
treatment of the question^ o\ving to their incompleteness 
and want of uniformityT'TTie Rev. H. Gulliford makes 
a valuabre~suggestion in the preamble of his paper : 
" The first thing that is necessary is to procure a large 
scale map of the country (the 'S urvey Ma p' of India, ^^ /-/ 
scale one mile to an inch, will do admirably) and to have 
marked on it every town and village where there are 
(i) a missionary, or the head station of a mission; (2) 
an evangelist or preacher ; (3) a mission school ; (4) 
an organised church ; (5) one or more families of 
Christians, A radius of so many miles should be allotted 
as the area which these persons and institutions can be 
expected to influence and evangelise. . . . This informa- 
tion can be secured only on the spot by a sub-commission 
specially appointed." ^ 

The statement made by missionaries that an increase 
of a certain number of missionaries, native agents, and 
institutions is necessary, is of little use unless accompanied 
by a view of the organisation of the mission in question. 
Each separate mission should, after careful consideration 
of the present needs and the contemplated extension of 
the work, draw up a programme in which convincing 
reasons are given for the desired increase. 2 A comparison ^^.''^ 

1 For the present the mobt rehable survey of the occupation of 
the Indian field is contained in the German book by H. Gundert, 
Ph.D., Evangelical Missions: their Countries, Peoples, and Work, 
4th ed., Calw& Stuttgart, 1903, pp. 277-413. 

2 Cf. Rev. N. Macnicol (United Free Church Mission, Poona). 
Careful papers of this kind form a solid basis for the deliberations 
of the missions in question. 


of these estimates would show whether it was worth while 
to add the resulting figures together. The Presbyterian 
Church of America has published such an estimate for 
all its mission fields. The Arcot Mission in South India 
has done the same for its own field. 

It may be mentioned, however, as indicating the great 
need of India as a whole, that the Decennial Conference 
held at Madras in 1902 adopted a resolution to the effect 
that on the lowest computation of the requirements of 
India the staff of missionaries should be increased four- 
fold. Further, in going through the papers on the point 
of missionary occupation the foremost impression made 
upon one's mind is the depressing conviction that by far the 
greater number of fields are completely undermanned. 
There are indeed some parts in which so many missions are 
planted that they overlap into each other's territories. But 
this is not the rule. Even in a city like Calcutta, which 
to all appearance is crowded with missionaries, there 
are large classes of the population which are not even 
touched by the present staff and with the present 
methods of work. As for larger districts, we quote only 
the statement of the Rev. H. Anderson with regard to 
the English Baptist Mission, which is typical of many 
Indian missions : " The foreign staff is altogether in- 
adequate. A leading missionary, writing of Bengal, in 
1902, said, ' There is not a single mission in any district 
which is not absolutely undermanned, and the process 
goes on every year of killing or invaliding missionaries on 
account of overwork.' The area covered is altogether too 
great for the staff employed. No plan or method appears 
to have actuatecl our Mission in the choice of its fields of 
labour, extending for 1500 miles from Simla to Berham- 
pur in the Madras Presidency. It was the policy of the 
founders of our Mission to occupy strategic centres, and 
that, doubtless, has something to do with the present 
sphere occupied. ... If there were other societies 
prepared with men and money to go and occupy some of 
these spheres, God-speed would be granted to them. . . . 
It is better to have a glimmer than darkness, appears to 

INDIA 159 

have been the principle of occupation, and hence the area H*^^ 
of our present influence is altogether too vast for adequate 
occupation. The problem of evangelisation has been made 
subservient to other problems that success has created. 
The gathering of churches in certain successful spheres has 
led to questions of self-support and self-propagation being 
raised, and the education problems of the Christian ^ 
communities have also arisen. It is one of the shibboleths 
of the modern home Church official that the Indian 
Church should support its own evangelistic agency, a 
shibboleth quite acceptable to the missionary force on 
the field with the addition of the corollary where 
there is an Indian Church strong enough to do it. But 
look at some of the figures : . . . Chittagong, 1,500,000 
people, 1500 Christians, two-thirds of whom are Catholics ; 
Dinajpur, 1,500,000 people, 179 Christians; Khulna, 
1,250,000 people, 1275 Christians. In vast spheres, 
among millions, there is no Christian Church capable of 
evangelising, and if we are to await its coming India 
cannot be won to Christ." 

The missionary literature of the last decade has thrown 
a vivid light upon the fact that in India quite apart 
from those fields in which the present missionary staff 
is insufficient for the accomplishment of the work begun 
in them there are vast districts which must be described 
as unoccupied, or not effectively occupied.^ 

We must here content ourselves with the general state- 
ment that large portions of the United Provinces, of 
Eastern Bengal, Chota Nagpur, Southern Assam, the 

1 " The Unoccupied Fields of India," by G. S. Eddy, Missionary 
Review, April, 1905 ; The Unoccupied Fields in Central India, 
pamphlet by Dr. J. Fraser Campbell ; Unoccupied Fields of 
Protestant Missionary Effort in Bengal, pamphlet by the Rev. H. 
Anderson ; The Unoccupied Fields in the United Provinces, 
pamphlet by J. J. Lucas based on this pamphlet ; the Rev. W. F. 
S. Holland. " Unoccupied Fields, United Provinces," C.M.S. 
Intelligencer, 1906, 576 ; Chap. xii. of India and Missions, by V. S. 
Azariah. Unoccupied Fields in Rajputand, by Rev. W. Bonnar. 
Some of the correspondents discuss in detail the results of these 
treatises {e.g. Miss E. A. Luce) and contribute valuable material 
from other districts (e.^;. Rev, F. Ilaliu on Chota Kagpur). 


hill forests of Burma, the Central Provinces and the 
Central Indian Agency, and, above all, the Native States, 
are absolutely undermanned. In many of the Native 
States, mission work is carried on under great difficulties. 
Two generations have passed away since the Mission 
began work in some of these sections, yet scarcely one- 
third of the population have had the Gospel made known 
to them. Very much more has still to be done if millions 
who have not even heard the Gospel are to be won for 


The Present Need. The correspondents are nearly all 
unanimous on three points : 

tJf I. The present occupation is totally inadequate. The 

, , missionary societies which are already at work and have 

" gained experience should expand their work to as great an 

extent as can be accomplished with thoroughness. 

2. Every method of the work should be carefully 
tested as to its practical efficiency. An instrument 
may be quite practical, but if used in the wrong place 
or on the wrong occasion it fails of its purpose. Industrial 
missions may be valuable in an organised Christian 
congregation, partly to provide honest work for the con- 
verts, partly to open up new branches of employment 
for those who, in consequence of their baptism, have been 
turned away by their employers, and also to provide a 
means of livelihood other than teaching for the rising 
generation of Christians. As a means of evangelisation, 
or of gaining converts, industrial missions are superfluous 
in India. Medical missions^ are without doubt of great 
value"; everywhere they are understood as a practical 
interpretation of the Gospel of love ; they are an invalu- 
able agency wherever thiere Is deep-rooted suspicion or 
malignant fanaticism to be overcome, as is almost every- 
where the case in Mohammedan districts and especially 
in North and North-West India. Medical work is an 
inestimable ally in the difficult_zenana work, wherever 


hospitals and nurses for women are not provided by the 
Government or by other agencies. But where there 
is an old-estabHshed and steadily developing Christian 
Church, where suspicion of Christianity and its foreign 
representatives has-been overcome, and medical aid 
is otherwise available, medical work may be largely 
dispensed with, at least as a means of carrying the Gospel 
to the non-Christians. It is plain to every student 
of Indian missions that there must be a great expansion 
of the valuable work of the Bible Societies, and that there 
must be much better provision for a Christian vernacular 

3. Many correspondents very earnestly point to the 
special function which the native Church has to perform 
in the great work of evangelising the Indian continent. 
It has been an almost universal complaint that missionary 
activity has been but imperfectly developed among the 
Christians of India. During the last decade there have 
been signs of more active missionary interest. After 
the Jaffna Students' Missionary Society, which carries 
on a modest work at Tondi in the Madura district, the 
Indian Missionary Society of Tinnevelly, organised in 
1903, was the first important attempt at independent 
work. The Tinnevelly Christians have a Gospel 
Festival Day, when the Gospel is preached by numerous 
voluntary workers in all the villages round ; besides 
this they are, by means of the Church Missionary Society, 
conducting work at Dornakal in the Nizam's Dominion 
of Haidarabad with six Tamil and twenty Telugu workers, 
and for this funds are contributed with increasing 
readiness last year (1909) nearly 10,000 Rs. In 1905 the 
National Missionary Society was organised, with its fields 
of labour in the Montgomery district of the Punjab, 
and in four other parts of India. The Church of the 
Irish Presbyterian Mission (the Presbytery of Kathiawar 
and Gujarat) also began a small independent mission in 
1908, and the churches of the Baptist Mission commenced 
work in a hill district near Independent Tipperah ; those 
of the Scottish Mission in Darjiling (Church of Scotland) 

/ I 


support several evangelists on the frontiers of Bhutan 
and Nepal. Such independent or semi-independent 
missionary endeavours of the native Churches have 
recently multiphed on all sides. Many individual 
Christians have also begun work on their own responsi- 
bility, e.g. Pandita Ramabai, Soonderbai Powar, Mrs. 
Sorabji and her daughter in and near Poona, the late 
Rev. Mathura Nath Bose in Bengal, whose work is now 
carried on by his sons and daughter. 

The attempts of the Indian Churches at independent 
missionary work are, of course, still in their infancy. 
Some of the leaders of the national movement are looking 
upon these efforts and their results as new factors to 
be reckoned with and as one form of Swadeshi enter- 
prise. Such efforts are the hope of the Indian Church 
and of India. They are to be welcomed by foreign 
workers in a spirit of sympathetic helpfulness, and 
with the prayer that they may multiply and become a 
mighty factor in the evangelisation of India. 

There are those who consider the time specially oppor- 
tune for an aggressive evangelistic advance aU along 
the line. It is believed that a well-planned campaign, 
having as its special aim the reaching of the educated 
classes with the plain definite message of the Gospel, 
would bear good fruit. It is generally admitted by 
educated men throughout India, that the best moral 
development is not being secured, and, indeed, cannot be 
secured, under existing conditions. While many Indians 
through racial pride or religious prejudice, or both, 
are unwilling to admit that their need in this respect 
can be met only by Christianity, there are undoubtedly 
those who are broad and generous enough to acknowledge 
that from Chri&tian sources alone can they expect fully 
to obtain the help they require, the moral reinforcement 
they need. In the enjoyment of their newly acquired 
privileges and widened opportunities for self-government, 
and reaching out, as they unquestionably are, after a 
fuller and more symmetrical life, it is not unreasonable 
to believe that they are in a mood which peculiarly in- 

INDIA 163 

vites that appeal to the deepest moral iiature of man which ^- -^y^.^^^ 
Christianity alone_can make. 

At no time have Indian missions been fruitless, and 
never has the situation been so rich in genuine encourage- 
ment as it is to-day. During the past half-century the 
advance of Christianity, even numerically, has been 
steadfast and practically unchecked. Each decade has 
shown at its close a Christian community more than 
one-half as large again as at its beginning. And the 
progress has been even greater intensively. While the 
Christian community has multiplied tenfold during half 
a century, the number of communicants has multiplied 
twentyfold, the number of ordained Indian ministers 
fortyfold, and the number of organised congregations, 
local centres of Christian worship and effort, two hundred- 
fold. Undoubtedly the obstacles to be overcome are 
enormous. In this survey they have not been minimised. 
But to the eye of faith they are not insurmountable. 
Already there is evidence that they are weakening under 
the influences of a new intellectual and moral atmosphere./^ 
which is the product mainly of Christianity. The results 
which can be measured in figures are only a portion of 
what the missionary enterprise has already achieved. 
Far and wide in numberless ways it has disseminated 
influences, awakened convictions, and kindled aspirations 
which are preparing the way of the Kingdom of Christ 
in India. The present hour is one of unprecedented 
opportunity. It is correspondingly one of tremendous 
responsibility for the Church of Christ. The crucial 
question is, Will the Church rise to its great task in 
India ? -- 


Although Ceylon is so near to India, and belongs geo- 
graphically and ethnologically to that continent, the 
island, from a political, social, and missionary point of view, 
has developed along independent lines. A line drawn from 
Negombo to the east coast would divide the population, 
roughly, into two groups, the northern one comprising 
Tamil Dravidians, the southern chiefly Singhalese Aryans, 
for the south of the island has for the last 2500 years been 
colonised and dominated socially and religiously by Aryans-;^ 
ffoin Northern India. The Tamil - speaking northern 
part of the island bears the same religious impress as the 
adjacent Southern India, except that here the system of 
caste is perhaps more along social and industrial than 
religious lines, as is the case in India. 

The Singhalese south is Buddhist, and whilst Buddhism 
there until about the year 1880 was inert and lifeless, it 
has since then been largely resuscitated, chiefly in con- 
nection with the agitation of the Theosophical Society, 
" They endeavour to give a scientific explanation of 
Buddhist teaching. They imitate Christian phraseology ; 
for example, they speak of ' our Lord and Saviour 
^' Buddha.' They observe Buddha's birthday. They 
establish Buddhist Sunday Schools and Young Men's 
Buddhist Associations. The movement is, more than of 
old, hostile to Christianity, representing it as alien, and 
Buddhism as national and patriotic. In the Tamil North 
and East also there have been in recent years many 
signs of Hindu revival and imitation of Christian mis- 
sionary methods. 

The population in the southern half, especially in the 


Western and Central Provinces, presents an extraordinary 
mixture. Side by side with the low country Singhalese 
and the Kandians there are numbers of immigrant 
Tamils ; besides these there are in the whole island 
(according to the census of 1901) 246,118 Mohammedans 
(nearly all Moormen and Malays), 6300 Europeans, 
10,464 very mixed Roman Catholic descendants of 
Portuguese immigrants, and 12,842 mixed Protestant 
descendants of Dutch and English immigrants. 

After the withdrawal in 1796 of the Dutch Colonial 
Mission, which had gradually declined during the 
eighteenth century, work was vigorously undertaken 
from 1812 in rapid succession by the English Baptists, 
the English Wesleyans, the American Congregationalists, 
and the Church Missionary Society. To these was 
added in 1840 the Society for the Propagation of the 
Gospel, and during the last twenty-five years the Salvation 
Army (1883), the Heneratgoda Faith Mission (1891), and 
the Friends (i8g6) have entered the field. 

Unfortunately in some districts the different missions 
are so close together that some overlapping is scarcely to 
be avoided. In the Jaffna Peninsula, " for example, 
amongst about 300,000 Tamils there, are, besides a 
strong Roman Catholic Mission, the Wesleyan, American 
Congregationalists, and the Church Missionary Society, 
at work within a limited area, maintaining three colleges 
and twelve chief stations in close proximity to one 
another. While occasionally there has been slight 
friction, still, as a rule, they work together very harmoni- 
ously. For example, the missionaries and their families 
meet together once a month for prayer and conference, 
and two or three times a year the Tamil preachers and 
their wives join with them and discuss matters of vital 
importance to the work at large. In the local Bible and 
Tract Societies each mission is represented. Good 
feeling prevails also among the Tamil workers, and a 
united front is presented to the Hindu community. A 
movement is now on foot to establish a Union College, 
changing the present three institutions into preparatory 



schools. This united effort will still more impress upon 
the Tamil community;^ the oneness of the fo llowers of 
Christ. " ~ 

Among the Tamils of the north and east, the missions 
report approximately five thousand communicants and 
nearly as many more adherents. There is little opposi- 
tion to Christianity among the masses. The time is ripe 
for a great spiritual awakening. In Colombo and its \ 
neighbourhood, owing to the revival of Buddhism, the i 
outlook is not so bright. 

We should not be blind to the fact that the results of 
missionary work have been comparatively meagre. 
The Government census reported in 1881, 60,000 ; 
in 1891, 55,913 ; in 1907, 61,820 ; but in this number 
are included the Europeans, the Eurasians, and the 
Independent Catholics, so that at least 20,000 must 
be subtracted. According to the missionary census the 
number of Christians belonging to Protestant missions 
was in 1881, 35,708 ; and in 1907, 32,892, according to 
the last annual reports. This does not indicate the total 
number of Christians in Ceylon, since the members of 
parishes or congregations which are independent of the 
missionary societies are not included. While the 
statistics are incomplete and do not fairly represent the 
strength of Christianity in the island, there is ground for 

In view of this state of affairs Principal A. G. Eraser 
recommends that the missionary societies should lay 
greater stress on the work of Ceylonese agents, and should 
considerably increase their number. " We need many 
more native workers, and still more do we need to see 
the quality improved. I would like to see a good many 
more classes and ranks of native workers. We need 
far more emphasis laid upon our training schools for 
teachers." It is to be said that in connection with all 
the missions there is an excellent Ceylonese pastorate 
whose chief energies are devoted to shepherding the 
flock ; but the burden of preaching to the heathen, as 
well as the burden of pastoral work, should, to a far 


greater extent than hitherto, be laid upon the shoulders 
of the natives. It may be said that the native agency is 
in some of the leading missions already out of proportion 
to the number of Church members. In the Jaffna 
Mission of the American Board, out of 2025 communicant 
members, 409 are paid helpers ; in the Wesleyan Mission 
in the same district, out of 1674 full members 441 are paid 
helpers ; and in the far larger Southern Ceylon district 
of this Society out of 3807, 426 are paid agents ; whilst 
in the Ceylon Mission of the Church Missionary Society 
out of 4294 communicant members 844 are paid agents, 
but a large proportion of these are teachers who are paid 
from money coming from local sources, such as Govern- 
ment grants in aid of schools, tuition fees, and contribu- 
tions from local churches. 

The object of missions is to develop a native Church 
which shall be self-supporting, self-governing, and self- 
propagating. The Church in Ceylon has made remark- 
able progress along the lines of self-support and self- 
administration, but a truly missionary spirit is sorely 
lacking in many of the congregations, especially in the 
central and southern parts of the island. Large numbers 
of the Church members are apathetic about the work of 
reaching their non-Christian neighbours. The situation 
is more hopeful in the Jaffna district in the north. Here 
the Christians are becoming more aggressive in Christian 
work. Home missionary societies, both in the North 
and in the South, supported wholly by local contributions, 
have been in existence for years, and within recent years 
a missionary society has been formed, whose object is to 
carry on work in the neighbouring continent. The great 
need is for more consecrated native men and women 
fiDed with the' Holy Spirit, who shall be able with Divine 
help to arouse the unevangelised from their apathy and 
to win them for the Lord Jesus Christ. 



The territory which is dealt udth under the heading of 
" The Asiatic Levant ' includes the following well- 
recognised geographical divisions : Turkey in Asia 
(including Syria and Palestine), Arabia, and Persia. 
This Asiatic Levant shares with Egypt the distinction of 
being the cradle of the earliest civilisation of the Western 
World. A worthy literature, a knowledge of mathe- 
matics and astronomy, the manufacture of delicate 
fabrics, and the pursuit of arts, may be traced back to 
two full millenniums and more before the Christian era 
by a study of the civilisation which had its centre in the 
broad plains of the rivers Tigris and Euphrates. In spite 
of ^tsL present political and geographical divisions, the 
territory here considered possesses a unity which may 
be recognised to-day, and which has had repeated illus- 
trations in centuries past. The entire territory has ever 
been vitally influenced, if not dominated, by the same 
civilisation. Its several sections have commonly looked 
to but one centre of political influence, whether this was 
Babylon of the twentieth century B.C. or Constantinople 
of the twentieth century a.d. Again and again, as under 
the Assyrian Kingdom, under Alexander the Great and 
under the Empire of the Saracens, its parts have been 
welded together by force into one political organisation. 
Though to-day this vast territory is no longer politically 
one, it still preserves its unity by its religious solidarity, 
for it lies under the sway of one dominant faith, and is 
pre-eminently the stronghold of Christianity's most 
difficult opponent the faith of Islam. 



The Country. In contrast with the great p'ateau of 
Central Asia, the Levant of Asia may be designated 
broadly as the plateau of Western Asia, which stretches 
westward from the lofty tablelands of Iran to the less 
elevated plains of the Mediterranean. With greater 
detail, several geographical divisions come into view. 
Anatolia is "an elevated and fertile plateau enclosed by 
historic mountain ranges." The country roughly de- 
signated as Armenia is another plateau of limited extent. 
The vast plains of Mesopotamia, watered by the Euphrates 
and Tigris Rivers, constitute another clearly defined 
division of the country. Syria and Palestine possess 
historical individuahties which make further definition 
unnecessary. The immense peninsula of Arabia, while 
politically divided, may be regarded as a single natural 
division, whose chief characteristic is its barren and desert 
wastes, which, nevertheless, support a population of some 
eight millions of people. Persia constitutes the last great 
division of the territory under consideration. It has been 
described as " a tableland dropping to the Caspian Sea 
for nearly one-third of its northern frontier, and to the 
Persian Gulf for its southern limit." 

The combined area of the Levant of Asia is about 
2,381,310 square miles more than twice the entire area 
of India.^ 

* See Statesman' s Year Book : 

Turkey in Asia : 

Square Miles 

Asia Minor 

. 193.540 

Armenia and Kurdistan' . 



. 143.250 


. 114.530 

Arabia . 



British Territory : 

Aden and Protectorate . 


Bahrein . 



Oman . . . . . 


Interior Arabia 


Persia ..... 


Total f , , , , . 3,381,586 


Speaking generally, and excepting the malarial littoral 
of the Red Sea and the swampy sections of Mesopotamia 
and of the Caspian provinces, the climatic conditions 
are sufficiently favourable not to constitute any serious 
problem in the evangelisation of the Levant of Asia. 

A most serious problem affecting missions in this 
region grows'out of the inaccessibility of large sections, 
the trying methods of travel in the greater portion of 
the territory, and the consequent exclusion of Western 
civilisation with all its material, intellectual, social, and 
spiritual accompaniments. Turkey in Asia with its 
693,610 square miles has but 2774 miles of railroad. 
Persia with its 628,000 square miles opened its first railway 
service in 1888 over the six miles between Teheran and 
Shah Abdul-azim. Since that date no other railroads 
have been built. Carriageable roads afford some relief, 
but communication is necessarily difficult and tedious. 
A railroad has been projected between Damascus and 
Mecca, and has been built as far as Medina, but otherwise 
Arabia is whoUy without railroads, and its caravan tracks 
do not materially solve the problem of communication. 

The People. Two races, chiefly, inhabit and mingle in 
the Levant of Asia : the Semitic and the Aryan. The 
conflict of these two racial movements may explain much 
of the history of this part of the world, for the Aryan and 
the Semite represent widely differing types and tendencies 
of both race and civilisation. 

The extremely general description just made calls for 
definition and even partial modification. While the 
population of Arabia may be regarded as purely Semitic 
and the ancient Persian stock as wholly Aryan, yet one 
other very important and several other subordinate racial 
elements require to be noted. The Osmanli-Turk of 
to-day represents a great Mongolo-Tatar invasion which 
brought some 9,000,000 people into the Levant, and it is 
this race that holds the political reins of Western Asia. 
The Kurds, whose warlike and independent character- 
istics are so well known, number some 2,000,000, and are 
probably of Aryan descent. The Circassians of the 


Caucasus, and the Druses and Nusairiyeh of Syria, and the 
Yezidees of Mesopotamia, are more or less distinct racial 

The total population of the territory under discussion 
is about 34,133,500.1 

It is a commentary upon the centuries of rnisgovern- 
nient and oppression which the Levant has suffered at 
the hand of Moslem rulers that the average density 
of the population in the territory under consideration 
is only 14, about three-fifths of that which obtains in the 
newly developed United States of America, and that 
too in a land which formerly cradled all of Western 
civilisation. Of single provinces, Asia Minor, Armenia, 
and Syria have the densest populations, with 47, 34, and 
33 persons respectively to the square mile. Quite 
recently, extensive irrigation works have been projected 
for the reclamation of desert land in Mesopotamia. 
These plans, when carried out, will help to increase 
the population of this section of country. 

There are four main language areas. Arabic, the 
language of the Koran, is spoken throughout Arabia, 
Palestine, Syria, and to a considerable extent in Mesopo- 
tamia. The Turkish language prevails in all the northern 
portion of Turkey in Asia. Persia has, of course, its 
own language. In Kurdistan, where there are 1,000,000 

* See Statesman' s Year Book : 
Turkey in Asia : Population 

Asia Minor 

Armenia and Kurdistan 



Arabia . 

British Territory : 

Aden and Protectorate . . 800,000 

Bahrein Islands . . 70,000 


Oman ....... 800,000 

Interior Arabia ..... 5,280,000 

Persia ...... 9,500,000 

Total. , , , , . 34.133.500 


Persian Kurds and 1,500,000 Turkish Kurds, there is 
the Kurdish language, of which there are many dialects. 
While Arabic, Turkish, and Persian are the chief lan- 
guages, and while they have been mastered by foreign 
missionaries and also made the vehicles for the dissemina- 
tion of Gospel truth, yet, for most of the Kurdish dialects, 
no grammar has been worked out and only part of the 
Gospels have been translated. 

Religious Condition. The solidarity of the Asiatic 
Levant is to be found in its religious faith. From the 
Mediterranean in the west to the mountains of Afghan- 
istan in the east, from the Indian Ocean on the south 
to the Caspian Sea on the north, with but slight exception 
Mohammed is the prophet of God, and Islam challenges 
Christianity. The adherents of the Oriental Churches 
number altogether some 4,000,000 souls, of which number 
2,000,000 are adherents of tHe Greek Church in the 
Turkish Empire and 1,250,000 are adherents of the 
Armenian Church. More than one-third of these are 
to be found in the Asia Minor provinces, where they 
constitute about one-sixth of the population ; over half 
a million are in Armenia, where they constitute one- 
fourth of the population. There are also several thou- 
sands of Parsees, all of whom are in Persia. These small 
numbers, of diverging faiths, however, need not and 
should not be permitted to weaken the impression that 
the stronghold of Mohammedanism is the Asiatic Levant, 
a land over which the Crescent holds absolute sway. 

Of the 30,000,000 Moslems with whom we are dealing, 
some 21,000,000 are Sunnis, or orthodox Moslems. 
These are to be found in the Levant west of Persia. In 
Persia, there are some 8,000,000 Shiah, or heretical 
Moslems, and the number of Behais is estimated all 
the way from 200,000 to 1,000,000. The Wahabis of 
Arabia do not represent so much a distinct sect as a 
reforming and ultra-conservative movement within the 
orthodox camp of Islam. Sufism similarly represents a 
mystical and pietistic movement which has gained con- 
siderable headway in Persia. 


It is important to emphasise the low intellectual and 
social conditions which characterise this entire Moslem 
world. It is scarcely safe to assume that more than 
ten per cent, of the population of the Levant can 
read and write. Just now, however, there are signs 
on every hand of an intellectual awakening induced 
by the public discussions of recent political developments 
and by the rapid multiplication of newspapers. The 
opportunities for getting an education are not at all 
commensurate with this demand, and the agencies are 
therefore lacking by which these deplorable and wide- 
spread conditions of illiteracy may be relieved. 

Social conditions present in the Levant, as elsewhere 
in the Moslem world, the most hopeless and pitiable. 
]:iicture. Polygamy is common almost ever3rwhere 
throughout Turkey and Arabia, save where poverty 
sets a limit upon this social evil which Islam has legalised. 
In Persia reform movements have made open polygamy 
less reputable and therefore less common, but here tem- 
porary marriages are sanctioned by religion and are 
most common, so that social life is degraded rather than 
uplifted. Throughout almost the whole of the Moslem 
Levant, divorce is so common that the testimony of 
a missionary in Arabia would probably be that of mission- 
aries in the Levant generally, " I scarcely know one 
man above thirty years of age who has not been married 
two or three times." 

What an interesting j^et saddening picture the Asiatic 
Levant presents. There is much to stir Christian sym- 
pathy. Within this territory lie thirty millions of people 
bound by ignorance and illiteracy, caught in the meshes 
of a low and degrading, a polygamous and divorce-abound- 
ing social life. There is much to challenge effort. Within 
this territory is to be found the religious centre of the whole 
Moslem world, Mecca, and on its border the political 
centre, Constantinople, for this city is more a city of 
Asia than a city of Europe. There is much to show 
the inadequacy of Islam. For almost thirteen centuries 
this great territory has been subject to Islam, and thir- 


teen centuries ought to suffice to prove the genius of any 
rehgion. Educationally, what great need ! Everywhere 
ilHteracy abounds, for education has at best been only 
the privilege of the few. Industrially, too, the whole 
country presents a scene of almost unrelieved desolation. 
Palestine, the Land of Promise, became long ago a waste. 
Mesopotamia has largely lapsed into a barren desert 
by the neglect of irrigation works. Onerous taxation 
has discouraged industry. Lack of communication 
with the outside world has robbed the Levant both of 
improved methods of industry and of markets for its 
products. Religiously, every effort has been made to 
rehabilitate Islam, The Wahabi has sought to return 
to the simplicity and severity of a millennium ago, the 
Babi has sought to break away from Islam and find 
refuge in mysticism, and the modern Behai has sought 
to vest Islamic thought with Christian morality. The 
orthodoxy of the Semite Sunni in the west and the 
heresy of the Aryan Shiah in the east, have both been 
weighed in the balances of individual, social, and national 
experience, and have been found wanting. 


To understand or appreciate the history of missions 
in the Asiatic Levant the fullest consideration must be 
given to a supreme hindrance which has attended all 
missionary work in this section of the world. It is the 
absence of religious liberty, especially within the Turkish 

There is no occasion for discussing here the large 
and interesting question, whether the new regime in 
Turkey may not remove these serious disabilities and 
allow such religious liberty as commonly obtains in 
other lands. As a matter of fact, the situation has 
greatly improved during the past two years. Further 
radical changes seem inevitable, but the character of 
those changes remains largely to be determined. 

The absence of religious liberty in the Levant in th^ 


past has been commonly recognised, but it is doubtful 
whether the seriousness of this difficulty has been as 
readily appreciated. Islam is a political as well as a ^2^ 
religious system. This fact lies at the foundation of the 
whole situation. There is logically as little release from 
the obligation to persecute the Christian and punish by 
death the Moslem who accepts the Christian faith, as 
there is release from the obligation to believe in the 
Prophet and observe the fast. Both are grounded upon 
divine authority and are clearly prescribed by the Koran. 
When to this religious necessity there are added the 
incentives of a cruel nature, of bigotry and fanaticism, 
of pride and material advantage, of political intrigue and 
partisan movements, it can readily be seen that the law 
of hostility to the Christian will not fail of enforcement. 
Nor has it, as a century of missionary effort may show. 
Only as the record of this effort is followed from year 
to year throughout the hundred years of missions in 
the Levant and from place to place throughout the 
great divisions of this territory will an adequate apprecia- 
tion be had of the seriousness of this hindrance. The 
history of everyrnissionary effort in the Levant has 
been a story of limitation and delay because of political 
opposition^ and of success achieved only in the face of 
discouraging hindrances. 

Liberty for a Moslem to profess Christianity has been 
rigidly denied. Within two years a Moslem woman, 
about twenty-five years of age, professed Christianity. 
Though she fled to Egypt and every effort was made 
to save her, she was ordered to be returned to her relatives 
in Syria, the judgment of the Court being that so long 
as she remains unmarried a woman is entirely subject 
to the will and wishes of her father and family. For a 
Moslem man to profess Christianity has ordinarily been 
the signal for a religious riot. " Until the end of the 
old regime," writes a missionary authority in 1909, 
" religious freedom was absolutely non-existent for 
Moslems. The only safety for a converted Moslem lay 
in flight from the country." 


Not only has this pohtical power sought to prevent 
the fruitage of Christian missionary effort, but it has 
laboured to restrict the effort itself. However deter- 
minedly any mission has started out to address itself 
exclusively to Moslems in the past, it has been forced, 
as the condition of its very entrance and continuance, 
to affiliate itself and its work with the native Christian 
community. The only exception is possibly in the 
case of work in Independent Arabia. A single quotation 
must suffice for the further portrayal of this difficulty 

" Until recently," writes a missionary, " our work has 
been greatly hindered by the suspicion and dislike v/ith 
which foreign labourers have been regarded by the 
Government, and by the restrictions put upon them and 
their native co-labourers. Travelling permits have been 
refused, and at one time several missionaries were 
detained a number of v/eeks at the capital until the 
American Minister told them to go without permit, and 
he would be responsible for the consequences. The 
writer was absolutely refused permission to go to Erzerum 
to assist with relief work in 1895, but a fellow-missionary, 
a British subject, was ahTe to go because his Ambassador 
demanded the permission so peremptorily that the 
authorities did not think it wise to refuse. The restric- 
tions on the travel of native ecclesiastics and colporteurs 
have also been great. 

" Places of worship and schools have been closed 
because they were opened without an Imperial Firman, 
and to secure the desired Firman has been difficult or 
impossible. Missionaries, when buying real estate, have 
been required to give a pledge that it would not be used 
for a church or a school. A Protestant congregation in 
Constantinople purchased a most desirable site for the 
erection of a church twenty-nine years ago, and the 
permission to build has not yet been given ! " 

It is a question how long a mission and its workers can 
hold fast to a definite aim which for years and decades 
has seemed to be wholly impossible of realisation. The 
limitations under which missionary work has been 


carried on in the Levant owing to the absence of reUgious 
liberty will explain many might consent to add, will 
excuse three facts : (i) the fewness of recorded con- 
versions from Islam to Christianity ; (2) the limitation 
of work for Moslems almost entirely to methods indirectly 
missionary; and (3) the actual abandonment," orT the 
part of some, of all effort to reach Moslems. For example, 
one missionary writes : " Work for Moslems has not been 
an integral part of the policy of the mission until the 
last three years. ... In support of this, the argument 
would have been . . . the political impossibility of an 
aggressive work for the evangelisation of Mohammedans." 


The scope of this survey excludes from consideration 
those extended labours among Oriental Churches which 
are to be found, to so great a degree, within the territory 
here dealt with. 

Missions in Asia Minor, Armenia, and Kttrdistan. 
This survey covers that broad stretch of country which 
lies to the north of the 36th degree north latitude, and 
which extends from the Mediterranean to Persia. Here 
are 265,530 square miles one-fourth more than the 
area of France with a population of 11,560,100. In 
this great territory the American Board of Commissioners 
for Foreign Missions carries on the most extensive work ; 
it has also been on the field longest, dating its first work 
in Constantinople back to the year 183 1, and in Smyrna 
to 1820. The German Orient Mission, however, has 
two stations in Armenia. The results of almost a 
century of work may be briefly summed up as 
follows : 

At almost all important centres missionary work has 
Jbeea-begun. To give a list of these would be to give a 
list of the chief cities of this district. It is a significant 
fact that every one of the more important cities with a 
population upward of 34,000 has been occupied as a 
piission station. In the eastern section, especially in 
COM. I. 12 


Armenia and Kurdistan, the country is still sparsely 
and feebly occupied. 

Missionary institutions have also been estabUshed, and 
by slow and wise development of their institutional life 
have attainedTo^aiT efficiency and influence of incalculable 
importance. At Constantinople are the mission press, 
Robert College, and the American College for Girls ; at 
Smyrna, Tarsus, Marash, Aintab, Marsovan, and Harpoot 
are institutions of collegiate rank. There are also six 
hospitals. The influence of the medical, the literary, and 
the educational work has been far-reaching. Public 
opinion has been moulded. Many have been prepared 
for leadership in the New Turkey movements. The 
influences of Christian thought and teachings have far 
outstripped all individual confessions of personal faith in 
Christ. Missionary institutions are also serving as 
models for other institutions now being launched through 
native enterprise. 

Furthermore, to many members of Oriental Churches 
the Spirit of God seems to have brought new spiritual life. 
They have been organised together, thus safeguarding 
their spiritual interests and increasing their effectiveness 
in service. The foundations of native Churches have thus 
become well established. Many individual Moslems have 
been reached by indirect methods and by personal and 
private interviews, even though open confession is not 
yet possible. 

Throughout this territory, as well as all the other 
parts of the Asiatic Levant, the work of the Bible 
Societies has been of primary importance, especially 
in the work among Mohammedans. The Bible has been 
circulated extensively in two translations designed for 
the Mohammedan world, the Turkish and the Arabic. 
To this work is undoubtedly due very largely the spiritual 
awakening among Mohammedans, and their inquiring 
attitude towards Christianity in these lands. 

Missions in Syria. Syria includes the six provinces 
or districts of Aleppo, Zor, Syria, Beirut, Jerusalem, 
Lebanon, comprising a population of 3,675,200. 


Even a superficial study of missionary effort within this 
territory will suggest a differentiation between that 
section of country which is conterminous with ancient 
Palestine and the remaining portion of the country. 
Within the limits of what may be designated as " the 
Holy Land" Christian sentiment has led to the establish- 
ment of almost innumerable forms of work sixteen 
different societies with thirty-seven mission stations 
manned by foreign workers for a population of a million 
and a quarter resulting, as missionary reports show, 
in an entanglement of interests, an overlapping of fields 
of work, foolish and hannful rivalries and cross purposes, -"'' 
which, when joined to the complex situation resulting 
from the presence of the warring factions of the Oriental 
Churches, make this field perhaps the most difficult in 
the world. It should be pointed out that the work of the 
Church Missionary Society is easily the most extensive 
and wisely planned. It will also be noted presently that 
in spite of the overcrowding of missionary organisations 
into this territory, there are unoccupied and neglected 

In the northern section of the territory under con- 
sideration, the largest and most effective work is that 
of the American Presbyterians, who have, in four main 
mission districts, fifteen men missionaries and twelve 
women missionaries (excluding wives). Here the dis- 
tinctive methods of work are the educational, the medical, 
and the hterary, though the evangelistic has not been 
neglected. The Syrian Protestant College at Beirut, 
with its 870 students, is not under the control of the 
Mission, but is an outgrowth of the Mission's educational 
policy. Its graduates have gone far and wide, carrying 
with them clearer conceptions of Christian truth and 
frequently~distinguishing themselves as leaders in the 
progressive movements of their communities. One 
hundred and fifteen mission schools carry Christian 
education to 5688 pupils. The most significant contribu- 
tion, however, of this Mission to the advancement of the 
Kingdom of Christ has been the translation and printing 


of the standard version of the Arabic Bible. It was trans- 
lated by Dr. Eli Smith and Dr. C. V. A. Van Dyck, and 
was printed at the expense of the American Bible Socie+y 
by the Beirut Press in 1865. Its sale extends from 
Constantinople to Khartum, and from Beirut to Busrah, 
Bombay, and even to Canton. The Beirut Press may 
be regarded as one of the most potent single missionary 
agencies in this section of the Levant. 

Missionary work in Syria has, therefore, had a good 
beginning. In the face of difficulties which seemed 
almost insuperable and limitations irksome beyond 
description, owing to Moslem misrule, tyranny and 
intolerance, the Christian missionary has held his ground, 
bided his time, trusted in God, improved his opportunities, 
and laid a foundation for future work which must serve 
for all time as a supreme example of undiscourageable 
purpose. The centres occupied are thought to be strategic- 
ally located, and save for one section, adequate in 
number. It remains only for each to become, by re-en- 
forcement, a more effective centre of missionary influence 
and activity. A broad work of preparation how far- 
reaching no man can tell has been accomplished in 
the lives both of those of the present generation and of 
those of the rising generation, by church, school, press, 
and hospital, so that the coming day of opportunity is 
not only being hastened, but is becoming the more 
charged with significance. Native church organisations 
have also been effected and gratifying results are becoming 
evident as a result of a commendable insistence, in some 
quarters at least, upon a policy of self-support in the 
development of these organisations. ~^ 

Missions in Arabia and Mesopotamia. Following both 
the general configuration of the country and the activities 
of missionary agencies, these two sections of the Levant 
may be treated together. Arabia has an area of 1,230,276 
square miles and a population of some 8,000,000. Meso- 
potamia has an area of 143,250 square miles and a popula- 
tion of 1,398,200. The entire territory, therefore, presents 
a population about equal to the combined populations 


of Scotland and Ireland, with an area about twenty-two 
times that of these two countries. 

Within this territory three missionary areas are easily 
recognised, that of the Church Missionary Society, with 
centres at Mosul and Baghdad ; that of the Reformed 
Church in America, with centres at Busrah, Bahrein, and 
Muscat ; and that of the United Free Church of Scotland, 
with Sheikh Othman (near Aden) as its centre. In this 
last area the Danish Church Mission is also represented 

In all these missions medical work takes the lead, with ^ ^ , 
educational work comingTrex:t. A very extensive work 
of direct evangelisation is also carried on by itineration, ^^ 
the distribution of Christian literature, and private con- 
versations and interviews with individuals. 

In considering the work done, a recognition of its 
p ioneer character is essential to any proper appreciation 
of it. Arabia might well claim the title of " the Ignored 
Peninsula." Attention enough does she receive frbriTthe 
votaries of Islam because of the sacred shrine at Mecca, 
but from Christendom she has had scant consideration, 
and that only since 1885, when the Hon. Ion Keith- 
Falconer laid the foundation of a mission at Aden, and 
two years later sealed it with his death. Viewed as the 
awakening of Christendom to the claims of Arabia as a 
mission field, it is significant that a beginning has been 
made, however inadequate the effort may yet be. The 
actual needs and conditions of this field are becoming 
better known by the explorations of missionaries and 
others. Strategic points, though still too widely separ- 
ated, have been occupied. Through the thousands who 
are reached each year, especially through the niedical 
work^ relationships of sympathy are being established 
with the Moslem communities ; prejudice is being re- 
rnoved, hostility is abating, a spirit of inquiry is develop- 
ing, and among an increasing number of individuals an 
openness of mind is being manifested which was unknown 
a decade ago. 

Missions in Persia. After the short but famous visit 
of Henry Martyn in i8iij_who spent eleven months 


in Shiraz completing the translation of the New Testa- 
ment into Persian, and had extensive intercourse with 
the learned Mullahs of that ancient sect of Persian 
culture, mission work was begun in Persia in 1835 
under the auspices of the American Board of Commis- 
sioners for Foreign Missions, in the north-western province 
of Azerbaijan, and the centre of a growing and prosperous 
work for nearly four decades was in Urumiya, the reputed 
birthplace of Zoroaster. But here, too, as in Asiatic 
Turkey, the work of the American Board of Commissioners 
for Foreign Missions was confined to the ancient Christian 
population, the Nestorian or Syrian Church, inhabiting 
partly the extremely fertile plain along the western 
shore of Lake Urumiya, and in greater extension the wild, 
pathless mountain deserts stretching from the Persian 
frontier right through Kurdistan to Mosul on the Tigris 
River. The history of this energetic endeavour to en- 
lighten and raise to a higher plane of spiritual life this 
decadent and downtrodden but venerable Church is a 
chequered one, but on the whole it has been very success- 
ful. But this work lies outside the scope of the present 

After the transfer of this Urumiya mission from the 
American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions 
to the American Presbyterian Mission Board in 1871, 
mission work for the Persian Moslem population 
was undertaken. Since that time this direct Moslem 
work has become the leading factor in the Persia Mission. 
In 1869 a missionary of the Church Missionary Society 
entered the country, settling at first in Julfa, a suburb 
of Ispahan ; and this small effort, beginning with tlie 
pastoral care of a large Armenian congregation there, 
afterwards developed an extensive Moslem mission. 
Both missions have divided the large field between 
them, the Presbyterian Mission assuming responsibility 
for the northern third, the Church Missionary Society 
for the southern two-thirds of the country. The 34th 
parallel of latitude is roughly the boundary line of the 
two societies. 


Both missions have branched out and founded a series 
of strongly manned and well-equipped stations, the 
Presbyterian Board at Teheran (280,000), Resht (35,000), 
Kazvin (35,000), Tabriz (200,000), and Hamadan (35,000), 
besides Urumiya already referred to ; and the Chvirch 
Missionary Society at Yezd (35,000), Kerman (60,000), 
and Shiraz (50,000), besides Ispahan (80,000) and Julfa. 
Missionary work has therefore been begun in all but four 
of the larger cities of Persia. 

The most promineirLjriethod, employed extensively 
and with considerable success, has been that of medical 
missions. There are large hospitals at almost all stations, 
and the medical missions of Persia are among the best 
equipped in the whole mission field. That some 70,000 
patients should be treated, that a medical missionary 
should receive from the Shah the decoration of the order 
of the " Ljon_and the.Sun " in the first degree, and another 
should receive the second degree of the same order, that 
the rigorous Moslem law of the seclusion of women should 
be relaxed to admit the foreign doctor into the Persian 
home, and that superstitions, bigotry, and open perse- 
cution should disappear where the magic influence of the 
medical missionary is felt, are results encouraging enough 
for the present and more promising for the future. 

Repeated efforts have also been made at all the stations 
to gather Mohammedan boys and girls into the mission 
schools, and even to establish separate schools for them. 
A foundation for future appeal is thus being laid in the 
lives of several hundreds ol the rising generation. 

The distribution of the Scriptures figures so largely 
in missionary work in Persia that special mention should 
be made of the Bible^ocieties. " At present the Ameri- 
can Bible Society has no resident agent, but Presbyterian 
missionaries are constantly using its publications in 
colportage, and in other ways. The British and Foreign 
Bible Society has an energetic agent at Ispahan's southern 
suburb, Julfa, and colporteurs travelling extensively 
throughout the country." 

Converts from Islam are not many, but the very fact 


that there are some, and that each year now witnesses 
almost a score of lm})tisms, can well he regarded as a 
miracle of grace and of courage in this land where Chris- 
tianity is all but outlawed. 



Turkey in Asia. In this section the whole of Turkey 
in Asia is considered, with the exception of that which lies 
in Arabia. 

Although emphasis was laid in a previous section upon 
the strategic occupation of this territory and upon the 
overlapping of agencies in Palestine, it is not inconsistent 
to lay emphasis now upon the limitations of this occupa- 

Considerable groups of population are entirely un- 
reached even in tlie midst of territory seemingly over- 
occupied. If missionary agencies in Palestine overlap, 
just east of the Jordan are fields wholly untouched. The 
BedouirTArab (that is, tentTd-weller) population connected 
with the Palestine Mission area may be said to be wholly 
outsicle^the pale of Christian influence or missionary 
work. There are almost a quarter of a million of these. 
Save for one mission station at es Salt, the entire ter- 
ritory east of the Jordan is unoccupied. The Druses, of 
whom there are some 78,000, are practically untouched, 
though mission work has been attempted among them at 
different times. Farther north are two districts, one in 
Hauran, east of the Jordan, and the other, the Ansariyeh 
Mountains between Tripoli and Alexandretta, which have 
a population of some 350,000, and which are unoccupied 
and unreached. To the east, the section to the north 
of Harpoot in the Anti-Taurus Mountains, called the 
Dersim, which is inhabited by non-orthodox Moslem 
Kurds, is entirely neglected. Still farther east, the 
Arabs, who are largely nomadic and who are thought to 
number, under Turkish rule, 1,100,000, are unreached 
by any existing missionary agency. Some 600,000 


Moslem Kurds in this same section of country are also 

-"TTIe inadequacy of the missionar^_QCCupation of 
Turkey in Asia is really more serious than the foregoing 
statements reveal. Even if the sections referred to 
above were excepted, it would be very far from true that 
the remaining territory was adequately occupied. How- 
ever much a given station may seem to afford adequate 
missionary provision for the needs of a given area, the 
supreme hindrance of political opposition and of Moslem 
intolerance has prevented that station from bearing any 
other than the most superficial and indirect relation to the 
Moslem population. This is not a matter of theory, but a 
cruel fact freely admitted by missionaries in Turkey. The 
following frank statements may be cited : " The entirely 
Mohammedan towns are, however, at the present time 
practically inaccessible to the mission. So the real field 
of work of the latter is at present confined to a population 
embracing about 30,000 souls, a quarter of which perhaps 
are Oriental Christians." Another missionary places 
among the unreached classes, " the vast Mohammedan 
])opulation forming the majority of the people in the cities, 
towns, and some whole districts." Still another mission- 
ary says : " The work in this field has been almost ex- 
clusively among the Armenians, as is the case in all other 
mission fields in Turkey. The 183,000 Mohammedans 
in this province have not been touched." A report from 
still another section reads : " The entire Moslem popula- 
tion, which outnumbers the Christians more than two to 
one, has not been touched ; and thus far no intelligent 
general effort has been made to reach them ; only personal 
effort here and there has shown the difficulties as well 
as the possibilities of preaching the Gospel to the 
Moslems of this land." 

It must be remembered that the Moslem population of 
Turkey in Asia (exclusivejof j\rabia) numbers approxi- 
mately i4,ooo,ooo^oTiTs, and these must be regarded at the 
present time~as beyond the reach of missionary agencies 
as they now exist. It may be true to a great degree that 


the failure to occupy this Moslem world has been due to the 
limitations of a hostile Moslem Government, but the fact 
that this vast section of human life is still untouched by 
missionary effort must be fully recognised if the work 
remaining to be done would be clear!}' apprehended. 

In view of inadequacy of the present missionary occupa- 
tion of Turkey in Asia, a marked extension of missionary 
work is imperative along the folio wThg lines : 

1. The wholly unoccupied districts, already mentioned, 
and containing an aggregate population of 2,000,000 soiils, 
demand the opening up of new stations by societies 
contiguous to these sections. This applies especially to 
Eastern Turkey. 

2. Elsewhere, especially in Western Turkey, the need is 
not so much for the opening up of new stations as for the 
reinforcement of existing stations, so that these may 
become really effective centres of work, carrying on an 
aggressive and not merely a defensive missionary cam- 
paign. It is not too much to say that the missionary 
force at almost every station should be doubled. Too 
great emphasis can scarcely be laid upon this need, as the 
following statement from a missionary in Turkey shows : 
" The present occupation of our field by missionary 
agencies can be considered as only conservative or defensive. 
The work is not progressing. The idea of winning the 
whole country for Christ is not prominent in the minds 
of any of the workers or people. The thought dominating 
the work is to hold on to what has been gained and to do 
as much work as can be done in the face of limitless 
opportunities. This is not the way to evangelise this 
country. The moral influence of this kind of work on the 
local churches and on those outside is such as to foster 
sectarianism or to lay emphasis on the difference between 
one creed and another, instead of laying emphasis on the 
winning of the whole field. An aggressive campaign 
whose watchword should be the winning of the whole 
world for Christ, would rally to its support thousands 
of potential workers who are now idle or indifferent." 

3. Missionaries, especially trained and especially set 


aside for work aniong^IoslemSj^acqnainted with Moham- 
medan literature and the JMohammedan view-point, 
constitute, perhaps, the greatest^ need of the work in 
Turkey to-day. One such missionary should be located 
at each main station, and especially in connection with 
every hospital. This need is accentuated by the fact that 
the absence of religious liberty in the past has served to 
dull the edge of missionary effort for Moslems, so that the 
Moslem world as an objective for missionary effort calls 
for renewed emphasis. There is a wide opening at the 
present time for the introduction not so much of institu- 
tional methods, as of personal work methods. The 
introduction of the Young Men's Christian Association 
methods has been strongly" urged. 

4. There is an urgent need for the correlation of all 
the missionary educational forces of the country. If 
there exists an adequate number of higher institutions of 
learning, these call for improved equipment and enlarged 
curricula, while there is a widespread need for the opening 
up of numerous primary schools which will lead up to these 
higher institutions. 

5. A supreme need, which the recent revolution in 
Turkey has emphasised, is for Christian literature. Not 
only is directly religious literature needed but, leading up 
to it, and preparatory to it, a literature is needed which 
will remove prejudice and awaken sympathy in the hearts 
of those who are wholly unwilling to consider the claims 
of Christianity. There is also a large field for Christian 

Arabia. What vast stretches of unoccupied territory 
this field presents ! How inadequate is the work launched 
in comparison with the needs of this great country ! 
Three missionary areas were pointed out. But there is 
need to remember that Muscat is 550 miles from Bahrein 
and Bahrein is 1150 miles from Aden, while along the 
1500 miles of straight coast-line to the north-west of 
Aden along the Red Sea, there is absolutely no mission 
work. Of the six provinces of Arabia, only three are 
occupied by mission stations, while the vast interior of 


Arabia, a territory 1500 miles by iioo miles, and at 
least partially inhabited, is both unoccupied and only 
partially explored. Of the 8,000,000 inhabitants of 
Arabia, it is entirely safe to say that fully 6,000,000 are 
without any missionary agency. 

If the Cradle of Islam is to receive the Gospel, mission- 
^ ary e2cpansion . is imperative. The missionary force at 
existing mission stations is generally estimated as being at 
present only one-half the desired strength. Entrance 
into interior Arabia may not be an immediate possibility, 
but missionary itineration would prepare the way for 
such entrance. Ten important points along the coast 
have been suggested as calling for missionary occupation. 
Thus the peninsula would be encircled with light-centres, 
while trade movements would undoubtedly avail to carry 
the Gospel truth inland. Medical work must be the 
great opener of doors, and there is urgent need for a 
carefuUy planned system of medical itinerancy with 
clearly defined hospital centres. Arabia urgently calls 
also for women workers, especially doctors. 

Persia. ^The total number of missionaries in Persia is 
about 43 (not counting ^wives). This allows but one 
missionary to 221,000 of the population. 

There are also entire sections and classes practically 
untouched. The whole north-eastern section of Persia, 
with Meshed on the north and Birjand on the south, with 
a population of approximately 1,000,000 souls, is rarely 
visited even by native colporteurs and is in no sense 
cultivated by foreign missionaries. In the south-east lies 
Persian Beluchistan, with a population of 25,000 souls, 
scarcely ever visited even by colporteurs. The religion 
consists chiefly of the worship of pirs (saints). On the 
south coast and the Persian Gulf are sections populated 
by Arabs, scarcely touched by any existing missionary 
effort. The nomad tribes, estimated as numbering in 
Persia 1,000,000 souls, are wholly unreached. Ignorant 
and uneducated, but physically strong and morally nigged, 
they have very indefinite religious notions and are in 
great spiritual heed. Other neglected sections are the 


Turkish tribes of Fars and Laristan, thought to number 
12,000 tents ; Arabs in Fars and Laristan, said to number 
3000 tents, and others in Arabistan, estimated at 170,000 
to 200,000 individuals ; also some 300,000 Lurs in Laristan 
and Baktigariland. 

If the question is asked v/hether it is possible, under the 
existing political and religious conditions in Persia, greatly 
to enlarge missionary operations, it must be answered 
distinctly in the afftr.native. If primary stress be laid 
as has been done in the older stations on a large extension 
of medical mission work, if hospitals be built, and men and 
women medical missionaries be sent out, there is no 
reason why^ mission work could not be extended almost 
without limit. The only barri er is not the condition of the/ 
field, but the lack of suitable, well-prepared men and 
the means for establishing medical stations. Of course, 
progress would in all probability be slow for some time to 
come ; medical schools would act as the pioneers ; schools 
of a higher grade and primary schools would be opened 
with a rather strong opposition at the beginning, but they 
would win their way if the right men, men wise and 
persevering, were in charge. The distribution of the 
Scriptures should be very greatly extended. A very 
great need for Christian literature for Moslems is also 
felt. There is enough controversial literature, but there 
is a lack of syinpathetic literature to explain and interpret 
to the Moslem mind the Christian faith and its Divine 
Founder. Recent political events have also opened a 
wide door for contact with Persian Moslem life by means 
of clubs and debating societies. 

This section of the Report began with a recognition of 
the solidarity of the Asiatic Levant. For purposes of 
more detailed study, the geographical divisions of this 
section of the world were treated separately. There is 
need now, in closing, to emphasise anew the unity of these ^ 
political areas. Turkey, Arabia, and Persia are bound 
together by ties w^hich cannot be broken. The races of 
the Asiatic Levant are essentially subject to the same 


laws of development. One race may be in the van, 
another at the rear, but all form parts of the same general 
movement. The political upheavals of Persia have their 
counterpart at Constantinople. The religious thought 
of each section modifies the thought life of every other 
section. This truth has its significance for the missionary 
enterprise. It is not a guerilla warfare which is being 
waged. It is a unified spiritual campaign. And it is 
none other than the Spirit of God who has unified the great 
movements of missionary activity in the Levant, often, 
too, altogether without any conscious apprehension of 
it on the part of those who laboured. 

The past has laid a good foundation. Its experiences 
have made trial of methods and of men. Just now, 
signal political developments, a remarkable intellectual 
awakening, and a considerable degree of religious liberty 
seem to mark the dawn of a new day. A call comes for a 
wise adaptation of missionary methods to these new 
conditions and then for advance, a forward movement 
whose dominant characteristics will be faith and love. 


Between the Nearer and Farther East, north of India 
and south of the Siberian Steppes, stretches the region 
known as Central .Asia. Here is the roof of the world 
and the water-shed of the largest continent. Here 
three empires, India, Russia, and China, meet. Here 
three great religions have struggled for the mastery and 
one after the other held supremacy for centuries. Buddh- 
ism and Christianity still count their adherents, but 
Islam has swept the field, except in Tibet, and the whole 
territory is practically unoccupied by Christian missions. 
Less kno^vn than Central Africa and in some places less 
thoroughly explored, it constitutes a vast area of ghastly 
deserts and fertile oases ; of parched plains and navigable 
rivers ; of perpetual snow and perpetual drought. It varies 
in elevation from the low depressions of the Caspian 
Sea and the basin of the Turfan 300 feet below sea level 
in the very heart of Asia, to the high plateaus of Tian Shan 
and Mt. Kailas 26,000 feet above the sea. 

In this survey we include Afghanistan, Chinese Turke- 
stan, Bokhaxa, Khiva, Russian Turkestan, the trans- 
Caspian province, together with the Steppes, and Tibet. 
According to the table (see p. 192) the field under con- 
sideration has a total area of 2,695,730 square miles and 
a population of 23,368,000. These figures, however, 
would give a wrong impression of the real density of 
the population. Since the rainfall of Central Asia has 
decreased so that its rivers fail to reach the sea, less than 
a tenth of the total area is permanently habitable. The 
population therefore is comparatively dense in the 
irrigated oases along the rivers. " 




{Statesman's Year Book, IQ09.) 



sq. miles. 

Tibet (with Koko-nor) .... 



Afghanistan ...... 



Chinese Turkestan ..... 


1, 200, coo 

Bokhara ....... 



Khiva ....... 



Russian Turkestan 

Ferghana ...... 



Samarkand ...... 



Syr Darya 



Semiretchinsk ..... 



Trans-Caspian Province .... 



Steppes (four Provinces of Akmolinsk, Tur- 

gai, Semipalatinsk, and Uralsk) 
Totals for Central Asia 






A conglomeration of different races, tribes, and peoples, 
struggling for existence rather than for mastery ; a 
medley of humanity displayed possibly nowhere else on 
the globe in greater variety and yet welded into a seeming 
unity by physical environment, a common, though ahen, 
religion, and the same political hopes and fears such is 
Central Asia. 

With the one exception of Tibet, Islajn has spread over 
all the region and dominates the heart of Asia socially, 
intellectually, and spiritually as "strongly and over- 
whelmingly as it doesj^orth Africa. The city of Bokhara, 
with 10,000 students and 364 mosques, is the Cairo of 
Asia ; it is the centre of Moslem learning and iniluence 
for all the Middle East. Tashkend has over three 
hundred mosques and a large Mohammedan library. All 
the great cities of Central Asia, with the exception of 
those in Tibet, are thoroughly Mohammedan. Moham- 


medans have dwelt unmolested in Lhasa for the last 
three hundred years. Afghanistan is wholly Moslem, 
while Chinese and Russian Turkestan, with the exception 
of the ruUng and military classes, are also prevailingly 
Mohammedan. The social life, the literature, architec- 
ture, art, etiquette and everyday speech of all Central 
Asia bear the_trade-mark of Islani. An ordinary pocket- 
compass goes byTHe name of " Mecca-pointer," and the 
wild men of Hunza, shut out by the mountains from 
every contact with the outside world, have no God but 
Allah, and no idea of the world save that its centre is 

I. Afghanistan by the new demarcation of its boun- 
daries includes five major provinces and two minor 
districts. In the province of Herat alone there are six 
hundred villages, but the chief centres of population 
are the provincial capitals of Kandahar, Kabul, Herat, 
Balkh, and Kunduz. The first nameThas a population 
of 50,000. There is considerable agriculture ; exports 
to India and Bokhara amount to at least Rs. 1,000,000 a 
year. The common door of entrance to Afghanistan 
from Persia is by way "of Meshed, from Bokhara by Merv, 
and from India by the Khait)ar Pass to Kabul, the 
Gomal Pass to Ghazni, or from Chaman, the terminus 
of the North-Western Railway, to Kandahar. There 
are roads for artillery, but none for wheeled traffic, and 
no navigable rivers in the country. Pushtu is the 
common speech everywhere, although the Turkestanis 
use Turki and the Kafirs have a language of their own. 
Persian, is the court and literary language and is taught in 
the schools. 

Afghanistan is morally one of the darkest places of 
the earth, " full of the habitations of cruelty." Judicial 
corruption and bribery are universal and the criminal 
law based on the Koran and tradition is barbarous, in 
the extreme. Torture in every conceivable form is 
common, and the prisons of Kabul are horribly inhurnan. 
Under the absolute rule of the Amir there is not even the 
semblance of religious liberty or personal freedom. 

COM. I. 13 


Ninety per cent, of the people are illiterate, and woman- 
hood is degraded. 

2. Chinese Turkestan (called Sin-kiang) in its widest 
sense includes Kuldja, Zungaria, and outer Kan-su, the 
Chinese dependencies between Mongolia and Tibet- 
The inhabitants are of various races, and the chief towns 
are Urumtsi, the capital, Karashahr, Kashgar, Yarkand, 
Khotan, and Aksu. Extremes of heat and cold mark 
this region, zero weather changing to sudden spring. 
The highest trade route in the world leads from India 
over the Karakoram Pass, 18,300 feet, into Chinese 
Turkestan. Caravans loaded with " tea, spices, cloth, 
and Korans " make the dangerous journey. Skeletons 
of horses and camels strew the pathway, and yet 1500 
Chinese Moslem pilgrims chose this path over the roof 
of the world to Mecca in a single year. The languages 
of Chinese Turkestan are Chinese, Jagatai Turki, Kashgar 
Turki and Kirghiz Turki. The percentage of illiteracy is 
very high. 

Among the Chantos of Eastern Turkestan social and 
moral conditions are very low. " Flagrant immorality 
is well-nigh universal. Khotan and Kiriya have the 
reputation of being the most immoral cities of Asia." A 
so-called respectable woman may have three or four 
husbands in a year because of divorce and temporary 
legal marriages. Among the Kirghiz women and the 
nomads of Central Asia in general, better conditions 

3. Russia in Central Asia. The total area and popu- 
lation of Russian possessions and dependencies in Central 
Asia are given in the table above. The chief centres of 
population, trade and communication are the following 
cities : Tashkent (155,673), Kokand (81,354), Namangau 
(62,017), Samarkand (58,194), Karshi (25,000), Hissar 
(10,000), Khiva (5,000), Osh (34,157), Semipalatinsk 
(36,040). About sixty-five per cent, of the population 
in Asiatic Russia have settled abodes, fifteen per cent. 
are semi-nomadic, and twenty per cent, nomads of the 
Steppes. The density of the population varies greatly. 


The climate varies exceedingly, but is generally healthful. 
The means of transportation is by caravan along good 
roads or by the Russian Trans-Caspian Railway and its 
branches. The amount of money, time, and labour 
expended by the Russian Government in works of irri- 
gation, bridges, railways, military hospitals, and depots 
is surprising. In addition to 3202 miles of railways 
there is a regular steamboat service on the River Oxus 
between Petro Alexandrovsk and Charjui for over 200 
miles, and from Charjui to the head of navigation, Patta 
Hissar, for 288 miles. Russian Central Asia is therefore 
physically accessible nearly everywhere by rail or river, 
and the great centres of population are knit together by 
telegraph, commerce, and military occupation. Except 
among the nominally Christian population about ten 
per cent. social__and. moral conditions are like those of 
other Moslem lands. Eighty-hve per cent, of the popula- 
ti'onls illiterate. 

4. Tibet, extending eastward from the Himalayan 
Mountains to the frontier of China, has a population 
estimated at over 6,000,000, according to the Statesman^ 
Year Book. This estimate is regarded by some authori- 
ties as too high. The country is bleak and mountainous 
and jealously^arded against strangers, and there are 
therefore stiDTwide regions unexplored. The greater part 
of the surface consists of high tablelands with snow- 
capped mountains. In the central part there are 
numerous lakes. 

The prevailing religion throughout the whole of Tibet 
is Lamaism, a corrupt form of Buddhism, but along with 
it there still exists the older Bon, or Shamanistic faith. 
Although the Government is'^conducted by commissioners 
appointed at Peking, it was until very recently entirely 
in the hands of the priests or lamas, whose niiinber is so 
great as to give Tibet the name of a kingdom of priests. 
Nearly all the Government taxes are expended on these 
lamas, who live in highly decorated temples and mon- 
asteries. " Among the people polyandry is common. 
There are courts of justice, but douBtful cases are often 


decided by lot or by ordeal, and in criminal cases evidence 
is extracted by torture." The Buddhism of Tibet is 
in its ethics not at all superior to the ordinary heathenism 
of other parts of the world, and moral conditions are 
pitiful. It is nevertheless in its teachings harder to 
meet than mere paganism, for it is " a heathenism based 
on hundreds of folios, evolving their philosophic system 
of dialectics, a hoary heathenism centuries older than 
Christianity. Proud, self-righteous, and self-satisfied it 
is, in spite of its hollowness and superficiality ; stubbornly 
tenacious of life, and so complete and minute in its 
organisation that it inexorably sways the whole life, 
religious, political, and social, of its adherents." Re- 
markable poUtical changes are taking place in Tibet, and 
it%eEoves the Church to watch carefully whether these 
may not tend to the furtherance of the Gospel. 


This extensive territory, with an area of nearly 
2,700,000 square miles, thirteen times the size of France 
and over twice as large as all of the United States east 
of the Mississippi River, has within its actual bounds 
only three mission stations. The Swedish Mission, 
organised in 1894, occupies the two stations of Kashgar 
and Yarkand in Chinese Turkestan. The total number 
of missionaries is eleven. The total number of native 
workers at the two stations is six, one of whom is a 
regular evangelist. The four Gospels have been trans- 
lated into Kashgari and put into circulation. The 
China Inland Mission has lately placed one of its mission- 
aries at the capital city of Urumtsi in the northern part 
of Sin-kiang. The one worker at that city is preparing 
himself for work amongst the Mohammedans by the 
study of the Turki language. The British and Foreign 
Bible Society has colporteurs at work from Tiflis and 
Tashkent as centres, with some success in reaching the 
regions beyond. 

In Khiva and Russian Turkestan there are some 


German Mennonites expelled from Russia who try to 
spread the Gospel among the Moslems and also give a 
good example by their Cliristian life. There are also 
some German Mennonites at Auli-Ata, eastward from the 
city of Tashkent, who have commenced to distribute the 
Gospel and to preach among the Kirghiz nation. Gener- 
ally speaking, however, the Sarts, Uzbegs, Jews, and all 
the other population of Bokhara, Khiva, and Turkestan 
are still jinreached. The Gospels have been translated 
into Uzbeg, Turki, and Kirghiz, and the whole Bible into 

'~Stterapts to enter Tibet were made very early in the 
history of missions. In 1845 (not to speak of the journey 
of Odoric, the Apostle of Tartary, in 1330) Father Gabet 
and Father Hue penetrated to Lhassa, only to be 
arrested and sent as prisoners to Canton. Numerous 
attempts have been made since, both by Roman Catholic 
and Protestant missionaries, by way of India and China. 
The Moravian Church for over fifty years has been laying 
siege in the name of Christ to these ancient strongholds 
of Buddhism. A cojdon of missionary outposts is being 
drawn around TTEet, and although it is weak and with 
long gaps in the links, it extends from Kashmir along 
the north frontier of India and Burma and reaches up 
to the north of China. 

It is more than 2000 miles from the Moravian station 
among the Tibetan Buddhists, Leh in Ladak, to the 
Chinese frontier, where the China Inland Mission on this 
extreme outpost is trying to reach the eastern Tibetans. 
The whole story of the attempted entrance into this 
great closed land is full of heart-stirring heroism. The 
Moravian brethren now occupy four stations in Little 
Tibet. They have prepared grammars, a dictionary 
and their translation ^f the New Testament and parts 
of the Old Testament in Tibetan have been published 
by the British and Foreign Bible Society. The China 
Inland Mission, the Christian Missionary Alliance, the 
Scandinavian Alliance Mission, the Church of Scotland 
Mission, the London Missionary Society, the Church 


Missionary Society, the Foreign Christian Mission, and 
the Assam Frontier Mission have all made preparatory 
efforts, more or less extended, to enter this field. The 
Central Asia Pioneer Mission (organised 1902) has a 
station at Hoti-Mardan on the marches of India, near 
Peshawar. The object of this Mission is to enter Afghan- 
istan. Within a short distance of this outpost they 
report 2000 villages yet unevangelised. The Chmxh 
Missionary Society on the north-west frontier of India 
at Peshawar, Bannu, and Dera - Ismail - Khan is in 
close proximity not only to Afghanistan, but is begin- 
ning to carry on mission work by itineration and 
through its hospitals, as well as the circulation of the 
Scriptures in the semi-independent states and frontier 
tribal areas. 


Stretching for more than one thousand miles due north 
from the Indian frontier and beyond the Church Mis- 
sionary Society outposts, and for three thousand miles 
from west to east all the way from Meshed, Persia, to 
Batang, the first border station of China, is the un- 
occupied heart of Asia. The great historic cities 
Samarkand, Tashkent, Kokand, Andijan, in Russian 
Turkestan ; Turfan, Aksu, Hami, and Khotan, in Sin- 
kiang, and the centres of population in Afghanistan, 
are all without missionaries, and so is Tibet except along 
its borders. Colonel Wingate, in writing of the spiritual 
needs of Central Asia, says : " One remark is applicable 
to all the tribes that lie beyond the Indian frontier, to 
the Mohmands and Shinwaris, to the Kohistanis and the 
Chitrals, to the inhabitants of Swat and Dir, of Hunza 
and Yasin, that they are aU to-day_without the help of 
medical science and skill, and would hail with uncommon 
thankfulness the arrival of the medical missionary with 
his dispensary and hospital, for the sake of which they- 
would tolerate his Bible and listen to his exhortations, 
andlearn to love the Saviour of all mankind." And 


what is true of the borders of Afghanistan is true of all 
the regions beyond. 

The experience of all workers in Moslem lands is 
unanimous that greater and better results can be obtained 
among this class of people through the work of medical 
missionaries than in any other way. When we consider 
the desperate need of the whole population, deprived of 
all medical skill and subject to every superstition and 
cruelty, the establishment of modern mission hospitals 
in most of the large centres of population seems not 
only essential but imperative. In regard to literary 
work much remains to be done, and vastly more in the 
line of education and evangelisation. 

In the judgment of some missionary leaders, we should 
strengthen by immediate reinforcement the work begun 
so courageously and successfully at Kashgar and Yarkand 
by the Swedish Mission, and begin work in the other 
great centres along the Russian railway in Turkestan. 
The present spiritual destitution and the age-long 
neglect of all these countries are the strongest 
possible arguments for their occupation. The pathos 
of these millions still groping restlessly for the True Light 
finds a voice in the record of many travellers who have 
visited these lands. The fact that apparently insur- 
mountable obstacles have hindered the evangelisation 
of Central Asia in the past, and that there are still great 
obstacles, should not limit our faith to-day. The reasons 
for the long neglect were doubtless both religious and 
political. The Janatic intolerance and pride of Islam 
or of Lamaism have baffled the faith and deferred the 
hope of those who might othei"wise, perhaps, have entered 
and possessed the land. Tibet still is closed against the 
actual_ residence of missionaries, although the people 
are being reached across its borders. In Afghanistan 
there is an absolute veto against any missionary entering, 
and there is little prospect of this changing under the 
present regime. A convert from Islam to Christianity 
is regarded, within the realms of the Amir, as having 
committed a capita] offence, and both law and public 


opinion justifyhis. execution. Conditions in Russian 
Turkestan and among the Chantos of Sin-kiang are not 
so unfavourable. The entrance of a medical missionary 
might prove the beginning of established work. If the 
missionary is going to wait until the Foreign Office sanctions 
his going and guarantees his protection or vengeance 
for any injury done him, then the doors are closed. Tf 
the missionary is to wait until it is safe to take his wife 
and children into Central Asia with him, he may be 
delayed many years, but the doors are not closed to those 
who are v/illing to go in the same way as the selected 
officers of the British Government. " Unmarried men, 
or those who are willing to leave their families at home, 
knowing the language, strong, robust, fearless, tactful 
if we had a hundred of such qualified men, carefully 
selected, there would be little difficulty in putting them 
into positions of enormous advantage for the spiritual 
occupation of Central Asian territories." 

It is not probable that amid all the restless movements 
in the neighbouring Moslem nations Turkey, Persia, 
and India Central Asia and Afghanistan will remain 
dormant. On the contrary, there are indications that 
the Pan-Islamic movement has reached Bokhara and 
Kabul, as well as Orenburg and Tiflis. Not only is 
there discussion of social reform in the Moslem press of 
Russia, but the Tatar paper, Terjuman, recently contained 
a proposition calling for a Pan-Islamic Congress to discuss 
the reformation of Islam (London Times, October 12, 
1908). At present the Moslems of Chinese Turkestan 
are " the essence of imperturbable mediocrity. They 
live a careless, easy, apathetic existence ; nothing disturbs 
them. It is their destiny, shut awa}/ from the rest of 
the world, to lead a dull, spiritless, but easy and perhaps 
happy life, which they allow nothing to disturb." Let 
these Moslems, however, once become aroused through 
the press or the dervish preacher, and who can tell what 
may be the result in Central Asia ? Now is the oppor- 

/ tunity to carry the Gospel to them. 

" Nothing can hold back the advance of Western civDisa- 


tion into the very heart of Asia. The railway and the 
caravan are forcing upon the people through every pass 
and along every channel of communication the latest 
inventions of our times. At Kabul one may see motor 
cars, sewing macliines, gramophones, rifles and smokeless 
powder. "T5rie of the results of the visit of the Amir of 
Afghanistan to India was that he arranged for the erection 
of looms in his capital, and now we hear of the trans- 
portation by camel train of pianos, and motor cars and a 
plant for wireless telegraphy through the Khaiber Pass. 
For the management of all those modern industries a 
staff of European engineers and mechanics is admitted 
in to^ the country. 

Afghanistan is perhaps to-day the most difficult country 
for a missionary to enter. Not only is the Amir's written 
permission necessary, but the Indian Government must 
also consent, and no European is allowed to cross the 
frontier without a permit. It is almost as difficult 
for those who are employed by the Amir to return to 
India. Even the British pohtical agent residing in 
Kabul is little better than a prisoner, and hundreds of 
people have been killed merely""oh suspicion of having 
visited him and given reports of the doings of the Govern- 
ment. Yet all these difficulties of long neglect, of politi- 
cal barriers, of national jealousies, and of religious in- 
tolerance, in Tibet as well as in Afghanistan, are only 
a challenge to faith and are intended of God to lead us 
to prayer. The evangelisation of Central Asia has in it 
the glory of an apparently impossible task, but aU diffi- 
culties can be surmounted by those who have faith in 
God. The kingdoms and the governments of this world 
have frontiers which must not be crossed, but the Gospel 
of Jesus Christ has no frontier. It has never been kept 
within bounds ; it has a message for the whole race, and 
the very fact that there are millions of souls in Central 
Asia who have never heard the message becomes the 
strongest of reasons why we ^rrru^ carry it to them. 
Every year we hear of further advance into these regions 
of Central Asia by commerce, by travellers, and by men 


of science. If they can open a way for themselves in 
spite of all these difficulties, shall the ambassadors of 
the Cross shrink back ? The fact that Central Asia has 
for the first time a place in the prayers and faith and 
enterprise of even a few Christians is a sure promise of its 
final evangelisation.! 

1 Owing to the fact that there are so few missionaries in the 
territory treated in this section of the Report, the chief sources of 
information are books bearing on different aspects of the field. 
The following bibliography is in part the basis of the facts and 
opinions given : 

The Statesmen's Year Book, 1909. 

Ellsworth Huntington, The Pulse of Asia (New York, 1907). 

David Fraser, The Marches of Hindustan (Edinburgh, 1907). 

Perceval Landon, The Opening of Tibet (New York, 1905). 

Dr. Susie C. Rynhart, With Tibetans in Tent and Temple (New 
York, 1901). 

Annie Taylor, Pioneering in Tibet. 

H. G. Schneider, Working and Waiting for Tibet. 

Angus Hamilton, Afghanistan (London, 1906). 

Frank A. Martin, Under the Absolute Amir (New York, 1907). 

Ralph P. Cobbold, Innermost Asia (London, 1900). 

Sven Hedin, Through Asia, 2 volumes (London, 1898). 

" Our North-West Frontier in India." C.M.S. Review, August, 

T. H. Pennell, Among the Wild Tribes of the Afghan Frontier. 

Younghusband, The Heart of a Continent. 

Wright, Asiatic Russia, 2 volumes (London, 1903). 

Current numbers of Revue du Monde Musulman (Paris). 

Current numbers of The Geographical Journal (London). 

Colonel S. Wingate, The Spiritual Needs of Central Asia. 

Colonel S. Wingate, Some Features of Chinese Turkestan. 

J. H. Edgar, The Marches of the Mantze (C.LM.). 


The aim of this survey is to convey a fairly accurate 
impression of the task remaining to be accomphshed in 
the evangehsation of Africa. This aim hmits its scope 
and governs its form. The size of the continent and the 
variety of the conditions determining the problem in 
different parts of it make any wholesale generalisations 
impossible. A survey that seeks to be accurate must 
necessarily offer a somewhat complex picture. 

Extent. It is a continent of enormous, extent, ranking 
next to Asia, three times the size of Europe, and one-half 
as large again as either North or South America. It 
may be said to consist of four huge river basins the Nile, 
the Congo, the Niger, and the Zambesi, guarded on the 
north-west by the vast Sahara and its enclosing mountains, 
and shielded on the south by the plateau of South Africa. 
But of these river basins, the Congo alone is properly so 
described. Africa must rather be thought of as a 
continent rimmed for the most part by a narrow, low- 
lying coast, behind which rise, like a natural rampart, 
with varying steepness, the slopes that encircle the inner 
uplands and plateaux. From these iiplahds numerous 
rivers cleave a short course for themselves to the sea. On 
the other hand, some of the inland rivers fail to reach the 
sea. Lake Chad is a vast fresh-water sheet which receives 
the tribute of rivers, but has no outlet. The average 
elevation of the land is 2300 feet above the sea, and 
this elevation is an important factor in modifying the 
climate of a continent, two-thirds of which lies within 
the tropics. 



Population. When we compare the area of Africa with 
the size of its population, we encounter a primary con- 
sideration in the task before the Church. India and China 
are the two great mission fields of the world, but India 
could be accommodated within the three Congo territories, 
and the eighteen provinces of China within the lands 
bordering on the Nile ; and yet the total population of 
Africa, which may be reckoned at a hundred and eighty 
millions, is only two-thirds that of India and not one-half 
that of China proper. That is to say, in Africa the popula- 
tion shows an average of less than fifteen to the square 
mile, in China it is over two hundred and sixty. That 
outstanding fact is enough to show the futility of attempt- 
ing to gauge the number of workers required by an 
arbitrary numerical ratio to the population. Thus one 
missionary writes of the sphere in which his mission 
works : " The field is as large as Germany ; its population 
only amounts to a hundred thousand." The area is an 
important factor. 

Races. The variety of races does not seriously affect 
the general missionary problem so far as the native 
population is concerned. Throughout the northern 
regions of Africa the tribes are mostly of Hamitic .origin, 
represented mainly by the Fellaheen of Egypt, the Berbers 
of the Mediterranean Provinces, and the Tuaregs of the 
desert. Intermixed with these are others of Semitic origin, 
while in the north-east there is a still more recent infusion 
of Arabian immigrants, who are also to be found in 
growing numbers as are also East Indians down the 
east coast. From about the fifteenth parallel north, 
southward to the fifth, the pjreyalent tribes are Negroes of 
the Sudanese, Nilotic, and Ethiopic groups, while the 
Bantu races extend from about the fifth parallel north, 
southward to Cape Colony. In the extreme south-west 
there is a considerable district occupied chiefly by the 
stunted Bushmen and the taller Hottentots. Mention 
should also be made of several dwarf races inhabiting the 
equatorial forests. 


Languages. What does, however, greatly enhance the 
difficulty of missionary work is the endless subdivision of 
these races into different tribal communities, dwelling 
sometimes apart from, and sometimes alongside of, one 
another, and still more the bewildering variety, not 
merely of dialects, but of positively different languages.^ 
To select two illustrations from many furnished by our 
correspondents, the mission field of one society is stated 
to include no fewer than thirty different languages ; and 
in another field, far distant from the former, two languages 
are said to be required at several of their stations. A 
further illustration is supplied in the Report of the British 
and Foreign Bible Society. Of the 412 languages in 
which they have been instrumental in circulating the 
Scriptures, no fewer than 100 belong to Africa, and of 
the 138 languages mentioned in the editorial report for 
1907 dealing with current work, 42 belong to Africa. 

Social Conditions. Another important consideration is, 
that over by far the larger part of Africa the conditions of 
life are s till p rimitive. Whatever may be said of the 
native population ~in Egypt and South Africa, or in 
those places along the coast which have become seats 
of European civilisation and centres of trade with other 
lands, the bulk of the population of Africa is immersed 
in darkness. Outside of the Barbary States, Egypt 
and Abyssinia, with the single exception of some 
traces of Hausa literature, there is in marked contrast 
to China and India not a single tribe with a literature ^ 

1 According to Mr. B. Struck of Berlin the number of African 
languages and dialects is as follows : 

Sudan languages . . 264 Dialects . .111 
Bantu . . 1S2 . .119 

Hamitic ,, . . 47 . . 71 

Minor ,, . . 30 . . 19 

Languages . 523 Dialects . 320 

This gives a grand total of S43 African languages and dialects. 
Professor Meinhof also regards this estimate as practically correct. 
* There is, of course, on the east coast some imported Moslem 


or even an alphabet of its own. A superficial and im- 
provident cultivation of the soil, the rearing of cattle, and 
hunting provide the great majority of Africans with their 

Off means of maintenance. Of special classes in the com- 
munity calling for specialised missionary effort, there are 

'^ none. The only distinctions that are common are those 
between headmen and people, and (in many places) 
between freeborn and slaves. In the more arid regions 
are numerous nomad tribes, but over all the rest of Central 
and Southern Africa, villages of mud walls, grass roofs 
and low doors shelter the countless tribes who dwell in 
them'kstlieir ancestors have done for hundreds of^^ears. 
Owing to climatic conditions, or by reason of tribal 
customs, such as those connected with the death of a 
chief, these villages disappear, leaving not a trace behind, 
and new villages spring up elsewhere (Stewart, Dawn in 
the Dark Continent, p. 13). Polygamy is almost universal. 
Slave raiding, inter-tribal wars and cruel superstitions 
have through long years preyed upon the life of Africa, 
and left its population reduced, divided, suspicious. 
Slave raiding has now through European influence been 
almost suppressed, and only exists furtively within narrow 
limits, but in the more inaccessible districts inter-tribal 
raiding still continues, and among some tribes, even 
within spheres of European supervision, cannibalism is 
still practised. The evangelisation of Africa means some- 
thing more than the introduction of the Gospel into 
existing forms of social life. It means the introduction 

^ of education and letters, of agriculture and industries, of 
Christian marriage, and of due recognition of the sanctity 
of human life and of property. The problem before the 
Church is the creation of a Christian African civilisatio n. 

Religions. Intimately allied with the social condition 
of the people are their religions. Apart from the results 
of missions and colonisation, three religions are at home 
in Africa. Christianity is one. It has survived from 
Apostolic times among the Copts of Egypt and in the 
Ethiopic Church of Abyssinia. Its adherents may be 


reckoned as numbering about four millions. But these 
C hrist ian communities have long ceased to be missionary.^ 
While there has been in recent years a certain renascence 
in the Egyptian Church, it must be confessed with sorrow 
that the Christianity extant in Abyssinia has deteriorated 
into a corrupt formalism aggravated by ignorance and 
superstition, and so ineffective that there is a continual 
drifting of its membership into Mohammedanism. 

The second is Islam, persistent, active, and aggressive. 
It dominates Africa on its western half as far south as 
10 N. latitude, and on its eastern half as far south as 5 N.; 
and it is ever pushing its conquests beyond its own 
territory, not only down the east coast, but into the 
interior, and by sporadic efforts as far south as Cape 
Colony and to the tribes on the west coast. Every v, 
Mohammedan trader is a propagandist. It is by no 
means a convinced or staunch Mohammedanism which is 
thus covering Africa. It wins the adherence of the 
Pagans by associating them with a recognised religion 
and investing them with a higher social status, while it i*^ 
sanctions polygamy and imposes no moral or spiritual 
obligations that are unwelcome to the unregenerate hearty' 
It is also a gasspoH to Government employment, Ih 
some districts, even under British rule, no native can be 
enlisted in the native forces or among the subordinate 
agents of the administration unless he becomes a Moham- 
medan. The number of Moslems may be reckoned at 
between fifty and sixty millions, and they are daily increas- 
ing. The ubiquitous and rapid advance of Islam is the 
great challenge to urgency in the evangelisation of Africa. 

The third religion is that congeries of tribal beliefs 
and practices summed up under the names of Animism 
and Fetichism. Without any sacred books or common 
organisation, and varying in each tribe, in some associated 
with worthier ideas, in others with cruel and foul customs, 
in all subjecting the people to the terrors of superstition 
and the oppressive tyrannies of witchcraft, they hold in 
thrall some ninety millions of the inhabitants. Their 
opposition to Christianity is of..the.._weakest ; it has 


nothing in it of the pride or fanaticism of Islam, and 
opposes no adamantine social barrier such as that of caste 
in India. "Its very misery makes it welcome relief; 
its utter darkness makes it glad of light." There are, 
indeed, vested interests of darkness to be overcome, but 
the field is one where, as in Uganda and Livingstonia, 
rapid and widespread triumphs of the Gospel are possible. 
It is a shame to the Churches of Christendom that they 
have not anticipated the Powers of Europe in a partition 
of Africa for the bringing of its millions into the Kingdom 
of Christ. 

Governments. We come thus upon another important 
factor in the existing situation. Politically Africa has 
become an appanage of Europe. Leaving out of view the 
self-governing"Union of South Africa under the British 
flag, the only independent States are the Republic of 
Liberia, the Kingdom of Abyssinia and the Kingdom of 
Morocco, but their united territory does not amount to 
a twentieth part of Africa, and over and about each of 
them falls the shadow of European influence. France 
claims as her sphere of influence not less than a third of 
Africa. If Egypt and the Egyptian Sudan be reckoned 
as under British supervision, Britain claims another third. 
Germany claims a twelfth, Belgium a twelfth, and 
Portugal, Italy, and Spain another twelfth between them. 
But this partition of Africa among European Powers has 
by no means brought its vast territory under European 
law and authority. It is only a compact among the 
Powers themselves to recognise the right of each to 
extend its rule and administration over the sphere 
allotted to it ; and no Power has succeeded in 
establishing its administration over the whole of the 
territory claimed by it. Where seats of administration 
have been planted, the authority of the European Power 
has made itself felt in the modification of native laws and 
the limiting of the powers of the native chiefs ; and the 
extension of this controlling and readjusting supremacy 
is continually going forward. But there are immense 


tracts where the only authority on the spot is still the 
old authority of the native kings and of the chiefs, and 
Hae only laws are those of ancient custom and of native 
despotism. At the same time, there is everywhere a 
consciousness of impending subjection to foreign rule. 
Unhappily it cannot be said that the object of this foreign 
domination of Africa is, in the first instance or even 
directly, the good of Africa. Indirectly beneficial results 
have followed, as, for example, through the treaties sup- 
pressing the ^lav^J:rade, prohibiting the importation of 
firearms, and prohibiting or restricting the trade in 
intoxicating liquors. But the primary aim in the annexa- 
tions of African territory has been the tapping of new 
sources of wealth and the opening of a larger market to the 
trade of the world ; and the lamentable fact is that the 
tendency in the local representatives of these foreign 
governments, not excepting the British Government (all of 
them professedly Christian), is to facilitate and encourage 
the acceptance of the Mohammedan religion, and to 
restrict, and in some cases to prevent, the propagation 
of Christianity. It is a disgrace to British rule in tropical 
Africa that it should anywhere favour Islam and dis- 
courage the extension of Christian missions. 

Accessibility. Apart from hindrances interposed by 
Government, how far are the tribes accessible to Christian 
enterprise ? Before answering this question, it is only 
fair to state that while in Egypt and the Egyptian Sudan 
the restrictions imposed by Government are based chiefly 
on the fear of exciting Mohammedan fanaticism to violent 
outbreaks, yet both there and in other parts the European 
administrators consider that they must hold themselves 
charged with responsibility for the lives of Europeans 
settling in the interior. Hence they are unwilling to 
allow foreigners to reside in districts over which an effective 
control has not yet been established, and which, in the 
absence of such control, they deem to be perilous. There 
is no doubt that a new peril (as well as a new difficulty) 
has been created for missionaries through the advent of 
COM. I. 14 


white traders not under the influence of Christianity, 
who have produced upon the minds of the natives an 
impression and induced an attitude unfavourable to the 
white man's rehgion. Except through the prohibitions 
of Christian governments there is practically no part of 
Africa shut against the true missionary. The records 
of missionary travel from Krapf and Livingstone down to 
Grenfell prove this, and it is only right to add that the 
introduction of European authority and enterprise has 
in many ways facilitated access both into regions already 
explored and to many districts which have still to be 
explored. The great waterways of Africa which for 
centuries hardly gave access to more than its margin have 
now been turned to account. The barriers obstructing 
the full and free use of them have been overcome by 
local railways ; flotillas of steamers have been launched 
upon various reaches of the great rivers and on many of 
the great lakes. Railways are being pushed forward into 
the interior. Rhodesia is reached not only by the railway 
from Cape Town, but also from Beira in Portuguese East 
Africa. The Cape to Cairo railway has now touched the 
northern frontier of North- West Rhodesia and is passing 
on through Belgian territory ; and the railway from Cairo 
is now open to Khartum, with steamer connection to 
Gondokoro, iioo miles farther south. Lake Victoria 
Nyanza is linked by a railway to Mombasa on the east 
coast, and railways are projected from the east coast 
also to Lake Nyasa and Lake Tanganyika. In almost 
every colony on the western,^ as well as on the eastern, 
coast, railways have been or are being built to facilitate 
intercourse with the interior. Moreover^ in all the 
protectorates under enterprising administration, the con- 
struction of good roads is being diligently prosecuted. 
By all these the task of Christian missions is immensely 
facilitated, but aside from the highway of the river or the 
railway or the Government road, the greater part of the 

^ Along the west coast of Africa there are at least nineteen 
railways, none of which as yet exceeds four hundred miles in 


unevangelised field is accessible only by long and weary 
marching through bush or forest or tropical savannah 
or arid scrubland. Great doors are open, great fields 
accessible, but the evangelisation of the districts within 
those fields demands as a rule much toilsome itineration. 

When we proceed now to a survey of mission work in 
Africa, and of the tasks before it, we must needs deal 
with this vast continent in sections. Having regard to 
the political, geographical, racial and religious considera- 
tions involved, we can hardly divide Africa into fewer 
than seven or if Madagascar be reckoned separately, 
eight great mission fields. We begin our survey with 
North Africa, that vast expanse of territory reaching 
from the Mediterranean to the farthest western extremity 
of the continent and below its farthest eastern extremity 
a territory which has for centuries been dominated by 
Islam. It naturally divides, however, into two sections. 


Egypt, Abyssinia, Egyptian Sudan, Somaliland 

First in order comes North-East Africa. In respect of 
its history and importance, together with the com- 
plexities and contrasts of the existing situation, it is of 
primary interest. It comprises the whole Nile Valley 
as far south as the Protectorate of British East Africa, 
with the provinces of the Egyptian Sudan to the west, and 
Somaliland and Abyssinia on the east. It is a territory 
larger than the whole of Europe, excluding Russia, But 
amid the varying estimates of the population, we can 
hardly place the total higher than twenty millions. The 
larger part of this territory, including all to the west of 
the Nile, is under the joint rule of Egypt and Britain. 
The larger part of Somaliland to the east is an Italian 
protectorate having an area double that of Italy, while 
on the Red Sea there is the Italian colony of Eritrea with 
an area equal to four-fifths of Italy. Between Eritrea 
and the British Coast Protectorate of Somaliland is 



situated the smaU Protectorate of French Somaliland, 
which is important, however, as containing the harbour 
terminus of the railway running inland to Abyssinia, 
Abyssinia is an independent kingdom, and its authority 
extends southward over the Galla tribes without any very 
definite boundary between it and the authority of Italy. 

The density of the population is, of course, largely 
determined by the degree of fertility in the various centres. 
Somaliland is comparatively barren, and among its 
inhabitants are migratory tribes whose movements are 
determined by the need of water and pasture for their 
cattle ; there the population only averages two or three 
to the square mile. Even in the Italian colony of Eritrea 
it is only slightly over five to the square mile. Abyssinia 
proper is for the most part a high tableland where the 
fertihty and general conditions of life are more favourable, 
and there the population averages at least twenty-five 
to the square mile. Bahr-el-Ghazal is said to be the most 
fertile province in the Egyptian Sudan, but taking the 
Sudan as a whole (that is, the whole Egyptian territory 
outside of Egypt proper), the average population may be 
taken roughly at two per square mile. Ten milhons of 
the total population are found in Egypt proper, and nearly 
all of it within the limited area described as " settled." 

The variety of races is great. The prevalent type is, of 
course, the Nilotic negro, but there is in Egypt and the 
lower Sudan a large admixture of Arabs with those of 
Nubian and Ethiopic descent. Beyond Abyssinia, in 
the regions of the sources of the Nile, there is a remarkable 
variety of tribes too numerous to mention. 

With regard to religion, it may be said generally that 

Mohammedanism prevails from the Mediterranean to 

150 miles south of Khartum, with a Coptic Church 

existing in its centre ; and that paganism prevails from 

that point southward, with a corrupt form of Christianity 

^1 ii abounding in Abyssinia, and an infiltration of Moham- 

'* ,, > medanism ever going on. In Abyssinia, Mohammedanism 

^'' is officially recognised as well as Christianity, and the 

f testimony from the Swedish Mission in Eritrea is to the 



effect that there is a continualjaj)^^ of professing Christians * ^ 
to Islam. A significant factor in the situation is the 
great Mohammedan University, Al Azhar, at Cairo. With 
its 10,000 students gathered from all parts of Africa and 
even from distant countries in Asia, it may be regarded 
as constituting Cairo the intellectual capital of the 
Mohammedan world. Here is the fountain-head of its 
scholastic training, and, to a limited extent, of its 

The Christian propaganda in the section under review 
is most inadequate. The Coptic Church, though its life 
has become purer and stronger than formerly, has not 
yet awakened to its evangelistic obligations toward the 
surrounding Mohammedans. 

The American United Presbyterian Mission entered 
Egypt in 1854 and, besides its excellent work among the 
Copts, is doing a good work among Moslems. Several 
thousands of Moslem boys and girls, many of them from 
the higher classes of society, attend the mission schools. 
Stations have been opened in the Delta, where the 
population is distinctly Mohammedan, and medical, 
educational and colportage work are enabling the 
Mission to reach the Moslems with gratifying results. 
In i882,with the British occupation, the Church Missionary 
Society began work for Moslems in Cairo and there are 
now a few other societies also at work in Egypt. 

In all the Mohammedan region outside of Egypt 
proper the British Government practically prohibits 
aggressive work from fear of arousing Mohammedan - 
fanaticism. Hence the few British or American 
nilssionaries who have been allowed locations in 
Khartum and Omdurman are sorely fettered. The 
policy of the Government in this respect is in absolute 
contradiction to the teaching of experience, as shown by 
the influence of Christian medical missions among the 
fanatical Mohammedans of North-West India. Per- 
mission, however, has been given by the Government to 
missionaries to pass on to the pagan tribes farther 
south. The American United Presbyterian Church 


has begun work among the Shullas on the Sobat River, and 
the Church Missionary Society among the Dinkas, some 
two hundred miles farther south. The Swedish Mission 
has been bravely endeavouring for more than two decades 
to reach the heathen tribes in Abyssinia, but has found 
its principal field within the Italian colony of Eritrea, 
where it has six stations, and more than that number of 
ordained missionaries. The field here is fairly open, but 
difficulties are created by the Government's use of 
Amharic and Arabic as official languages, instead of 
the commonly spoken Tigre ; and the fear is expressed 
thut' further extension may soon be prohibited owing 
to the growing influence of Islam. It has also an agent 
resident at Adis-Abeba in Abyssinia, whose work, how- 
ever, is carried on mainly among the Gallas. There is a 
ready entrance for the Christian evangel, but the fanatical 
opposition of the debaseH^ priests of the Abyssinian Church 
and the drastic punishments inflicted by Abyssinian 
authorities on any one suspected of favouring another 
form of Christianity are great hindrances. 

It is manifest that the number of missionaries required 
to occupy the strategic centres in this great territory must 
be reckoned not by tens, but by hundreds. Of primary 
importance is the removal of the restrictions laid by the 
British Government upon Christian missions, or at least, 
in the first instance, a relaxation of them so as to allow 
of a judicious and progressive advance. The experience 
of missions amongst the pagan tribes, though limited and 
recent, coincides with the experience of missions in other 
parts of Africa that the Christian school and itineration, 
as well as industrial and medical missions, are the methods 
which can in the first instance be used with greatest 
advantage. As regards the Mohammedans, there is 
amongst them an increase of education which gives 
additional importance and value to the circulation of 
suitable Christian literature such as is being issued from 
the'Kile Mission Press. 



The Mediterranean States and the Sahara 

We have to look next at the great Mohammedan field 
lying to the west of a line drawn from Lake Chad north- 
ward to the east of Tripoli, and to the north of a line 
curving westward from Lake Chad to beyond the Niger, 
and then bending northward to the south-east corner of 
Morocco. It includes the vast Sahara Desert and to the 
north of it the four Mohammedan States coasting the 
Mediterranean, Tripoli a dependency of Turkey, Tunis and 
Algeria under the sway of France, and Morocco where the 
influence of France is now ascendant. That long broad 
seaboard has both an historical and a present importance. 
It is the scene of the triumph of Islam over the decadent 
but once flourishing Church of Tertullian, Cyprian and 
Augustine, and their memory summons us to reclaim their 
land for Christ. It is, together with Egypt, the_base of 
Islam in Africa, so that, if we would prevent the exten- 
sion of the reign of Islam in the south, we must under- 
mine its foundations in the north. It is the terminus 
of the trade caravans from the Sahara, so that through 
these lands lies the natural highway for the Gospel to 
the children of the desert. It is a region of attractive 
climate, fertile in fruits and rich in minerals, attracting 
residents from other lands and beginning to enter more 
largely into the commerce and intercourse of nations, 
so that it should no longer be left in neglect. 

The population may be roughly reckoned at fourteen 
millions. They are partly Semitic, Arabs (or Moors), 
who came at first into the land to possess it for Islam ; 
and partly Hamitic, the older inhabitants, consisting of 
various tribes, the Berbers, Kabyles, etc. Arabic is 
the prevalent language. In all these States there are 
considerable numbers of Jews. 

Mission work was only begun in this region within the 
last thirty years, and is as yet represented only by a few 
isolated stations and individual workers. Tripoli and the 



district of Oran in Algeria are practically unoccupied (one 
station in each), and the part of Morocco south and east 
of the Atlas range is wholly unoccupied. The total 
European and American force in these four States can 
hardly be more than a hundred and forty, and at least 
three times that number could at once be placed in the 
field without arousing opposition or suspicion and without 
overtaking all available openings. 

The societies having the largest forces in the field are 
compara,tively young, but they merit warm recognition 
for advancing into a field which the older and stronger 
societies had neglected. It may be that the latter would 
have found more favour with the French Government. 
But, in any case, it is desirable that the work in Tunis 
and Algiers should be carried on more largely through 
French societies or French agents, or failing that, by 
American societies, which would be less liable than British 
or German societies to political suspicions and jealousies 
on the part of local authorities. 

The field is one of special difficulty. In Morocco the 
death penalty for conversion from Islam to Christianity 
still holds, but both there and in the other lands under 
consideration Mohammedanism is becoming less rigid. 
Christlike lives have given to the Mohammedans a new 
view of Christianity, and medical work and Christianity 

. ^1 together have helped to disarm prejudice. The main 
difficulty in Tunis and Algeria is the temper of the French 
administration, which, as in Madagascar, is favourable 
to rationalism, atheism and secular amusements, but 
antagonistic to anything in the form of Christian pro- 
paganda. Schools and meetings are forbidden. Even 
for medical work within the French Protectorate, it is 
necessary to have a French diploma. 

Of the results of missions it is impossible to speak. 

Although individuals have received Christ, many more than 

. have openly confessed Him, no native Church has yet been 

'if- formed. The missionaries, however, "are persuaded that a 
foothold is being slowly won. Itineration and visitation, 
the distribution of Scriptures and literature, such educa- 


tional work as is possible, and especially medical work 
wherever it is allowed, are at present the most effective 
methods for carrying the message of the Gospel into 
Moslem hearts and homes. The situation is urgent be- 
cause growing contact with Europe is weakening the 
intolerance of Islam and awaking the people to new desires 
for knowledge and power such as they have not had. 

South of these four States lies the vast Sahara over 
which France claims sway. It is a territory larger than 
all India, and is not only without a missionary, but 
cannot be said even to lie within the immediate prospec- 
tive of any mission. Its population may be somewhat 
uncertainly estimated at over eight hundred thousand, 
consisting of nomads of the desert and dwellers in its 
oases and mountains. At present they can only be 
reached along one or other of the recognised caravan roads, 
but if the projected extension of the French railway from 
Algiers to Kuka on Lake Chad should take place, it will 
prepare in the desert a highway for the Gospel of Christ. 

Here, then, fronting Europe, is an immense field 
scarcely touched by the Gospel, where Islam offers a 
tempting challenge to the Church of Christ. 

In this survey of Northern Africa we have omitted one 
section, namely, the region between Lake Chad and the 
Egyptian Sudan. It comprises the old Sudanese kingdoms 
of Wadai, Kanem, and Baghirmi, with a total population 
of at least five millions, nearly all Moslems. In the 
European partition of Africa they have been placed within 
the French sphere of influence, but they are so difficult 
of access, and so little is known of them, that we have 
deemed it best to place that whole region by itself until it 
shall be seen from what quarter it is to be opened to the 


From Senegal to Nigeria 

" Western Africa " is used as possibly the most con- 
venient designation for the group of colonies and pro- 


tectorates facing the Atlantic and marshalled along the 
shore of the Gulf of Benin. They have a coast-line of 
over 3500 miles, extending from the Spanish possession of 
Rio de Oro to the British possession of Nigeria. This 
whole territory has an area equal to nine times that of 
France, and its population probably exceeds that of 
France. Along its whole range from west to east the 
Mohammedanism of the Sudanese interior has penetrated 
to the coast, and won to itself considerable sections 
of the population. On the other hand the Christian 
missions planted at various centres along the coast, 
although they have exercised a Christianising influence in 
their immediate neighbourhood, have failed as yet to 
make any real impression on the interior. It is 
only within recent years that they have begun to move 

Let us look at this section in two parts the first 
environed by French territory, the second British. 

I. We pass over the Spanish possession of Rio de Oro, 
in which there are absolutely no missions. The French 
territory to the south of it reaches across, behind the 
coast colonies and protectorates, to British Nigeria, and 
stretches down to the sea between the possessions of 
other countries in five different sections. This large 
territory, equal to three Frances, is only just touched by 
Christian missions. On the Senegal River, near the 
coast, there is a small mission of the Paris Society. In 
French Guinea there is a Church of England Mission, 
manned from the West Indies ; while at the west ex- 
tremity of the Ivory Coast, and at the eastern extremity 
of the Dahomey Coast, there are a few mission stations 
which are really extensions of the missions in adjoining 
British territory. But, with these insignificant excep- 
tions, the whole of this French territory, with its nine 
millions of people, and Portuguese Guinea, with nearly 
an additional million, contain only some forty Roman 
Catholic stations, with rather more than double that 
number of priests, and are untouched by other missions. 
Both Senegal and Konakry, with railways penetrating 


to the Upper Niger, are suggested as appropriate starting- 
points for missions to the French Sudan. 

There are three British possessions within this region 
Gambia, consisting of a stretch of land bordering the 
river Gambia, with a population of a hundred and sixty 
thousand, and one sm all (Wesleyan) evangelical mission ; 
Sierra Leone, with a population of about one and three- 
quarter millions, which may, in comparison with other 
fields, be regarded as fairly well staffed with Europeans, 
if only there were an adequate supply of native agents ; 
and the Gold Coast, with a population of one and a half 
millions, where the European staff is proportionately 
smaller. Both on the Gold Coast and in the Ashanti 
hinterland the Basel and the Wesleyan Societies are 
carrying on a healthy and promising work. 

Between Sierra Leone an^ the Ivory Coast lies the 
independent State of Liberia. It is sometimes spoken of 
as a Christian State, but is more largely Mohammedan. 
Three-quarters of its territory are still untouched by 
Christian missions, but if there were comity and co- . 
operation, an effective ' occup ation of the land could be ^i^'Z^ 
accomplished by dividing it into ten districts with five 
missionaries in each. The moral decline which is apparent ^^^^^^ 
in educational and official circles and through public 
advocacy of polygamy_are^.a. summons to a more effective 
Christian propaganda. 

Close by the Gold Coast, and separated by Dahomey 
from Nigeria, is Togo , a German Colony of growing 
importance. It has a population of a million, chiefly 
Evhes. Because of the difficulty of the language spoken 
by the Evhes, the missionaries have found it practically 
impossible to master^HotEer~and so have been hindered 
from addressing themselves to the Hausas, who are also 
found in large numbers in this colony. Missionary work 
is being wisely and energetically forwarded by the North " 
German Society, but its farthest out-station hardly 
reaches the centre of the province^ and the two northern 
districts are closed by the Government against mission 
work until the railway is extended. In this colony the 


European stations ^nd workers require to be at least 
doubled, with a trebling of native workers. 

Of this whole region, then, it may be said generally 
that in Sierra Leone and Liberia the principal need is that 
of effective co-operation and better distribution of the 
missionary forces. The native Churches which have been 
gathered are numerically large enough, if only they were 
filled with the Spirit, united in enterprise, and wisely led, 
to supply a native agency sufficient for the evangelisation 
of these lands. But in the Gold Coast and Togo there is 
required at least a doubling or trebling of the missionary 
staff before the foreign and the native forces combined 
can become adequate for the carrying of the Gospel to 
the whole field, while in the French and Portuguese ter- 
ritories, constituting three- fourths of the whole, there is 
practically a virgin field for evangelical missions, if only 
the Government would permit the establishment of such 
missions within their borders. 

2. The second part of the district with which we are 
. now dealing is the British territory of Nigeria. It com- 
prises the lower and more important part of the Niger 
River basin as well as the greater part of the river basin 
of its tributary, the Benue River, together with the 
valleys sloping toward Lake Chad. In this district we 
have in the coastal regions some of the oldest and most 
developed fruits of African missions, and in the interior 
some of the newesLand most important openings among 
new peoples. Nigeria is under two separate administra- 
tions northern and southern. Northern Nigeria may be 
described as the British section of that hinterland ., of 
Western Africa included in the Sudan, and is ethnologic- 
ally a most interesting field. Covering a territory equal 
to six times the area of England and Wales, and with a 
population of twelve to fifteen millions, it is divided into 
seventeen Government provinces, in five of which the 
Church Missionary Society is at work, other missions 
being also at work in one or other of the same provinces. 
About two-thirds of the field is absolutely untouched. 
,J^.^ To man two evangelistic centres in each of the seventeen 


provinces would require at least forty-eight missionaries 
and double that number of natives, v/hile at present 
there are in all only thirty-four male missionaries, and 
these very unequally distributed. The country is now 
more largely Mohammedan than Pagan, and the Moham- 
medans are steadily pushing into Pagan districts ; while 
the British Government unfortunately prohibits the 
evangelisation of Mohammedans, and is at present ex- 
cluding missionaries from Pagan districts into which the 
Mohammedans have access. From three of the pro- 
vinces, containing half the population, mission work is 
meanwhile excluded. Only a small proportion of the 
people can read, and the only Scriptures available are 
portiohs^'orthe New Testament in the Hausa and Nupe 
languages, while there are two principal and some twenty- 
three lesser languages into which no Scripture is yet 

In Southern Nigeria, which now includes Lagos as well 
as the former Protectorate of Southern Nigeria, we have 
a territory equal to two and a half Scotlands, with a 
population which the most recent Government estimate 
places at seven and a half millions, but which, according 
to missionary estimates, must be much larger. The 
tropical climate obliges frequent furloughs on the part of 
Europeans, and this has proved a hindrance to the con- 
tinuity of all missionary work. In the centre of the 
colony is the Niger Delta, where the largest share of 
evangelistic work is done by the Niger Delta Pastorate, 
a native ecclesiastic organisation, independent and self- 
supporting, but under the supervision of an English bishop. 
To the west in Lagos, and in the Yoruba country behind it, 
the Church Missionary Society and the Wesleyans are at 
work, and on the Cross River to the east there is a chain 
of Presbyterian stations, with the Irish Qua Iboe Mission 
and the Primitive Methodist Mission to the west of them. 
In connection with all these missions there are well- 
established native Churches, but none of them has moved 
away from the coastal regions or the river highways, 
while in the adjacent regions, particularly on the west 


side of the Niger, and also in the whole region north of 
the Cross River to the Benue River, there are fields that 
are practically unevangelised and much of them even 
unexplored. So far as tribes in these inland regions have 
been visited, they are found to be of the Bantu stock, of 
larger and manlier build than those on the coast, and 
friendly with the Hausas who move down inland routes 
into Kamerun and the Congo. East of the Niger, 
Ibo is the prevalent language. The country is being 
opened up by the Government, but missions, to quote the 
expression of one missionary, " creep after it like snails 
after an express train." The result is that in newly 
opened districts the advent of the white man is not 
associated with a revelation of the Gospel, but with 
superior force and commercial revolution, making the 
introduction of European administration the more un- 
welcome and the evangelisation of the people the more 
difficult. In the settled parts contiguous to mission 
operations, there is a constant demand for more teachers. 
To take advantage of favourable openings now offering 
would require at least an immediate trebling of the staff. 
Here, as elsewhere, the hindrances to extension hitherto 
have been partly difficulty of access but chiefly the paucity 
of workers. 

In the Spanish island of Fernando Po, south of the 
Cross River estuary and west of Kamerun, the Primitive 
Methodist Church has since 1870 carried on a mission 
which, in view of the degraded character of the people, 
has had remarkable success. 


From Kamerun to N amaqtialand 

We pass now into the Bantu area, and in this section 
we group together the colonial possessions of five Con- 
tinental Powers. 

I. The first is the German possession of Kamerun, 
which lies immediately to the east of Nigeria, 


equal in size to nine-tenths of the German Empire, 
with a population estimated at four millions. It 
contains the highest mountains on the west coast, some 
rising to 14,000 feet, and this occasions a very heavy 
rainfall in the wet season. There are numerous Bantu 
tribes in the southern part of the colony, but the upper 
is Sudanese. Work was begun in the coastal district 
by the English Baptists, but after the German annexation 
it was transferred mainly into the hands of the J3.asel 
Mission, and partly also into the hands of the German 
Baptists. Farther south there is an American Presby- 
terian Mission. All these missions, however, are confined 
as yet to the south-west, fully seven-eighths of the land 
being absolutely untoudlfifiL ' 

The great Congo section of Africa, a section having 
a much larger area than that of India, but only about 
a sixth of its population, is distributed under four 
European nations. 

2. At the extreme north-west is the Spanish section, 
a small territory of some 9000 square miles, with one 
small American Mission at work in it. 

3. Next comes the French Congo, occupying the district 
between the Atlantic, Kamerun, and the west bank of the 
Congo River. Its area is equal to two and a half times 
the area of France, and it has a population variously 
estimated at from eight to fifteen millions. Mission 
work was begun here by the American Presbyterians, 
who, after the acquisition of the land by France, handed 
over their two stations to the Paris Society, which has 
since established two other principal stations. These 
stations are placed along the navigable part of the Ogowe, 
and reach only 250 miles from the coast. They touch 
several tribes, of which the most important is the 
Fan tribe, and M. Allegret remarks that if this tribe 
could be won for Christianity, it would form a strong 
bulwark against the advance of Islam. How vast is 
the work waiting to be done in the field now open, 
may be judged from an estimate made by a missionary 


on the spot, that i8o European missionaries would 
be required to make an effective advance from the 
present base, and the same number to make an advance 
from the Congo River base. The whole of the vast 
interior is absolutely unreached. The hindrance has 
been lack of men and means. The advance of com- 
merce into the interior, the southward spread of Islam, 
and the possibility of an atheistic attitude on the part 
of the Government, constitute the dangers ahead, but 
at present the way is open for advance if the Church 
were strong enough to undertake it. 

4. Belgian Congo, or the Congo Free State, although it 
has only twenty miles of sea-board, comprises an immense 
territory, chiefly within the left bank of the great sweep 
of the Congo, in all 900,000 square miles, equal to about 
eighty Belgiums. Its population of thirty millions 
(nearly all Bantus, although there are Nilotic Negroes 
on the River Welle and tribes of Pigmies in the dense 
forests of the interior), the rich products of its soil 
and its mineral wealth, together with the opportunities 
of commerce furnished by 9500 miles of navigable water- 
ways, indicate the importance of this field. Since the 
enthusiasm awakened by Stanley's sail down the Congo, 
missionary effort has not been wanting, and the early 
professions of King Leopold with regard to the founding 
of the Free State seemed to invite it. But the beginnings 
of the missionary enterprise were inadequate both in plan 
and in energy to the conditions requiring to be met. 
The climate proved very fatal. Stations were planted 
without being sufficiently manned, and mistakes of 
ignorance and of the inexperience of youth retarded 
success. Some of the tribes have proved open to Gospel 
influences, others apparently impenetrable. 

At present we can recognise four different bases of 
operations. First, in the lower Congo we find a con- 
siderable number of missionary stations, belonging 
mainly to the English and American Baptists, the work 
of the Swedish Society being particularly well organised. 
Then, besides other mission stations up the river, we have 


the Balolo Mission on the left bank of the Congo, within its 
bend, and the American Baptist Mission on the right bank. 
Farther south, in the Kasai Valley, is the mission of 
the American Southern Presbyterians, which claims to 
be the only mission in an area of 90,000 square miles, 
And finally there is Arnot's Mission to the far east of the 
colony beside Lake Mweru. 

The progress made in spite of enormous difficulties has 
been great, but the difficulties seem to be increasing 
rather than diminishing^ The sleeping sickness is slaying 
thousands. The awful_cruelties inflicted^.b^^ Belgian 
of&cials in the interests of commercial gain made the 
incofmrig of the outer world seem more of a curse than 
of a blessing. They threatened to make a stable, peace- 
ful and hopeful social life impossible. Missionary labour 
also was crippled. Sites were persistently refused by 
the Government, even for the humblest buildings, and 
the adherents of Protestant Missions were subjected to 
persecution. Recent changes in the Belgian Government 
warrant a better hope for the future. At the same time 
the natives have come to a thorough ^understanding of 
the difference between the missionaries and the official 
whites, and if the administration of The Congo should now 
be placed upon an equitable basis, there is every reason 
to anticipate a favoruable reception in all directions for 
the representatives of the Gospel. The language diffi- 
culties, however, have not yet been met. 

5. The most southern section is Angola, or Portuguese 
Congo, a district including about half a million square 
miles, or an area equal to fourteen Portugals, which, at an 
estimate of fifteen inhabitants to the square mile, yields 
a population of over seven millions. The people are 
scattered over the land in communities of from fifty to 
five hundred in groups of kraals, and the distance of these 
communities from each other makes it difficult some 
say impossible for the missionary to overtake his dis- 
trict. Mission work is carried on from three centres in 
St. Salvador in the north, in the Loanda district, and in 
the Benguella, with fair success. But new hindrances 
COM. I. 15 


are emerging. Rum is being rapidly pushed through the 
country by while traders, aii'd this and the vices of the 
white men are tending to the degradation of the natives, 
while the fact that the whites are superseding them as 
traders with the interior is reducing the natives to 
poverty. The attitude of the Government hitherto has 
been generally tolerant, if not kindly, towards mission- 
aries, but quite recently the anti-slavery agitation has 
kindled resentment against them. A country so sparsely 
populated requires a proportionately larger staff of 
missionaries in order to occupy effectively the larger 
number of centres necessary for reaching the whole 
population. Needless to say, there are extensive dis- 
tricts into which the Gospel has never yet been carried. 

6. The German colony of South-West Africa, though 
having an area equal to one and a half times that of the 
German Empire, presents to missionary enterprise a popu- 
lation of only a little over two hundred thousand. The 
long coast-line of miles is infertile ; the eastern districts 
merge into the Kalahari Desert ; the southern extremity 
is also comparatively barren ; and it is chiefly in the 
central districts that agriculture and industries are found. 
The resources of the colony, however, admit of larger 
development and of a much larger population. The 
field is well occupied by the Rhenish Society, which has 
stations in the Herero or Damaraland in the centre and 
in Namaqualand in the south, while the Finnish Society 
by friendly arrangement with the Rhenish Society has 
undertaken the principal part of the work in Ovampoland 
in the north, five of the tribes in the north being cared for 
by the Finnish Society, and four by the Rhenish. These 
tribes are separated from each other by belts of bush 
or desert of varying breadth. Of the tribes assigned to 
the Finnish Society, two, numbering about twenty-five 
hundred, are still unreached. The difficulties of mission 
work arise from the scattered nature of the population, 
and from the radical difference of the Nama language, 
spoken by the Namas and by the larger tribe of the Hill 
Damas, from the Otyherero, which is the leading language 


in the southern district and akin to the other languages 
spoken. At nearly all the stations both languages are 
now required. The steps taken after the suppression 
of the recent rising by the Hereros have proved favour- . 
able to missfon work, as the Hereros have been deprived 
both of their cattle and of their chieftaincies, and gathered v^ 
into settlements where they are more easily reached. 
The present time is peculiarly favourable for ingathering. 
With the addition of one or two stations and educational 
institutions the field might be regarded as adequately -^ 
occupied. * 


The Union of South Africa, along with Basuto- and Swazi- 

Along the whole west coast of Africa we have been 
surveying territories under the colonial administration 
of European Powers. We have now to look at a territory, 
formerly divided into two British colonies and two 
independent republics, but now under the rule of a local 
and'^^ihdependent, but still non-African, Government 
within the British Empire. This is the Union of South 
Africa, and along with the Union we must take the 
two native territories of Basutoland and Swaziland, as 
geographically they are enclosed within it. The total 
area is equal to four times that of the United Kingdom, 
and within it we have the oldest, the most fully occupied, 
and the most largely Christianised of the mission fields 
of the Church in Africa. But on this field a whole series 
of difficulties emerges out of the juxtaposition and 
partial intermingling of white and coloured races ; the 
latter number roughly four and a half millions and the 
former only a million. The Government, of course, is 
in the hands of the Europeans, but in the native locations 
the authority and administration of the native chiefs 
still hold under certain restrictions and continual super- 
vision. Despite superior numbers and growing qualifica- 
tions, natives are by the very fact of African descent 


excluded from the legislature, and the franchise is limited 
to a specially quahfied section of natives in Cape Colony. 
The purpose of the Europeans to make South Africa the 
home of a white nation and to utilise its resources, as far 
as practicable, for the benefit of this nation, and over 
against this the growth and educational progress and 
ambitions of the natives, create a situation peculiarly con- 
ducive to racial antipathies, jealousies, and antagonisms, 
which only the Gospel of Christ is able to overcome. 

In accordance with the object of this survey, 
however, we exclude from our purview as. far_as 
h' possible the Churches of the whites, and fix our 
attention specially on the four and a half millions, or 
thereabouts, of native tribes of various names. Without 
entering on historical reasons, including migrations of 
tribes, for the present missionary situation, we have to 
face the broad fact that there are in the district under 
consideration about thirty different missionary organisa- 
tions at work, and that in the almost unanimous judg- 
ment of" bur missionary correspondents, the number of 
European missionaries in the field would be adequate 
for the work, if only they were properly distributed and 

., were properly seconded by efficient native workers. 

"^ Alihost all the correspondents bewail the extent of over- 
lapping, which has a prejudicial influence on the attitude 
of the natives affected by it, and tends to neutralise 
that wise and careful discipline which is so necessary in 
the upbuilding of a native Church. The other result of 
this excessive concentration of agencies in particular 
districts is that other districts are left without the preach- 
ing of the Gospel. Indeed, there is hardly any mission 
which cannot tell of districts larger or smaller adjoining 
the area covered by its operations, which are still wholly 
heathen and without any effective evangelistic agency. 
Prominence must also be given to the fact that not a few 
eminent missionaries express their sense of the urgency 
of a definite agreement among missionary organisations to 
readjust the distribution of their forces in South Africa 
so as not to be thrown into competition with one another. 


but to cover the whole field in co-operative brotherhood. 
This is to be done not only through consolidation on 
the field, such as might be undertaken by the General 
Missionary Conference, but by conference also between 
administrative powers at home. Principal Henderson 
says, " Without co-operation the struggle against heathen- 
ism cannot be carried to a successful issue." 

Another pressing need on which emphasis is laid is that 
of special training of evangelists and of native ministers. ^^ .-^ 
Educ a t ion is 'spreading and will spread farther, but in 
order to secure the necessary preparatiori_ of educated ''^^ 
youth of both sexes for the service of Christ in the work 
of evangelisation and of instructing and building up the ^ 
native Church, there must be a larger rheasure of co- 
operation in providing the special seminaries required. 
It is in this direction apparently that the chief counter- 
active is to be found to the mischief of Ethiopianism. 
Sects founded on the idea of independence from European 
guidance and the self-sufficiency of the African are spread- 
ing through the country a superficial and largely emotional 
form of Christianity, unable to resist the disintegrating 
and corrupting influences of surrounding heathenism. 

Among other adverse influences are the prejudices 
against the Christianity of the European which are kindled 
byTacial antagonism, by resentment at law^s which in- 
terfere with native customs, and by the consciousness on 
the part of the heathen chiefs that their old authjodty .i^^^ 
is likely to depart from them with the changes in prospect. /_ 
There is also a certain Moslem propaganda in Cape Colony, 5Hsu. 
to which the conditions of the situation are not un- 
favourable. Testimony is also borne to the debasing c-_^ 
influence of the^ming centres on native character and 
life.- " 

On the other hand the field is more open to^ggressive 
work than it has ever been, and the cruciaTquestiori is 
simply whether the missionary bodies at work in South :^ 
Africa will readjust their operations so as to secure an 
effective occupation of the whole field and will co-operate 
toward the preparation of a thoroughly qualffied native^ 


evangelistic agency and pastorate. It is also a question 
whether the unevangelised native locations should not 
now be regarded as the home mission field of the Churches 
in the Union. To this question the Wesleyans have 
given a practical answer in the affirmative. 


Five British Protectorates 

Five British Protectorates are located in the centre of 
the southern lobe of the continent Bechuanaland, 
Southern, North-Western and Northern Rhodesia, and 
Nyasaland. They cover a territory equaljtq tea^-United 
Kingdoms, but the native population hardly exceeds 
two and a quarter millions, while the additional white 
population is very limited except in Southern Rhodesia, 
where it may be reckoned at about fifteen thousand. The 
vast Kalahari Desert stretches over a large part of the 
three first-named Protectorates ; this, of course, is the 
main cause of the small ratio of the population to the area. 

In Bechuanaland, with an area of 386,200 square miles, 
the ratio is considerably less than one to the square mile 
that is to say, that three-fourths of the surface is 
barren, and that the various tribes under Khama and 
other well-known chiefs occupy only the eastern lands. 
Among the two hundred thousand of a population six 
missions are at work. Of necessity there is overlapping, 
and the attempt to occupy and hold positions against 
competitive missions absorbs energy that should be 
directed to Christianising an unoccupied district. Through 
the determined action of the chiefs, the sale of drink is 
prohibited by law in this Protectorate. 

Southern Rhodesia, including the districts of Mata- 
beleland and Mashonaland, has a population of about 
six hundred thousand natives, chiefly Matabele. But its 
south-western region is inhabited by the fairer Banyai, 
among whom the Dutch Reformed Church is at work. 
The fine climate of that high water-shed region and its 


rich resources have attracted a large European settlement. 
To these attractions, together with the advantages of 
easy access and of British rule, is also no doubt due the 
incoming of new missions, which have in some cases dis- 
regarded the principles of missionary comity, with the 
result of partial overlapping and ineffective occupation. 
Among the hindrances to mission work, in addition to 
others of general application, one missionary notes the 
fact that many natives are resident on private lands, 
whose owners will not allow the evangelisation of their 
tenants, and that the permission of local chiefs is necessary 
in order to evangelise in the native locations. 

In North-West Rhodesia, where the kingdom of Barotse- 
land is located, and where the population is estimated 
at three hundred thousand, there is the well-known work 
of the Paris Missionary Society, inaugurated by Coillard, 
and the more recent work of the Methodists, which by 
friendly arrangement occupies separate districts. The 
number of missionaries is insufficient to man adequately 
and continuously the existing stations, but if this want 
were met, and if a few more stations were planted, 
particularly to the north, the field might be said to be fairly 
well occupied. There is, however, a lack a serious lack 
of efficient native helpers. The social revolution which 
has taken place among the Barotse since the advent of the 
mission, and even prior to the introduction of European 
supervision, has been immense, but the actual Christian 
community is still very small, and lacking in the qualities 
necessary for effective and reliable evangelism. The 
schools are the hope of the mission. 

North-East Rhodesia has a special interest as the scene 
of the last labours and death of Livingstone. It is a 
province about the size of the United Kingdom, but with 
a population of only three hundred and fifty thousand. 
The principal mission work has been done by the London 
Missionary Society in the district immediately soiitH of 
Lake Tanganyika among the Awemba tribe. That work 
has been carried on amid many difficulties, and latterly 
among changes and depressions caused by the scourge 


of the sleeping sickness, and, though what has been 
acliieved is comparatively small, it has much promise 
for the future. The Livingstonia Mission has also ex- 
tended its labour from Angoniland into the Chitambo 
district, in order to evangelise the sparse population of 
the swampy flats surrounding the monument which marks 
the sacred spot where Livingstone's heart is buried. The 
community around that spot should surely be sought for 

The Protectorate of Nyasaland, embracing both banks 
of the Shire River and the district along the western shore 
of Lake Nyasa, though only one-third of the size of North- 
East Rhodesia, contains a population of nearly a million, 
and is well occupied by a variety of missions the Church 
of Scotland Mission, the Zambesi Industrial Mission, the 
Baptist Industrial Mission, and others, in the Shire district ; 
the Dutch Reformed Church to the south-west of the 
lake ; and the United Free Church of Scotland along the 
whole western shore ; while the Universities' I\lission 
labours in the islands and in various spots on the eastern 
and a fev/ on the western shores. The strategic points of 
the field are almost all occupie d. Between the older and 
stronger missions there is cordial co-operation and the 
practice of comity, except that the Universities' Mission 
declares an obligation to follow its own converts into 
territories occupied by other missions. In the Shire 
Highlands there is overlapping. The Church of Scotland 
Mission properly developed might have sufficed for the 
population there, but seven other missions have come in, 
most of them, however, trading missions, to which the 
neighbourhood of a European market (Blanlyre) is an 
advantage. Meanwhile the heavy populations in the 
lower and upper Shire Valley are quite inadequately 
cared for. In the lower Shire there is not a single mission 
station, in the upper only one. In conjunction with the 
Government, the various missions are developing a great 
educational system throughout the Protectorate, and the 
Livingstonia Institution at Kondowi may be regarded 
^ as the embryo University of Ceatral.Africa. The chief 


hindrances to mission work are the spread of Mohamme- 
danism {e.g. the Yao tribe at the southern end of the Lake 
have been Mohammedanised, and mission work amongst 
them is prohibited by their chiefs), the irrehgious and 
demoralising influences imported by natives returning ^.^^ 
from labour at the mining centres, and the growth of the ^^^^^^^ 
Ethiopian sentiment. /^^ ,^ 


Portuguese, German, British 

This section must be viewed in its three parts. 

I. East of the Transvaal, Rhodesia, and Nyasaland 
lies the extensive territory oi Portuguese East Africa. It 
has a coast-line of 1400 miles, running from Zululand 
on the South to Gennan East Africa on the North, and 
it reaches inland to Lake Nyasa ; it is equal in area 
to nine Portugals. It has an estimated population of 
3,120,000, composed of various tribes speaking quite 
different languages, and is divided into three provinces, 
Mozambique, Zambezia and Louren^o Marques. Almost 
all the mission v/ork in this territory is found within the 
most southern province. It includes a smaU Anglican 
mission, under the Bishop of Lebombo, an active mission 
of the Mission Romande and some v/orkers both of the 
Wesleyan, the American Free Methodist and the Methodist 
Episcopal Churches. There is a prospect also of work 
in the Zambezia province. The Cape General Mission is 
extending its operations from Port Herald on the Shire 
into neighbouring Portuguese territory, and the Dutch 
Reformed Church has in view the establishing of a mission 
in the Portuguese territory to the north of the Zambezi 
River. At present it may be said generally that the 
Portuguese field to the south of the Zambezi is most 
inadequately, part of it wholly, unoccupigdl, while in the 
part lying to the north of the Zambezi there is as yet 
practically no mission work whatever. The field is open, 
and the conditions under which the Portuguese Govern- 


ment allows missionary societies to enter this territory 
are stated to be such as are not difficult to comply with. 
This field is also comparatively neglected by the Roman 
Catholic Church ; it is certainly not showing the same 
aggressive enterprise here as in the more central regions 
of Africa. In the two northern provinces there are vast 
territories wholly without missionaries. 

2. German East Africa, wliich reaches back from a 
coast-line of 620 miles in length to the great Lakes of 
Nyanza, Tanganyika, and Nyasa, is double the size of 
the whole German Empire, oniitting Bavaria. But its 
native population is reckoned only at about seven millions, 
with a European population of about two thousand. The 
low coastal territory slopes gradually upward by plateaux 
largely covered with thin forest, and beyond these are 
numerous mountain ranges, some rising to great altitudes, 
while farther west the ground slopes again toward the 
above-mentioned lakes. The population is mostly Bantu, 
but along the coast it is mixed with incomers from 
Arabia and India. 

Throughout the colony the situation is critical. The 
political power of the Arab Empire, having Zanzibar as 
its capital, has been broken and its traffic in slaves 
suppressed, but the new conditions have given it new 
opportunity and influence as a Mohammedan propaganda. 
Administrative requirements and commercial enterprise 
are opening up the colony. Already ope-sixth of the 
population is said to be Mohammedan, and wherever the 
Swaheli ^ from the coast go as artisans or in the military 
or civil service of the Government, they are the bearers 
of Islamic influences. The same influences are borne 
also by traders along the caravan routes ; and, as the 
railway from Dar-es-Salaam is extended towards the 
southern end of Lake Nyanza, it will more and more 
introduce into the country the influences of modern 
civilisation as weU as of Islam and make the situation 
stiU more difficult. 

^ There is a growing Moslem literature in Swaheli, and this 
language is the ruling one for all East Africa. 


At the very first glance the distribution of missions in 
this great territory strikes one as having been providenti- 
ally ordered for the ultimate conquest of the land. They 
are remote from one another, some still in their infancy, 
most of them feeble, and, save in one district, miserably 
inadequate ; but they are planted, speaking roughly 
at the four comers of the land and in two central positions, 
besides the mission at Dar-es-Salaam, which may be re- 
garded as the gateway of the colony. As far as possible 
they have established themselves in comparatively healthy 
highlands. In the north-east at Usambara the Univer- 
sities' Mission and the German East Africa Mission occupy 
adjacent territories, each having about six missionaries' 
for a population numbering altogether about one hundred 
and eighty thousand ; and beyond these, in picturesque 
Jagga Land, stretches the mission of the Leipzic Evan- 
gelical Lutheran Society. In the south-east, in the fertile 
valley of the Rovuma, the Universities' Mission is at 
work. Towards the centre of the province in the 
mountainous hinterland there is a mission of the Church 
Missionary Society, which has as yet only partially 
reached some fifty thousand out of a population of seven 
hundred thousand who speak two different languages, 
and farther west, in Unyamwezi, there are outposts of the 
Moravian Mission. Towards the south-west and as far as 
the northern end of Lake Nyasa are mission stations of the 
Moravians, planted among different tribes, and, east of 
these, a group of stations of the Berlin Mission. In the far 
north-west the solitary station of the Church Missionary 
Society at the southern extremity of Lake Nyanza has 
been taken over by the (American) Africa Inland Mission, 
and west of Lake Nyanza is the new field of the German 
East Africa Mission. This district between Lake Nyanza 
and Lake Kivu is densely populated, containing over 
three millions of a population speaking practically one J^c*^ 
language. They are divided into three classes, the pastoral ^ 
people, their dependants, and an ihlef iof face, apparently / 
allied to the pigmies. " , 

Mission work among the tribes of the interior is rendered 


difficult by the fact that their country is ruled on a 
feudal system, in which everything depends upon the 
despot will of the king, and as almost all these kings or 

fOi sultans view Christian missions with disfavour, it is those 
who have nothing to lose who are most disposed to make 
friends with the foreigners. The attempt to secure Court 
influence, as was done in Uganda, has hitherto failed ; 
there are indications that the native Courts \vill incline 

l^^ to Islam. Except in the Usambara district, all the 
missions are lamentably understaffed for the needs 
within immediate reach, while there are large intervening 
spaces absolutely unoccupied. The populous district 
to the south and west of Lake Nyanza could at once 
furnish ample room for two hundred foreign missionaries. 
The reports of missionaries emphasise the great need for 
teachers, as it is evident that no mission can establish 
itself thoroughly or create a native Church without a 
school. It should be added that throughout the province, 
in all the fields named, there are several Roman Catholic 
missions, German East Africa being divided into five 
districts. The staff of workers numbers nearly two 
hundred Fathers and Brothers and a hundred Sisters, and 
the missions claim about twenty-two thousand Roman 

. . Catholics. "^- =--' 

3. British East Africa. Off the coast, north of Dar-es- 
Salaam, the gate of Qerman East Africa, lies the island 
of Zanzibar, which is under British protection, and 
where are the headquarters of the Universities' Mission. 
In the associated island of Pemba, farther north, the 
Friends have a mission. There is also a strip of sea- 
coast belonging to that Protectorate which runs north- 
ward from German East Africa along the British 
territory as far as the small Protectorate of Witu, 
Taking the Protectorate of British East Africa along 
with the small territories of Zanzibar and Witu, and 
also with the Protectorate of Uganda, we have a country 
fuUy five times the size of England and Wales, but with 
a population usually estimated only at about nine 


millions, nearly equally distributed between the two 
larger Protectorates, the two smaller ones having between 
them only about a quarter of a million. The population 
is similar in character to that of German East Africa, 
there being on the coast a mixture of Arabs with Indians 
and Africans, while inland the inhabitants are mostly 
Bantu or ^iHotic negroes, with admixtures of some 
distinct tribes such as the Masai, the Somali, the Gallas, 
and the pigmies. In the Uganda Province, the virile 
Baganda number about a fourth of the inhabitants. 

The physical features are also analogous to those of 
German East Africa. The coast rises rapidly to a 
splendid and fertile plateau about five or six thousand 
feet above the sea with magnificent mountain clusters. 
To this plateau many white settlers are now finding 
their way by the railway from Mombasa, especially to 
the district south of Mount Kenia. About Kikuyu, 
where the Church of Scotland is at work, the people 
have great herds, and the herding occupies the children, 
and is in this way adverse to their education. The 
average elevation of the Uganda Protectorate to the 
west of the plateau sinks to about 2000 feet. 

In this whole district there are eight missionary 
societies at work, besides the Roman Catholics, and 
the relations of these societies to one another are happily 
marked by an earnest regard to the principles of comity 
and co-operation. In no case, however, is the European 
staff regarded as adequate even for the field immediately 
open to the society, and in most cases it is lamentably 
inadequate. In estimating the adequacy, regard must 
be had, as the Bishop of Mombasa says, to the number 
of languages, the nature of the country, and the isolated 
condition of the tribes. While the railway from Mombasa 
to Uganda has opened a highway through the land, 
the moment the railway track is left, travelling must be 
done on foot, and this necessarily limits the area of 
itineration and supervision. In British East Africa, 
the native Churches are still small, the inland missions 
are very young, and three-fourths of the territory is 


^untouched. In Uganda, on the other hand, there has 
been a Splendid missionary development, the native 
^ Church now numbering seventy thousand, with two 
thousand native preachers, evangelists, and readers. 
To this Church Bishop Tucker looks as the instrument 
for the evangelisation of the surrounding territories 
(as it has proved the instrument for the evangelisation 
of Toro and Bunyoro), and this despite the fact that in 
entering the region still to be evangelised it passes 
from Bantu to non-Bantu languages, while north of 
Uganda the tribes are sparse, unsettled, and migratory. 
Half the field in Uganda is still untouched. Bishop 
Tucker expresses the opinion that if the native Church 
would furnish three thousand evangelists, fifty European 
missionaries and fifty European women should suffice 
for that district. The large European staff is indispens- 
able for training, leadership, and supervision, as well 
as for linguistic work. In all the other parts of the 
inland field, there is need for an increase varying from 
threefold to a hundredfold to meet the wants of the 
different districts. 

The opportunity is urgent because of the advance of 

^. Islam, not only by traders from the north, but also by 

traders from the east ; and also because the railway is 

I bringing up into the country men whose evil lives are 

J .. positive hindrances to Christian work, and who accustom 
the natives to doubts regarding the need or profit of a 
Christian profession. There is a remarkable consensus 
of opinion as to the .peril that is already making itself 
n felt from these causes. There is also a remarkable 
agreement of testimony as to the necessity for elementary 
educational work with religious teaching. In the opinion 
of Dr. Scott of Kikuyii, this is the primary necessity 
in the missionary enterprise. Whole tribes are still 
illiterate, and it is through the school that the foundations 
of the Church must be laid. 



Madagascar, Mauritius, Seychelles 

In order to complete our survey of Africa it is necessary 
to look at the island mission fields associated with it. Off 
the east coast, at a distance of 250 miles, lies the important 
islaiid of Madagascar, now a French possession, some- 
what larger than France, but with only one-fifteenth 
of its population. The two and a half 'million of 
inhabitants, who are of Malayan origin, are divided 
into several tribes, speaking different dialects, but the 
Hova dialect into which the whole Bible is translated, is 
generally understood by most of the other tribes, and will 
doubtless gradually become the literary language-^the 
whote island. The story of Christian missions in Mada- 
gascaf the long and painful trials through which the 
native Church endured, and the rapid expansion which 
followed when the Court became a protector instead 
of a persecutor of the faith is well known. The sup- 
planting of native rule by French administration brought 
with it, however, a new series of trials and hindrances. 
The Protestant religion was no longer in favour with 
the Government. The first effect was a thorough sifting 
of the native Churches connected with the different 
missions ; thousands renounced Christianity, and the 
Christian community, which had been reckoned at about 
four hundred thousand, shrank to considerably less 
than three hundred thousand. The present policy of 
the Government appears to aim at the gradual, but 
rapid strangling of Protestant Christianity. Missionary 
schools have been closed on various pretexts, until now 
there are only tens where there used to be hundreds. 
Chapels have been closed and theTefection of new chapels 
prohibited, and the severest restrictions have been laid 
upon public, and even upon family, worship, whUe no 
official dare render any kind of personal help to missions. 
At first it appeared as if the London Missionary Society 
might be expelled from the island, but the Paris 




Missionary Society came nobly to its aid, taking over 
large portions of its work, and so identifying itself with 
the London Missionary Society as to neutralise the 
pretence that the London Missionary Society could be 

II dealt wi th as a British political agency. Besides these 
two societies; the' Society for the Propagation of the 
Gospel, the Friends, the Norwegians, and the American 
Norwegian Lutherans are at work in the island. Five of 
these societies are at work in the central province of 
Tananarivo, which is one of the smallest of the twenty- 
four, but, being the seat of Governrnxcnt, contains a 
fifth of the whole population. In the nine northern 
provinces, with a population of about half a million, 
only two missionaries are located, but in seven of the 
nine native evangelists are at work, though far too 
sparsely distributed. Two of these provinces and one 
in the extreme south have no evangelist. The bulk of 
the i6o European missionaries labouring in the island 
are found in the districts of Lnerina and Betsileo. 
The south and west of the island are being worked 
by Norwegians and their American allies. Despite 
oppression by the Government, the Gospel is spreading. 
Many are becoming obedient to the faith, and the 
outlook would be hopeful if only freedom of action 
t. were allowed. What is obviously required is united 
counsel and co-operation in order that the European 
forces may be distributed to the best account all over the 
island, and provision made for the training of efficient 
native teachers and pastors. It may be added as a 
postscript that there is now the hope that a change in 
the Government may inaugurate a more tolerant policy. 
In the island of Mauritius, east of Madagascar, there 
is a population of three hundred and eighty thousand, of 
whom over two hundred thousand are immigrants from 

^r India, working in the sugar plantations. Both the Society 
for the Propagation of the Gospel and the Church Missionary 
Society maintain mission work in the island. It is carried 
on in five languages, but chiefly among the Indian immi- 
grants. The same societies maintain work in the Seychelles, 


where there is a mixed population of about twenty-eight 
thousand. But both in Mauritius and in the Seychelles 
there is lack of definite effort for the due evangelisation 
of these islands. 


Is it possible to sum up, even in the roughest outline, 
the work remaining to be done in the evangelisation of 
Africa ? We may at least venture to indicate some of 
the lines along which we may recognise the imperative 
duty of the future. In many of the older mission fields 
{e.g. South Africa, Sierra Leone, Liberia), there is an 
urgent call to earnest co-operation both at the home base 
and in the field itself, in order (i) to obviate overlapping 
or competitive operations in the same area ; (2) to cover 
the whole of each field with an effective evangelistic 
agency ; (3) to secure efficiency in higher education, 
training institutions, and the production of literature ; 
and (4) to promote, as far as possible, the formation of 
one native Church. Such co-operation may involve 
surrenders on the one hand and heavier burdens on the 
other, but it is essential to the evangelisation of Africa. 

But reinforcements are also urgently needed. In no 
one of these fields, unless possibly in South Africa, is the 
European force, even if it were redistributed to the best 
advantage, really adequate to the task. Still more is 
the native agency lacking ; and the creation of an effective 
native evangelistic agency is essential to success. In 
the newer fields, where the greatest triumphs have been 
won, as in Uganda and Livingstonia, the policy pursued 
has been to develop a growing army of more or less 
educated native agents, and to make the maintenance 
and training of their spiritual life the continual care 
of their European superintendents. It is impossible to 
gauge the number of European missionaries required to 
make existing work effective even within the sphere it 
is trying to cover, and still more, to fill out the work so as 
to effectuate a ministry of Christ throughout the whole 
COM. I. 16 


field within its horizon. Enough to say here, that they 
must be reckoned by hundreds, if not by thousands. 

But that is only a small part of the need of Africa. 
Our survey has failed of its purpose if it has not conveyed 
to the reader the vision of numerous territories, especially 
in Portuguese East Africa, in the Congo States and in 
the whole Sudanese regions from the Atlantic to the 
Indian Ocean, to which the Church has not yet sent a single 
missionary to tell of the Saviour of mankind, and which, 
moreover, are bej'ond the purview of any existing mission. 
Africa has suffered many VvTongs in the past at the hands 
of the stronger nations of Christendom, and she is suffer- 
ing wrongs at their hands to-day ; but the greatest 
wrong, and that from which she is suffering most, is 
being inflicted by the Church of Christ. It consists in 
withholding from so many of her children the know- 
ledge of Christ. The flags of Christian nations float over 
nearly the whole of Africa, but there are large domains 
in which not a mission station has been planted. The un- 
touched regions of Africa are a clamant call to the Church, 

It is true that the population of Africa is comparatively 
small. But no one acquainted with its history and 
observant of its resources can doubt that under more 
settled and propitious conditions in the future, the popu- 
j lation will increase enormously. Here, as in no other 
continent, there is a mass of dark, illiterate, dissevered, 
and degraded Paganism to be enlightened and uplifted 
into the Church of Christ. Already there has percolated 
into its remotest corners the knowledge of the outside 
^' world of superior civilisation and power, ever coming nearer 
and certain to influence its future. But it is not always 
the Gospel of Christ which is in the forefront of this 
approach. Where it has been so, as in 'Ngoniland and 
Barotsiland, it has stopped inter-tribal wars, beat swords 
into ploughshares, opened schools and introduced a happier 
order by peaceful reformation Much more often, however, 
the incoming of European Christendom appears in the form 
of commercial enterprise, or of extensions of administration, 
and sometimes of armed expeditions opening new paths for 


commerce ; and the misfortune is that commercial enter- 
prise without Christianity communicates to the people a 
superadded hardening of heart, a new immorality, and a 
materialising of life. It is a reproach to Christianity that 
the pioneers of commerce are so vastly more numerous 
and so much more vigilant and adventurous than the 
pioneers of the Gospel. 

In no respect is the situation in Africa more critical 
than in respect of the rapid and persistent advance of 
Islam, From its broad base in the North and from its 
strong entrenchments on the East Coast, it is steadily 
pressing southward and westward. It offers to the 
primitive tribes, along with the attractions of a nobler 
belief, the inducements of a certain social elevation, of 
connection with a great religious community, and of a 
better standing with foreign administrations, while its 
terms both of conversion and of membership present no 
difficulty to the understanding or morality of a heathen.^^ 
The plea sometimes heard in professedly Christian circles 
that it is better than Paganism for the African, is begging 
the question. Can Islam effect the redemption of Africa ? 
What has Islam made of the Africa it has dominated 
for centuries ? What can it make of the future of 
Africa ? It is a religion without the knowledge of the 
Divine Fatherhood, a religion without compassion for 
those outside its pale, and to the whole womanhood of 
Africa it is a religion of despair and doom. It is a re- 
ligion without love, and only Love will redeem Africa. 
We are charged with a mission of Love, and the question 
is, shall we tarry and trifle in our mission, while Africa 
is being made the prey of Islam ? The added difficulty 
of our task to-day is the penalty of our past neglect ; 
and if we are to avert our task being made harder still 
by the onward march of Islam, there is not a day to lose. 

But we have not only to stay the advance of Islam 
in Africa ; we have to win the Moslem world in Africa 
for Christ. Its gates are opening for the Gospel, though 
the entrances are narrow, and to be used with wisdom 
and care, lest they be forcibly closed again. But every 


foothold won by Christian missions means a growing 
opportunity. And until the foundations of Islam in 
the north are shaken and removed, the Christianity 
which may be established in Central Africa will be per- 
petually exposed to its assaults. Mohammedan Africa 
in the north needs Christ as much as Pagan Africa farther 
south, and into this long-neglected field the Church 
ought to send her specially trained missionaries, not in 
units as hitherto, but in tens and hundreds. 

When we turn from the North of Africa to its southern 
extremity, we encounter a different and complex problem, 
the problem created by the European settlement, and 
by racial division. It may be said that if Islam has its 
base in the North, Christianity has its base in the South, 
and is pressing northward as steadily as Islam is pressing 
southward. Undoubtedly there is an assimilating influ- 
ence in a strong and continually expanding Christian 
community, even although it be of foreign blood. Pagan 
tribes as they come into contact with it are forced to 
recognise in its religion the religion of their future, and 
they drift naturally into some sort of acceptance of it. 
But the misfortune is that the European settlers who are 
moving up inland in the various colonies and protec- 
torates, as well as the agents of the various trading 
companies, though belonging to nominally Christian 
nations, are far too often men who in their characters 
Jj and lives misrepresent Christianity. The natives feel 
that their heathen beliefs and practices cannot stand 
before the enlightenment of the white man, but in the 
white man they see far too commonly what hinders 
rather than helps their acceptance of Christianity. And 
allied with this are the racial antagonisms so keenly felt, 
in particular, throughout the Union of South Africa. Is 
the Spirit of Christ strong enough to overcome these 
antagonisms ? Do the faith and the practice of pro- 
fessed Christians agree in the answer to this question ? 
Whatever be the present difficulties of the situation, 
the Gospel of Christ must be preached as the Gospel 
which proclaims all one in Christ. 


Finally, we are entitled to ask from Christian Govern- 
ments in Africa a more favourable attitude towards 
Christian missions. Missionaries have proved the best 
pioneers of commerce, the best negotiators of friendly 
extensions of foreign protection, the most influential 
forces in preventing local strife and bloodshed and in 
securing order, the most effective agencies in advancing 
education and developing native industries, and all this 
at the most trifling cost to the Governments concerned. 
The native communities which have come under the 
power of the Gospel are the most orderly and the most, 
profitable in Africa. It is simply a libel upon the Gospel 
and a grave injustice to missionaries, and still more to 
the natives whose well-being should be the first object 
of colonial administration, to place hindrances in the way 
of well-founded missions under responsible and accredited 
societies. They ought rather to be encouraged and 
helped in every way consistent with their mutual rela- 
tions to the well-being of the natives of Africa. 



I. The People to be Evangelised. The Indians of South 
America constitute a large section of the population. 
Not including the mixed population which has in its 
veins a great deal of Indian blood, there are, it is 
estimated, over six millions of pure Indiims widely dis- 
tributed tlu^oughout the continent. Those of this 
number who are deep in heathen darkness come within 
the scope of this review. The only other non-Christians 
among the people of South America are 165.000 Hindu, 
Javanese, and Chinese coolies who have been brought 
over to work on the plantations.^ 

The majority of the non-Christian Indians dwell in 
the Upper Amazon basin, along the banks of its tribu- 
taries, and also in the source region of the rivers which 
make up the La Plata. The rest of the Indians reside 
chiefly on the Guajira Peninsula in Colombia and on the 
Upper Orinoco. The Hindu, Chinese, and Javanese coolies 
in the three Guianas occupy the comparatively small 
plantation belt along the seacoast and near the mouth 
of the rivers. The Cliinese in Brazil and Peru who came 
over from China as coolies, aie now working as merchants, 
gardeners, and laundi-ymen. The majority of the Indians 
are simple agi"iculturists, though many are semi-nomads 
and live by fishing and hunting. Part of the heathen 
Indians in Brazil and some also in Bolivia, Colombia, 

' Owing to the inadequate census reports it is impossible to give 
more ttian approximate figures with reference to the distribution 
of the Indian population among the various countries of South 




Ecuador, Peru, and Venezuela have come into a relation 
of almost slave-like dependence upon the white population 
or upon the half-breed rubber collectors who oppress them 
terribly. Some of the heathen tribes in the north-eastern 
part of Paraguay are occupied in gathering the Paraguay 
tea, while Chaco Indians labour in the Quebracho forests. 
The Araucanians in Chile and in western Argentina have 
settled down as farmers and cattle breeders and are 
earning a modest livelihood notwithstanding their con- 
stant struggle against the greed of the Chilean people. 
So far as religion is concerned the non-Christian Indians 
of South America are Animists clinging to the worship 
of ancestors and of the soul. The Javanese and those 
immigrants from India who are not Hindus are Moham- 
medans. The Chinese are Confucianists, 

America. According to the most reliable reports the Indians 
are distributed as follows : 

Total number 
of Indians. 

Argentina . 
Chile . 
Colombia . 
British Guiana 
Dutch Guiana 
French Guiana 
Paraguay . 
Peru . 
Venezuela . 


1,300,000 j 


7,463 1 

5,000 1 




1, 000, coo 

Uruguay is the only country in South America in which there 
are no Indians. The other non-Christian inhabitants are dis- 
tributed as follows : In Brazil there are about 1000 Chinese 
coolies, and importation of Javanese coolies has begun ; in British 
Guiana there are 3714 Chinese and 105,463 Hindus; in Dutch 
Guiana there are 2500 Chinese, 17,000 Hindus, and 5500 Javanese ; 
in French Guiana there are 300 Indo-Chinese ; and in Peru there 
are 7000 Chinese. 


2. The Work already Accomplished. As early as 1558 
the French Huguenot, John Boles, preached to the 
Indians in Santos. From that time for a period of 
two centuries sporadic and intermittent efforts were 
made to carry on missionary work. During the period 
1738-1808 the Moravians influenced the conversion 
of several hundreds of Indians among the Arawaks in 
British Guiana, and this work WcLS continued by the 
Church Missionary Society in the period 1829-1853, 
after which the Anglican Colonial Church, with the help 
of the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel conducted 
this Indian Mission, and as a result of its persistent en- 
deavours won a majority of the Arawaks, Warau, Acawois, 
Macusi, Wapisiana, and Patanuna. Since the year 
1840 the Brethren have carried on work among the 
Indians along the River Berbice. A great many 
attempts have been made to carry on mission work 
among the Indians of Brazil, but after a few years all of 
them were relinquished because of apparently insur- 
mountable obstacles. In Paraguay the South American 
Missionary Society has established an important mission 
among the Chaco Indians. From its principal station 
it has exerted a strong influence especially among the 
Lengua. The Inland South American Missionary Union 
has for several years carried on a work on behalf of 
the Guaranis and the forest Indians in the north and 
east parts of Paraguay. The heroic work of the South 
American Missionary Society among the Tierra del 
Fuegians, inaugurated by Allen Gardiner, is well known. 
Unfortunately it will soon come to an end because of the 
.apparently inevitable extinction of the tribe, which has 
-'^^ already been reduced to about 600 people. More hope- 
ful is the work among the Araucanians in Southern Chile, 
among whom missionary work is now carried forward 
from two stations. In the republics of Bolivia, Ecuador, 
and Peru a beginning in mission work has been made 
during the past decade. In Bolivia a South American 
Evangelical Union missionary is working among the 
Chiriguara Indians, and the Methodist Mission in La 


Paz is working among the Aymaras. The Regions 
Beyond Missionary Union has begun a work among the 
Quichua Indians in Peru. Missionaries of the Kansas 
Gospel Union are preaching the Gospel to the savage 
Irawos Indians in Ecuador along the eastern slopes of the 

The missionary work among the non-Christians of 
South America is not without its enooiiTagements. The 
Anghcan Colonial Church Mission in British Guiana 
has influenced 16,000 among, 20^000 Indians to become 
Christians. ThenBrethren have gathered a community 
of 1 100 Christians in the same country. Moreover, the 
Anglicans, Wesleyans, Moravians, and Brethren have 
had good results in their work among the Chinese in 
this country, fully qneriiali of the Chinese population J^ 
having become Christians. Of the Hindu immigrants 
4200 have already been Christianised. In Dutch 
Guiana the Moravians within a short period have 
baptized 121 Hindus and four Javanese. In the southern 
part of tTie continent 200 Lengua in Paraguay, and 200 
Yahgans among the rapidly disappearing Tierra del 
Fuegians, and also a considerable number of the Arau- 
canians have become Christians as a result of the work 
of the South American Missionary Society. 

3. What remains to be done. Compared with other 
fields of Christian missions, South America may still 
well be called the Neglected Continent. The principal 
reason for the late and sporadic efforts of Christian 
missions in this part of the world, other than those of 
the Roman Catholic Church, may be found in the 
obstacles placed in the way of such work in nearly all 
of the South American countries by the State Church. 
The language difficulty is somewhat serious in the work 
among the Indians as there are some fifty-one different ^^ 
languages. The deadly climate in the forest districts 
caristitutes another grave obstacle. The missionaries 
sent to this continent by the Churches of North America 
have occupied themselves chiefly in work on behalf of 
the nominall y. Roman Catholic white and coloured 


population. A heavy obligation rests upon these 
Churches to do more to reach the non-Christian population. 
Such effort has been greatly facilitated by the recent 
improvement of means of communication. 

A sound missionary strategy is essential if the missions 
of South America are to accomplish the best results. 
Small, independent missions, working without a states- 
manlike plan and without adequate knowledge of tlie 
field, should be discouraged. Carefully selected centres 
should be chosen and should be so strongl y manne d that 
there will be no serious break in the work because of 
r)^^ furloughs ,an^~~occasional"innesses^ There are nov/ fi\'e 
centres of special importance the Anglican Mission in 
the interior of British Guiana, the station of the South 
American Missionary Society in the Gran Chaco, the 
two stations of the same society among the Araucanians 
in Chile, and the stations of the Kansas Gospel Union 
and of the Regions Beyond Missionary Union on the 
eastern slopes of the Andes in Ecuador and Peru. 
Additional centres seem to be needed in the Upper 
Orinoco in Venezuela, in the district of San Martin on 
the eastern slopes of the Andes in Colombia, on the 
Rio Negro in Brazil, on the upper Mamore in 
eastern Bolivia, and in Cuiaba in Matto Grosso for the 
interior of Brazil. Independent missionaries are not 
qualified for this kind of work because there is no 
guarantee of indispensable continuity. In such a 
dif&cult field only societies possessing a wide experience 
are able to meet the situation. Therefore, it would 
seem to be unwise to have new societies established for 
reaching the South American Indians. It should be 
reiterated that the North American societies already at 
work in South America might most advantageously 
enlarge their work to reach the Indians scattered through 
the vast forests of the interior of this great continent. 
It is to be hoped that the South American Christians 
will also co-operate increasingly in meeting this great 



It is estimated that there are 133,000 East Indians 
in the West Indies distributed as follows : Trinidad, 
108,000 ; Jamaica, 20,000 ; other islands and British 
Honduras, 5000. The reason for the preponderance 
of East Indians in Trinidad is found in the fact that in 
the case of Trinidad the agreement under which they come 
out contains no fixed limit of time for their return, while 
in the case of other islands they must return within a 
delinite period or forfeit their free return passage. In 
consequence, they stay on in Trinidad and another 
generation springs up which has no desire to return. 

TEe~East Indians mainly retain their Hinduism and 
Mohammedanism with certain modifications. The pro- 
cess of assimilationub jingularly slo\v. 

Very little work is being done as a whole among them. 
The British and Foreign Bible Society is supplying books 
in the various languages, and a little colportage is done 
from time to time. The Canadian Mission to Indian 
Immigrants has six missionaries, two ordained natives, 
forty^^even catechists and ten Bible-women working 
among them. Valuable work is being done by means 
of schools and through Sunday Schools. There are 
1200 communicants. The Presbyterian Church in 
Jamaica, which is in relation with the United Free Church 
of Scotland, formerly supported a missionary in India 
and another in Africa, but has now adopted the East 
Indians in that island as its foreign mission field, and 
maintains seven East Indian catechists at as many 
different stations throughout the island. The number of 
communicants at present stands at 257 ; but since the 
commencement of the mission sixteen years ago, upwards 
of 1300 East Indians have been baptized, many of whom 
have carried certificates of Church membership back 
with them to India. 



The entire population of the five Republics of Central 
America is estimated at 4,270,000, of whom 1,700,000 
are said to be Indians. The Roman Catholic Church 
claims three-fourths of these as Christianised, but in the 
opinion of missionaries among them, this is an over- 
estimate. There a.t"e whole tribes which have neve'rlDeen 
visited, by the Bishops of the different Republics and 
among whom there are no resident priests. We have 
here, therefore, a population of at least 450,000 Indians 
who are sunk in heathen darkness and come within the 
scope of this report. 

The Indians show a kindly spirit when once their 
confidence has been gained and an almost childlike readi- 
ness to hear the Gospel. But they are shy and remote, 
living either far up in the mountains or in the fever- 
smitten regions of the coast. 

The only serious difficulty in the way of mis- 
sionary work is the deadly climate along the marshy 
coasts. Missionaries who have visited the coast 
tribes have ordinarily been able to remain but 
two months at a time before being smitten with the 

The Central American Mission has now in Central 
America 28 foreign missionaries, including wives, about 
70 churches, and iioo members. All the tribes have been 
visited, and the Mission is proposing to place two mission- 
aries in each tribe in addition to the work now being 
done. This would require twenty additional mission- 
aries, who should be men of good physique and heroic 
courage to face the climatic dangers. The Moravians 
are also carrying on work among them in Nicaragua 
in the Mosquito Reservation. They have 32 foreign 
missionaries, including wives, and 1231 communicants, 
and here is apparently a danger that the Nicaraguan 
Government may forbid the entrance of any more mission- 
aries, while on the other hand there are'financial diflSculties 
in the way of expansion by this Mission. The work has 


been greatly blessed in the past and has in it elements of 
great promise for the future. 


1. Number and Distribution. The Indian population 
of the United States exclusive of Alaska is 300,545. One 
third of these, or 101,469, including the " Five Civilised 
Tribes," so called, are located in the State of Oklahoma, 
with which the former Indian Territory is now incor- 
porated. Almost one-fifth of all of the Indians are within 
the bounds of Arizona and New Mexico, the two remaining 
divisions of the United States having the territorial form 
of government. In each of the states of California and 
South Dakota there are approximately 20,000 Indians, 
and the remaining Indians are scattered in twenty-two 
States of the Union. 

In ethnologic grouping, a varied and interesting study 
is presented, as fifty-six distinct languages are spoken 
with many additional dialectic differences, and between 
250 and 300 tribes and tribal divisions of the American 
Indian race are still found in this population. The main 
stocks are the Algonquin, Sioux, Athabascan, Shoshonean, 
Iroquoian, and Piman. On the Pacific Coast the greatest 
multiplicity of language is to be found. The large number 
of linguistic stocks having lexically no connection with 
each other is remarkable. 

2. Present Condition. The Indians are not a decadent 
or vanishing race, but are in a transitional period and in 
a stage of readaptation to changed conditions which 
create serious problems involving their preservation and 
welfare. The best evidence and testimony indicate that 
for several decades the American red men have been 
slightly increasing in numbers, and to-day the race is more 
than holding its own. Admixture with the white race, 
wide scattering of the population, and the rapid breaking 
up of tribal and reservation life disguise this fact of an 
increase in population. Major Chas. F. Larabee, late 
Assistant Commissioner of Indian Affairs, after long 


service in Government relations, has expressed his belief^ 
that the Indian population has been on the increase fori 
decades and possibly during more than a century. 

But the new Governmental policies of abolishing Indian 
Agencies, the allotment of land in severalty, the removal of 
restrictions to a considerable extent on allotted lands, and 
the~breaking up of tribal._ relations and heathen custjoms, 
are making a new eoch for this race, and are requiring 
rea.djustments to which the slow-moving red men pain- 
^ fully adapt themselves. 

3. Christian Service. In the annalsof Christian missions 
the history of the Indian work forms a hero ic and inspiring 
chapter of devotion, untiring effort and patience, from 
the days of John Eliot, John Sergeant, and the Mayhews, 
through the pioneer labours of David Zeisberger, Jonathan 
Edwards, and David Brainerd, Marcus Whitman, Thomas 
S. Williamson, Stephen R. Riggs, Samuel Worcester, 
Bishops Whipple and Hare, and a great company of 
ministers, superintendents, and teachers who have given 
their lives for the evangelisation and education of this 
race. Twenty-seven mission boards and societies, not 
including the Roman Catholic societies, are engaged to- 
day in this work, whilst 715 organised churches and preach- 
ing stations are established. These are supplied by 171 
ordained white ministers, 211 native pastors, 105 white 
assistants, and igo native helpers. The number of com- 
municants is 28,406, and the total of the estimated 
adherents is almost 70^000. There are maintained 309 
SaFBath Schools, with an enrolment of 17,000. In 
educational work more than fifty mission schools are 
reported, with 150 instructors and 2830 pupils. 

The Roman Catholic Church through the Director of 
its Bureau of Missions in 1909 reported 40,000 " good 
Catholics," and in February 1910, these figures were 
changed to 51,000 in the report made to the Board of 
Indian Commissioners. It was stated that in all there are 
106,000 Catholics among the Indians, but part of these 
were referred to by the director as " baptized pagans." 

4. Scope of Mission Effort. The lines of work have 


been primarily evangelisation and the translation and 
interpretation of the Scriptures into the languages of the 
Indians, who are_slow^to give up their native tongue, and 
can only be effectively reached by the missionary who 
acquires their language. Educational effort ha,s been in 
elementary English branches, and industrial teacning, 
especially agriculture, stock raising, carpentry, and 
domestic service. Lack of funds and equipment have 
prevented a larger scope of mechanical and industrial 

5. Present Needs. Many tribes or tribal remnants are 
still in heathenism, and observe the annual rites of 
Paganism, while the Shamans or medicine men exercise 
control, and no adequate relief has been supplied for their 
physical, mental, and spiritual needs. The statistics of 
the unevangelised Indians of the United States have now 
been collated, and these uncared-for heathen of Christian 
America are in all over fifty thousand, to whom no herald 
of the Gospel has come, and who are without Christian 
instruction or the ordinances of the Church. jQver_iifty 
tribal divisions are in need of missionaries. 

To supply these neglected Indians with the opportunity 
to liear; and accept the Gospel of Christ is a most needed 
service at this time. The strengthening of the forces 
now at work and the enlarging of the educational pro- 
vision made by the women's boards and other mis- 
sionary agencies, is urgently called for. 

The salvation of these people is a work peculiarly 
conimitfed to American Christians. Instincts of religion 
and patriotism, a sense of responsibility and obligation 
to the heathen in their own land, the history of the,, 
often unjust and cruel dealings with the native race 
in the past, all impel to speedy and effective efforts for 
their redemption. 


I. Their Population, Distribution, and Religions. The 
Orientals in the United States are chiefly Chinese, Japanese, 


Koreans, and East Indians. Their numbers are estimated 
at from 160,000 to 186,000. The Chinese and East 
Indian population is increasing shghtly, while that of the 
Japanese and the Koreans has recently been decreasing. 

The Chinese, estimated at from 60,000 to 80,000, come 
chiefly from the vicinity of Canton and are found in 
largest numbers on the Pacific Slope, where from 30,000 
to 42,000 are resident, and the Rocky Mountain district 
with from 15,000 to 18,000. Immigration was checked 
by the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 directed especially 
against labourers, but there has been a steady increase 
in immigration during the past two years. During 1909, 
1600 were admitted, of whom an increasing number were 
students and comparatively few were women. The 
Chinese have no priests as such, but their head men officiate 
in the temples ~of Joss houses which are to be found in 
nearly all Chinese "quarters. Their worship consists of a 
mixture of pure teachings of Lao-tse, of Confucian philo- 
sophy, and superstitious observances. 

About 75,000 of the 90,000 Japanese in the United 
States are on the Pacific Slope, while 10,000 of the remain- 
ing population are located in the inter-mountain and 
Rocky Mountain region. Immigration was checked by 
the Japanese Government in the year 1900, and later in 
1907 an understanding was reached by which the Japanese 
Government issues passports to three classes alone, 
namely, former students, settled agriculturists, and the 
parents, wives, and children of former residents. Budd- 
hists of Kioto established American headquarters in 
San Francisco in 1900 and now have thirteen branches in 
the principal centres of California and three in the Pacific 
North-West. They report fourteen priests and four lay 
workers, three Japanese Buddhist publications and 4700 
adherents in the United States. 

The Koreans probably do not exceed 1500 in the whole 
country. There are comparatively few in the Central 
West or Far East, most of them residing on the Pacific 
Slope. Immigration was practically stopped by the 
Japanese Government as the result of the agreement with 


the United States. They show no tendency to carry a 
native religion from the home land and the non -Chr istians 
are practically without religion. 

It is impossible to estimate correctly the number of 
immigrants from India on the Pacific Coast. Three 
thousand have arrived since 1899, of whom probably 
one-half are in Hawaii. The remainder are largely in 
California and are widely scattered. They are chiefly ex- 
soldiers. They represent different religions, including the 
Mohammedan, Hindu, Aryo Samaj , Buddhist, and Christian. 

2. Difficulties and Problems. Many of the difficulties 
in reaching these Orientals are common to all. They 
include, the influence of the old faiths, the sense of injustice 
and antagonism created by the agitation and discrimina- 
tion against the Orientals, and the lack of sympathy of 
many Christians. 

Among the Chinese there are special problems. There 
are few Chinese women and family life is lacking. Much 
of the population is migratory, while that which is fixed is 
exposed to impurity, and is also much addicted to gamb- 
ling. The absence of trained workers for the Chinese 
constitutes probably one of the most serious'problems. 

The Japanese and Koreans are much more easil}^ 
accessible. In dress, language, food, and general manner 
of life they quickly adopt American customs. They are 
young, vigorous, industrious, hopeful, and self-denying, 
but many of them are addicted to drinking and gambling. 
There are many students among them and these are 
most easily reached and are most influential. Those 
scattered along the railways in construction camps are 
peculiarly difficult of access. The Buddhist priests try 
to keep their people from being influenced by Christianity. 

3. Christian Work being Done. There are two distinct 
forms of work carried on by the Orientals in America, 
local Church work in which the Asiatic converts usually 
become members of the American Churches, and regular 
mission work supported by various missionary societies. 
The former is found principally in the East and the 
Central West, while organised mission work is largely 

COM. I. 17 


confined to the Pacific Coast and a few of the large cities 
of the East. 

(i) It is difficult to secure reliable data concerning the 
extent and character of the work done by local Churches. 
The importance of this work cannot be overestimated. 
For the Chinese much is being done through special 
Sunday School classes and in night schools. The work 
is carried on chiefly in the important cities. The agents 
of the American Bible Society in San Francisco, Denver, 
and Portland, Oregon, are giving special attention to 
Orientals. They distribute Bibles and portions of the 
Scripture in the native tongue and employ colporteurs 
who are able to speak the language at least to some 
extent. In some cases these are native Christians and 
in others returned missionaries. 

(2) The organised mission work has been difficult, but 
fruitful. From the beginning of this work about 6500 
Chinese have become baptized communicants of the 
various Churches. The present membership is probably 
not more than one-fourth of this number. The work in 
San Francisco suffered much in the great fire, but most 
of the missions have been rebuilt. There is no unoccupied 
field of considerable size and of constant population. 
The Presbyterians and Methodists have homes for 
Chinese women and children in San Francisco and do 
much rescue work. The Disciples carry on hospital 
work. There are comparatively few native pastors. 
The Christians unite in publishing a Christian magazine, 
while those of one denomination have established a 
mission in China. 

Among the increasing number of Chinese students are 
found a remarkable proportion of Christians. These have 
organised themselves into a Chinese Student Christian 
Association of the United States with a membership 
approximating 100 and are exerting a leavening influ- 
ence among the students of their own race. 

The principal work among the Japanese has been 
done during the past twenty years. About 4500 have 
been baptized and have become connected with the 


various Churches. The present membership is about 
2000. With one exception, all important centres are 
occupied. The Japanese work in America has borne 
rich fruit in Japan in producing native pastors and 
Christian laymen and in promoting temperance and other 
reform movements. There are twenty-eight pastors in 
the United States, located chiefly in California and the 
Pacific North- West. The Japanese Christians have shown 
great liberality in supporting their Christian work. 
Those of the Methodist communion gave in 1909 nearly 
.S30 per capita toward the support of Church work and 
for benevolent purposes. There is a good Anglo- Japanese 
school in San Francisco, and homes for Japanese women 
and children in Seattle, San Francisco, and Los Angeles. 

Work is being carried on for the Koreans in San Fran- 
cisco, where there is a Church with a native pastor, and in 
Southern California. In the mountain section the various 
Korean Christians unite in efforts for their countrymen. 

Very little is being done for the Hindus except through 
the efforts of the American Bible Society. 

4. Points to be Emphasised. -Effective Christian work 
among the Orientals in the United States will have an 
important bearing on carrying the Gospel to the lands 
from which the Orientals come. If they are led to Christ 
and trained in Christian service they have peculiar oppor- 
tunities for the comprehension of the real significance of 
the Christian life. From their number may come an 
important accession of workers in their home lands. No 
diminution should therefore be permitted in the work 
among them. Closer co-operation on the part of the 
different missions occupying the same places would lead 
to increased efficiency. The present methods, particularly 
the Sunday School, the night classes, and the direct 
preaching of the Gospel, should be emphasised. It is 
important that Christians should manifest in their inter- 
course with the Orientals the^genuine Christian spirit of 
courtesy and charity that will remove prejudice and opert" 
the way for the acceptance of the Gospel. No effort 
should be spared to reach the increasing number of the 



ablest young men who are coming from Oriental lands 
to study in American colleges. The personal influence 
exerted by Christian students and professors among these 
will doubtless constitute the most fruitful agency of 
winning them to faith in Christ. 


The Indian population of the Dominion of Canada, 
according to the Report of the Department of Indian 
Affairs for the year ending March 31, 1909, is 111,043. 
This is an increase of 3406 over that reported in 
1905. The Indians are widely distributed throughout 
the Dominion.^ 

It is difficult to state to what extent they have been 
evangelised. 2 

^ The Indians in Canada are distributed in the various provinces 

as follows : 

Nova Scotia . . . . .2,103 

New Brunswick . 


1. 871 

Prince Edward Island 




Ontario . 


Manitoba _ 






Northwest Territories 


British Columbia . 

. 24,871 

Yukon Territory . 



:i ' Total . . . . . 


rhe Department reports their religious affiliations 

as follow 

Roman Catholics .... 




Not designated 


Protestant Communities 



. 16,776 

Anglican . 








Salvation Army . 

5 16 

Others . " . 



Total , 



The Anglicans and the Methodists have the largest con- 
stituencies, while the Presbyterians and the Baptists are 
increasing. The Anglicans are strongest in Ontario, 
British Columbia, Manitoba, Saskatchewan, the North- 
west and Yukon Territories. The Methodists are 
strongest in Alberta and follow the Anglicans closely 
in Ontario, British Columbia, and Manitoba. The 
principal work of the Presbyterians is in British 
Columbia, Saskatchewan and Manitoba. The Baptists 
have worked almost exclusively in Ontario, but have 
recentl}^ started work in Manitoba. 

In addition to the regular evangelistic work of these 
Churches, the Anglicans and Methodists have each three 
medical missionaries with hospitals among the Indians in 
Kritlsh Columbia. The unsanitary mode of living and 
the vices of civilisation have wrought havoc among the 
Indians. These conditions are met to some extent by 
effective medical mission work. 

The great correlating missionary agency among the 
Indians is education. In this department the Dominion 
Government assumes a large share of responsibility, and 
it is urged by influential leaders of most of the Churches 
that the Governmicnt should bear the entire financial 
responsibility for the education of the Indians, who are 
Government wards under treaty. However, the Churches 
are so anxious to maintain a religious influence over their 
respective Indian communities that they are willing to 
share in the expense of their education so as to retain the 
right of nominating the teachers. There are 20 industrial 
schools, 57 boarding schools, and 231 day schools. Of 
the total number of 308 schools, 51 are undenomina- 
tional, 109 Roman Catholic, 86 Anglican, 44 Methodist, 
16 Presbyterian, and 2 Salvation Army. There is an 
enrolment of 5323 boys and 5156 girls, or a total of 10,479. 
About one-half of the children between six and eighteen 
years of age are enrolled in the schools. 

The Government has created an Advisory Board of 
Indian Education, to which each of the Churches engaged 
in Indian work has the privilege of nominating two 


representatives. This appointment has been a very 
important step in the direction of overcoming waste of 
effort and of developing a united pohcy of missionary 

While the Government is contributing generously to 
Indian education, and while the Churches are giving much 
attention to this work, it must be admitted that the 
results are yet far from satisfactory. Some system of 
compulsory education and some method of preventing 
educated Indian youths from lapsing into the dependent 
and uncivilised life of the reserves, seem essential. 

Lack of sense of religious responsibility on the part of 
the Indians is an unfortunate feature of nearly all Indian 
missions. This is only in accord with the pauperising 
influence which Government treaties have brought to the 
Indian race. Every effort should be made to develop 
religious self-support and activity. In districts where 
mission work among the white population is contiguous 
to Indian communities, the two should be brought as 
closely together as possible. In this way a spirit of 
Christian fellowship and brotherly emulation might be 
stimulated and at the same time a good deal of missionary 
money and life might be saved for more needy fields. 


The number of Orientals living in Canada at the 
beginning of 1909 was 36,591, being an increase of 14,541 
since 1901. These consist of 21,122 Chinese, 12,003 
Japanese, and 3466 people from India (commonly spoken 
of as Hindus). The great majority of these Orientals 
are in British Columbia, especially in the cities of Van- 
couver and Victoria, though from year to year they are 
becoming more widely scattered, especially the Japanese, 
who are found in all the canning centres and in mines and 
construction camps. The Hindus are not found outside 
of British Columbia, and are even there in smaller numbers 
than some years ago. There are small numbers of 
Japanese business men in many of the principal cities of 


the Dominion, and a small farming colony of Japanese 
has settled in Alberta Province. The Chinese, while 
largely concentrated in the cities of British Columbia, 
are found in growing numbers in most of the cities of the 
western provinces and in Ontario. 

Mission work among the Orientals has been prosecuted 
chiefly by the Methodist, Presbyterian, and Anglican 
Churches. Outside of British Columbia the Chinese are 
reached in many cities by volunteer workers in various 
Churches, who conduct Sunday Schools and in some cases 
week-night classes. While it may be taken for granted 
that the Chinese usually attend these classes for the sake 
of learning English, there have been many gratifying 
results both in conversions and in the general influence 
exerted upon their lives. In Winnipeg, where there are 
about 900 Chinese, the Presbyterians and Methodists 
have recently organised a union Chinese mission. 

In British Columbia the Methodists have seven mission 
stations among the Chinese, and five among the Japanese. 
Native pastors and evangelists are employed in these 
missions under the direction of a Canadian superintendent. 
Evangelistic and educational work are combined ; and 
considerable numbers of Chinese and Japanese young men 
are provided accommodation in mission dormitories. 

The Presbyterians have organised mission work among 
the Chinese in three cities in British Columbia, also in 
Winnipeg and Montreal. They employ three Canadian 
missionaries and three Chinese workers. Both evangel- 
istic and educational work are carried on. This Church 
conducts a mission in South-Eastern China for the specific 
purpose of linking the work among the Chinese in Canada 
with the district in their native country from which 
nearly all these Chinese come. Missionaries trained in 
that field are able to speak the dialect of aU the Chinese 
in Canada. The Anglican Church has organised work 
among the Chinese in two cities of British Columbia and 
among the Japanese in one city, where evangelistic and 
educational work are combined. 

There is practically no organised mission work among 


the Hindus in British Columbia. They have not settled 
sufficiently in any particular locality to warrant the 
establishment of regular work among them. They are 
scattered in different parts of the province. 

More effective work is needed among the Chinese and 
Japanese. It is important to have among them a few 
Canadian missionaries possessing qualities of leadership, 
and especially having a knowledge of the Chinese language 
and familiar with Oriental characteristics. It would be a 
great advantage if the Churches interested in this work 
would combine in a thoroughly organised plan, without 
denominational claims or distinctions. It is of the 
utmost importance that the Oriental communities now 
established in Canada should be permeated with Christian 
standards and ideals of life, 


Mission work among the Hyperboreans of Europe, 
carried on by Protestant and Roman missionaries, as well 
as that of the Russian Orthodox Church on the northern 
confines of Eurasia and in Alaska, does not fall within the 
scope of this brief review. Nor does that for Greenland, 
since the withdrawal of the faithful Moravian missionaries 
in 1900 was due to its completed evangelisation save for 
two stations among heathen Eskimos, which the State 
Church of Denmark is still carrying on, while caring also 
for the established Christian communities. 

Our survey includes only the Eskimo populations of 
Labrador, the region about Hudson Bay and Strait, a "few 
isolated communities along the northern sea-board and in 
the north-western section of Britain's possessions, and 
the comparatively large number who inhabit the coast of 
Alaska. All told, there are probably less than 16,000 of 
those under consideration, and of this population, nearly 
all in Labrador are Christianised. Some ninety per cent, 
of the Eskimos are in Alaska, where the United States 
Government is aiding to a considerable extent in a work 
which usually falls to the missionary's lot. This is 


particularly true of education and of the industrial 
innovation, due to the late Dr. Jackson, whereby reindeer 
have been introduced and are changing Eskimo life for 
the better ; though a number of the missionaries are 
important factors in the Government's regime. Dr. 
Grenfell's reindeer experiment is due to the Alaskan 
success, and promises to be equally helpful to Labrador. 

In many respects the Eskimos are in greater need than 
any race for which missionaries are working. Their 
environment is most uninviting and trying. The life of 
the hunter and fisherman of the Far North is both 
dangerous and uncertain. In summer, nomadism is an 
obstacle to the missionary, while the Arctic night makes 
work for them in winter far from easy. The communal 
life, where it still exists, is unfavourable to morality ; 
though Nansen may be right in holding that it is preferable, 
in point of physical well-being, to the segregation of 
families, consequent upon civilisation. In Alaska and 
on the shores of Davis Strait, where contact with dissolute 
whites is most common, they are exposed to the perils of 
venereal and other diseases. ~ 

Religiously, these people are devoted to Shamanism 
and are under the sway of their Angakoks, or wizards. 
Dullness and sensuality, with a tendency to find in physical 
pleasure their highest good, militate against a pure 
Christianity. It has not proved very helpful to appeal 
to their dim behef in God, since they speak of Him as far 
above their comprehension and altogether beyond their 
reach. On the other hand, the Eskimos are usually 
cheerful and happy and are relatively truthful and honest, 
while their singular simplicity and childlikeness furnish 
a somewhat receptive soil for the Gospel when it once gains 
lodgment. Yet after they are won, their old impulses 
are so strong that many feel as an Alaskan once put it, 
" It is lonesome to be a Christian all the time " ; hence the 
lapses which sometimes discourage the missionary. 

Religious work among these people is largely under the 
care of the home missionary societies of the United States ; 
though the Moravians, the Church Missionary Society, 


and other organisations, also participate very helpfully. 
Evangelistic effort is most emphasised, with medicine and 
primary education as common and important adjuncts. 
The sparseness of the population, rigours of winter travel 
from settlement co settlement, and the limited intel- 
lectuality of the Eskimo, have thus far made the task of 
evangelisation slow and comparatively unfruitful. When 
the native force is educated to the point which has been 
reached in Greenland, greater progress may be expected. 
The enterprise will always call for a larger per capita 
expense than in almost any other part of the mission 
world. It v/ill call, moreover, for deeper consecration 
on the part of the workers and for a greater physical 

That the Church should continue and extend this work 
among the dwellers within the Arctic regions is made 
imperative by the decadence of the race, due mainly to 
contact with corrupt white men who are coming in 
increasing numbers to Alaska. The United States 
Government's note of alarm is not hysterical, as witness" 
the energetic way in which it is trying to stem this tide 
of death. Its reports tell of the alarming increase of 
pulmonary complaints and venereal disease, of the 
scarcely believable prevalence of the liquor habit, and of 
other disabilities incident to contact with deprav^ed 
foreigners. True, this is more commonly the situation 
among the Indians of Southern Alaska ; yet it will 
assuredly be equally descriptive of the Eskimos, if the 
beginnings of these scourges are not checked by Christian 
teaching and example. The conditions constitute a 
direct and clamant appeal to the Church to further the 
work already begun. The language is practically the 
same from Labrador to Alaska, though the dialects differ 
greatly, and the foundations of a literature, including the 
translation of the Scriptures, are laid. Upon this an 
adequate superstructure should be built. The ten societies 
already in the field should be urged to strengthen their 
work, despite the relatively great expense. And above 
all, whatever is done must be done speedily before hostile 


forces make the work of rescue ineffective. Medical 
missionaries are increasingly desired to avert the 
threatened racial decay. Men of the spirit and power of 
Sheldon Jackson, Edmund Peck, and Dr. Grenfell, with 
the blessing of God upon their self-denying labours, 
would soon accomplish the evangelisation of these literally 
benighted people. 



I. Numbers and Distyihution. The Jews are a re- 
markable race. They have a history that stretches over 
a period of almost 4000 years. Brought to the brink of 
destruction at least five times in the course of their history, 
they have been marvellously preserved, and they probably 
exist to-day in larger numbers than at any previous period 
of their history. According to the most reliable estimates, 
the approximate figures of Jewish population were, on 
January ist, 1910, in round numbers : 

America . 


9, 1 2 1;, 000 



Thus the Jews of to-day are pre-eminently a people 
living in Europe, though the Jewish population of the 
United States two millions is to-day double that of 
1899 and five times larger than it was in 1888. 

In Europe, Austria contains more than 1,125,000 
Jews; Hungary, 850,000; Bulgaria, 36,000; France, 
95,000 ; German}^ 608,000 ; Holland, 106,000 ; Italy, 
50,000 ; Roumania, 250,000 ; Russia, 5,215,000 ; 
European Turkey, about 300,000 ; the British Isles, 
238,000. In Asia, Palestine has 100,000 Jewish inhabit- 
ants ; Asia Minor and Syria, 65,000 ; Persia, 63,000 ; 
Arabia, 20,000 ; India, 18,000 ; Turkestan and Afghan- 
istan, 18,000. In Africa, Morocco has 150,000 


Jews ; Tunis, 60,000 ; Algeria, 63,000 ; Abyssinia 
(Falashas), 6,500 ; South Africa, 50,000. In America, 
the United States has 2,000,000 Jews ; Canada, 60,000 ; 
the Argentine Repubhc, 45,000. 

The vast majority of all the Jews live in the larger cities 
in separate quarters, in compact masses, and distinct in 
social life from the surrounding Gentiles.^ 

2. Language. Most of the Jews speak the language 
of the country in which they dwell, even immigrants 
readily and quickly acquiring the language of their 
adopted country. The majority of the Jews of Germany, 
Austria-Hungary, Russia, and the United States, or 
perhaps three-fifths of all the Jews, speak the Yiddish, 
which has been well called the international tongue 
of the Jews. It is the corrupt German of the Middle 
Ages, with a sprinkling of Pohsh and Hebrew words 
(and some English words in Great Britain and the 
United States), written with ^ Hebrew letters. An 
extensive literature has sprung ^up in this exclusively 
Jewish tongue, and the Jewish missionary labouring 
among the poorer classes often finds that it is the only 
tongue in which he can reach his hearers or readers. 
The New Testament in Yiddish translation has been 

1 It is interesting to consider the percentage of Jews to the total 
population, as given in the Jewish Year Book, London, 1910. In 
Poland, the percentage is 14I ; in Palestine, 15^; in Austria, 4'^ ; 
in Roumania, 4^ ; in Hungary, 4f ; in Russia, 4 ; in Morocco, 3 ; 
in the United States, 2;^ ; Canada, i^ ; Germany, i^^ ; France, | ; 
Great Britain, ^. Among the cities of the world. Greater New 
York contains the largest Jewish population, about one million ; 
but the percentage of Jews to total population is only 26 ; 
while in Russia, two cities, namely, Berditchev (47,000 Jews) and 
Pinsk (22,000 Jews) and one city in Palestine, Tiberias, have more 
than 8oper cent, of Jews in their total population. The percentage 
of Jews to the total population in some others of the larger cities 
is as follows : Salonica 45 (90,000 Jews), Minsk 55 (50,000 Jews), 
Jerusalem 55 (55,000 Jews), Kishinefi 50 (50,000 Jews), Lodz 47^ 
(150,000 Jews), Wilna 40 (64,000 Jews), Odessa 34 (135,000 Jews), 
Warsaw 33 (213,000 Jews), Budapest 23 (168,985 Jews), Bucharest 
15 (43,000 Jews), Amsterdam 11 (60,000 Jews), Vienna 9 (175,000 
Jews), Frankfort S (24,000 Jews), Constantinople 6 (65,000 Jews), 
Berlin 5 (100,000 Jews), London 2 (140,000 Jews), Paris 2 (55,000 
Jews), Chicago 9 (185,000 Jews), Philadelphia 8 (100,000 Jews). 


in the hands of the missionaries for many years, but 
the translation of the Old Testament by Marcus Berg- 
mann, a missionary of the London City Mission, was 
printed only a few years ago. The British and Foreign 
Bible Society has now at work a committee for a revision 
of the Bergmann version of the Old and New Testaments, 
and is looking forward to the publication of the Yiddish 
Bible in a cheap edition in the near future. 

In the United States the number of Yiddish- speaking 
Jews is so large that the Central Conference of American 
Rabbis has decided to publish its tracts in Yiddish also. 
Reform Jews and the younger generation in the countries 
of Central and Western Europe and of the United States, 
however, to some extent despise Yiddish and prefer 
the language of the country in which they dwell, even 
tliough the}^ understand Yiddish. The Jews of Northern 
Africa and a few of those in Holland, Spain, Turkey, 
and Palestine, speak the Judceo-Spanish, or Ladino. 

3. Religious Condition. Religiously the Jews may 
be divided into two large classes Reform and Ortho- 
dox Jev/s. Both agree on the following fundamental 
principles : (i) The universe is the work of one all- 
wise, all-governing, and all-directing God ; (2) The 
world's history is guided by a divine purpose ; (3) Right- 
eousness and justice are the principles which should con- 
trol men's actions ; (4) Every man is responsible for his 
conduct to his conscience, and through his conscience 
to God. 

Reform Judaism originated in Germany in the days 
of Moses Mendelssohn, 1729-86, but has had its fullest 
development through Rabbi Isaac M. Wise and others 
in the United States since 1850. Its followers are found 
also in Great Britain, France, and Italy, and belong almost 
exclusively to the educated classes. It has no common creed. 
Christian methods in worship and church work are to some 
extent imitated, and the generally accepted principle that 
" Judaism is a changeable quantity " is in some cases 
carried so far that the religious services are held on 
the fir$t day of the week. The Central Conference of 

THE JE7S 271 

American Rabbis, through a tract, " What Do Jews 
Believe ? " asserts its adherence to the fundamental 
principles stated above, and describes the following 
beliefs of Reform Jews : (i) The world is not tainted 
with sin, and there is no devil ; (2) There is no original 
sin, no fall of man, and, therefore, no need of a vicarious z,. 
atonement. " Man bears the impress of the Divine 
image in his soul, and it is his highest duty to realise 
this Divine nature and enact it in his life. . . . There- 
fore,"TroIiTiess ought to be the chief pursuit of man;" 

(3) The Scriptures of the Old Testament " contain the 
highest revelation of God possessed by mankind. . . . 
The actual writing and editing took place in the usual 
human fashion. . . . The choice of Israel for the Divine 
Revelation does not preclude the view that God has spoken 
to other peoples as well." Thus Revelation is universal. 

(4) The soul is immortal and survives the dissolution 
of the body, " but just what occurs after death, and 
what the state of the soul is, the purest teaching of,_ 
Judaism has never attempted to define." Reform 
Jews " are sure that the soul of man is not put out 
altogether, and that the hfe, with its struggles and suffer- 
ings and failures, will be rightly dealt with by the Lord 
of Righteousness." (5) They entertain no_Jiope of a 
personal Messiah. They expect the coming of a Messianic 
AgeT^when humanity will enjoy the reign of righteous- 
ness, and all shall unite in the worship of the one 
God. Toward this ideal all men should aspire, and 
to Israel was given the task of making it a reahty, 
no matter how much trial and suffering it may 

ToReforrnJews, Israel is no longer a nation. Regarding 
Jesus^ofT^azareth many of the rabbis use language hke 
this : " We believe that Jesus was one of the greatest of 
prophets a great moral teacher, one of the noblest of 
God's creations, with Moses and Isaiah. We do not give 
Him the attribute^ of deity, but of divinity ,_a nd there js_a ^y 
^ark of divinity in us all." -^ 

Orthodox Jew^ of to-day cHng to a system of religion 


which is Rabbinism or Talmudism pure and simple. They 
accept as creed the thirteen articles of faith formulated 
by Maimonides at the close of the twelfth century, but the 
Talmud, Which contains the traditions of the fathers, is 
of at least equal authority with the written Law of Moses. 
Orthodox Jews may be subdivided into three groups : 
(i) Jews of North Africa, Egypt, Palestine, Syria, Mesopo- 
tamia, Asia Minor, European Turkey, parts of Austria 
Hungary, Poland, Russia, and America ; that is, the 
majority of all Jews. These show few elements of 
general culture, but possess a most extensive knowledge 
of traditional literature, to which they cling tenaciously, 
and have considerable acquaintance with the Old Testa- 
ment. (2) Many Jews in America and those living in 
the western half of Europe. They rapidly acquire 
general culture and adopt the customs and languages of 
the countries in which they dwell. Their knowledge of 
Rabbinism and the Old Testament is good, but they are 
losing faith, and their children are loo often infidel and 
irreligious. (3) Nominal Jews in the interior of Africa, 
in Arabia, East India, China, Persia, Turkestan, and 
Bokhara. These are in a low grade of civilisation, pre- 
serving but scanty rehcs of the religion of their fathers, 
these relics being of a rabbinic sort. To this group 
belong the Falashas of Abyssinia, the Jews in the oases 
of the Sahara, the Riff Jews in Morocco, the Rechabites 
in Arabia, the Beni Israel and the Black Jews of 

In a general way it can well be said that the Jews the 
world over are religiously disintegrating and that the 
younger generation is drifting away from the religion of 
the fathers. 


The following table shows the number of Jewish 
mi sionary societies throughout the world on January ist, 
1909. It might lead the superficial observer to think 
that the Jewish field is comparatively well occupied, 



American and Canadian 

Societies . 
Asiatic Societies . 
Australasian Societies 
British Societies . 
Continental Societies 
South African Society 


































































but the following considerations will quickly change that 
thought. The United States seem to lead, but the 
societies average but one station and three workers, while 
the equipment and the financial support of most of the 
American Jewish missionary societies must also be called 
unsatisfactory. Only one American society, the Nor- 
wegian Lutheran, employs a labourer among Jews out- 
sidF'of Its ownT^ountry. The British societies stand 
foremost in size and organisation and in equipment and 
income, but are not as efficient as they might be. As 
the Statistical Atlas shows, wide sections of Jewry in 
Eastern Europe, in Asia, and in Africa remain untouched, 
and even in the United States, cities with large Jewish 
populations have no Jewish missionaries. 

I. The Character of the Work Done. Much emphasis has 
been laid upon the preaching of the Word of God especially 
to Jewish men, and hundreds of thousands of New 
Testaments and miUions of Christian tracts in the languages 
familiar to Jews have been distributed. Successful efforts 
for reaching the Jewish women have been made at last, 
after it had been considered for many years an almost 
impossible thing. Medical missionaries have been ^gladly 
received by the Jewish masses everywhere, even the 
most bigoted Orthodox Jews of Eastern Europe, Northern 
COM. I. 18 


A'rica, and Palestine seeking in difficult cases the aid of 
the mission doctor in preference to that of physicians of their 
own race. Educational work among Jewish children, 
especially that carried on by the London Jews' Society 
and the two great Scottish societies, has attracted such 
crowds of children that it is almost impossible to accom- 
modate them. This is the more remarkable because 
work among the children is far more bitterly opposed by 
Jewish leaders than any other effort. 

2. Classes Reached. Jewish missionary efforts still 
remain largely confined to the so-called lower classes, 

IM^ though here and there an attempt has been made also to 
reach the well-educated Jews, either through special 
literature or personal visits. In the United States and in 
Northern Germany these cultured Jews are very frequently 
reached and influenced by the pastors within whose 
parishes they live, so that it seems as if the work among 
them can be better done in that way than by missions, 
the very name of which they despise. In a general way 
it may be said that Austro-Hungarian, Polish, and 
Russian Jews prove more accessible to the Gospel than 
others, though it would be unwise to set any limit to the 
power of the Word of God and of His Holy Spirit. 

3. Results Achieved. The measurement of the success 
of missions to the Jews by the number of baptisms should 
be earnestly deprecated. Many of the missions do not aim 
at baptisms and incorporation into the visible Church, but 
at evangelisation only. Others are so situated that they 
cannot take care of the converts in the face of persecutions 
and are forced to send them to other cities or countries. 
Many of the Jews converted under the preaching of the 
Gospel in a Jewish mission are afraid to let the missionary 
know and, changing often even the land of their abode, 
are baptized later in some Christian Church or in 
another mission. Of the Jews brought to Christ by the 
reading of the New Testament or Christian literature 
distributed by the missionaries itinerating among the 
Jewish masses of Eastern Europe, a small percentage 
only are baptized in missions or become known to th^ 


missionaries.^ In Jewish missionary work it is true that 
one soweth and ^another reapeth, both rejoicing together. 
The progress of the Gospel among the Jews cannot be 
illustrated by statistical tables unless these tables contain 
also the figures pertaining to Jewish baptisms in Churches 
not connected with missions. 

Most assuredly the Word of the Lord has not returned 
void unto Him, wherever it has been preached to the 
Jews in sincerity and in faith. Thousands of Jewish 
men, women, and children, have confessed their faith in 
the Lord Jesus Christ in public baptism and have borne 
the burden of the fierce persecutions which still are the 
portion of most of the Jewish believers in Christ. Many 
more, however, have become secret believers, lacking, 
alas, the courage for a public profession. Of the Jewish 
children who received Christian training in the missionary 
schools, many have been converted, but, in the majority 
of cases, were xorced to postpone a public profession of 
their faith until they were of age. Other children had 
received such deep and lasting impressions, that years 
after they had left the missionary schools they sought 
and found Christ and were baptized. The direct results 
of Jewish missions are not less encouraging than those 
of missions among the heathen. 

The indirect results of Jewish missions are also valuable ^ 
and important. Even where the preaching of the Gospel 
to the Jews has not led to conversion and baptism, it 
has set before the people true Christianity as they have 
never known it before. Widely scattered and eagerly 
read New Testaments and Christian literature have given 
them an extensive acquaintance with the tenets of 
Biblical Christianity and have undoubtedly stimulated the 

1 This is well illustrated by the following facts: of 1072 
Jews baptized in American Churches from 1895 to 1901 only 
217 were reported by American Jewish Missions. But 891, or 
more than 83 per cent, of all, stated that they had received their 
first ideas of Christianity, their first New Testament, or tracts, 
from missionaries. Of these 891, more than 65 per cent. 
(582), had been won to Christ before they crossed the Atlantic, 
bat probably very few of them had told the missionary of the 
influence that he had exerted in their case. 


study of the Old Testament and its prophecies. The 
estabUshment of medical missions and well-equipped 
hospitals has given to the Jewish masses a glimpse of 
true Christian love providing liberally for the suffering 
and poor of their race. The missionary educational 
institutions have offered to the Jewish boys and girls an 
opportunity for training for greater usefulness and higher 
achievements, and they have undoubtedly contributed 
much to the elevation of the Eastern^ Jewish woman 
from that state of degradation into which Talmudism yi 
had thrust her. ~^~ 

Jewish missionary work has proved a good antidote to 
the anti-Christian influence of Jewish persecutions, to the 
unjust Anti-semitism especially active upon the Continent 
of Europe, and to that popular prejudice against the 
Jewish race which is found even among English and 
American Christians. It has levelled prejudices against 
Christ and Christianity and has already overcome anti- 
pathies toward the messengers of the Gospel to such an 
extent that the Jews of the present day are more access- 
ible to the missionary than those of ten years ago. 


Jewish missions are only in their infancy and we cannot 
conscientiously say that any part of the world field, except 
perhaps London, is adequately occupied. No effort is 
being made to reach the Reform Jews in Germany and 
the United States, and none whatever to reach the Ortho- 
dox Jews in Central Asia. Russia's Jewish millions are 
still languishing without the Gospel, and indeed in almost 
every part of the world the Jews are greatly neglected. 

On account of the scattered condition of the Jews it 
is impossible to give an estimate of the number and 
classes of missionaries still needed. We feel, however, 
that Jewish missions are in such a peculiar condition 
to-day as to demand unusual measures to ensure, under 
God. their progress. 

Followers of the Lord Jesus Christ Himself after 


the flesh a Jew should give to the presentation 
of Christ to the Jew its rightful place in the Great Com- 
mission. It is not a task to be left to a few enthusiastic 
believers, but the obligation and responsibility of the 
whole Christian Church. The Gospel must be preached 
to the Jew wherever he may be found. 

For centuries the Church has paid little heed to the 
missionary message of the Apostle to the Gentiles, 
" There is no difference between the Jew and the Greek." 
Both are sinners, for both have come short of the glory 
God, arid b^oth need a Saviour, even the Lord Jesus Christ. 
Yet the Church has acted as thougFif^elieved otherwise. 
The attitude of the Christian to the Jew has not been 
merely one of neglect but of bitter hostility. Reparation 
is due for the contempt and injustice meted outbjTthe 
Christian Church and its members to the race into which 
its Founder was born and out of which He drew His first 
disciples. Christianity was born in Judaism and owes a 
debt to bring the Jew home at last to the fold of Christ. 

There is urgent need, therefore, that the Church should 
change its attitude toward an enterprise which is carrying 
out an essential part of our Lord's Great Commission. 
The spasmodic efforts to bring the Jew to Christ must 
be replaced by missions as strong, persistent, and sym- 
pathetic as those among other races of mankind. Many 
of the difficulties are -of the Church's own creating ; and 
will disappear with a deeper faith in the power of God 
through the Gospel and a wiser approach imbued with 
a truer sympathy. No other methods are needed than 
those which have been blessed in the past among both 
Jews and Gentiles. The issue remains unchanged. It 
is still Jesus whom the Jew must accept or reject. 
Reform Jewish Rabbis in the United States may speak 
of Him in flattering terms, and accept Him as one of the 
great prophets and teachers of mankind, but the gulf 
between them and Christianity remains practically as 
wide as that which must be crossed by the Orthodox 
Jew [^before he acknowledges the Lordship, Divinity, 
and Mcssiahship of Jesus of Nazareth. 


The time to reach the Jews with the Gospel is now, 
when they are rapidly drifting away from the faith of 
their fathers and are groping for something, they know 
not what. The Jews are becoming more and more an 
integral part of Christian cities, strongly influencing and 
often even dominating them by their enormous and 
increasing wealth and by their remarkable intellectual 
ability. However far they may have drifted, there still 
remains with them that inherent rehgious instinct, that 
capacity to appreciate great moral and spiritual truths 
which has characterised them throughout their history, 
and which, consecrated to the service of Christ, will enrich 
and revitalise Christianity itself. " For if the casting 
away of them be the reconciling of the world, what shall 
be the receiving of them, but life from the dead." 



The investigations and discussions of this section of the 
Commission's Report are justified and demanded both by 
the claims which Christianity makes and by the command 
of our Lord. Christianity claims to be, for all ages and 
peoples, the all sufficient and the only sufficient religion. 
A moral obhgation attaches itself to such a claim. If 
Christianity be the only sufficient religion for all the world, 
it should be given to all the world. Christ's command 
also lays upon the Church an obligation for nothing less 
than a world-wide promulgation of the Gospel. 

To survey the unoccupied sections of the world, with 
a view to the speedy and complete occupation of these 
areas, must awaken interest, expectancy, and faith. A 
world survey, with this aim, provides, therefore, some of the 
strongest incentives for missionary effort. It develops the 
right attitude of mind toward the whole missionary enter- 
prise, carrying with it the pledge of complete realisation. 

Unoccupied sections fall naturally into two main 
groups : (i) Sections untouched and not included in any 
existing scheme of missionary operation. (2) Sections 
included within the scheme of existing missionary opera- 
tions, but not yet occupied. 


It is a most solemnising fact that what might be called 
the heart of each of the two great continents of Asia and 
Africa is still unoccupied territory, after more than a 
century of the modern missionary era. 



I. Large Integral Areas. (a) In Asia. This survey of 
unoccupied territory in Asia starts in Manchuria, at 
approximately the 125 of east longitude. Here the pro- 
vince of Halung-kianghas a population of 1,500,000 with 
only one mission station recently established. Westward 
the needs of 2,000,000, out of a total of 2,600,000 nomadic 
Mongols and Kalmucks, come into view in the vast and, 
for the most part, desert stretches of Mongolia, for only 
three mission stations are found in this territory. Still 
westward lies the Chinese province of Sin-kiang, con- 
sisting of Chinese Turkestan, Kuldja, Zungaria, and outer 
Kan-su, with a population of 1,200,000. The establish- 
ment of three missionary outposts within this territory at 
Yarkand, Kashgar, and Urumtsi alone prevent its entire 
inclusion in this sweep of unoccupied territory ; but none 
of these stations is in outer Kan-su. Southward, there- 
fore, through outer Kan-su, Tibet is reached. Here are 
6,000,000 people as yet wholly destitute of missionary 
ministration. South of Tibet are the two native states 
of Bhutan and Nepal, with an aggregate population of 
over 5,000,000, without a Christian missionary. West of 
Tibet a slender wedge of missionary stations driven up 
through Kashmir is beginning to break the unity of the 
unoccupied territory in the heart of Asia. 

Farther to the west, Afghanistan appears. Here are 
4,000,000, whose needs have been set forth in greater 
detail elsewhere, and who are without a Christian mis- 
sionary. North of Afghanistan are Bokhara, with a 
population of 1,250,000, chiefly Mohammedans, and 
Khiva, with a population of 800,000, also for the most 
part Mohammedans, and in addition there are 5,000,000 
Mohammedans of Russian Turkestan all of these without 
any regular mission station or missionary. At last, the 
mission stations of Persia appear. 

The territory just surveyed has brought into view a 
land almost equal in area to the whole of the United 
States, excluding Alaska, and a population of more than 

On the very edge of the great continent is another 


vast section of Asia, within which are to be found 
no missions save a few carried on b}^ the Roman 
Catholic Church. French Indo-China to the south-east, 
with a population of 21,500,000,^ is practically 
without Protestant missionary work, for only in the 
city of Song-Khone, in this vast territory, has there been 
established an independent mission. This region has three 
Swiss workers and a French colporteur of the British and 
Foreign Bible Society. 

The survey thus far has presented 48,000,000 of Asia's 
population in sections unoccupied by missionary 

{b) In Africa. To a far greater degree than even in 
the case of Asia, the heart of Africa constitutes a vast 
unoccupied field. This area of unrelieved gloom, beginning 
almost immediately back of the Mediterranean coast, west 
of Egypt, includes the following countries and peoples 
without missionaries : Barka with 100,000 of the Ben 
Gliazi tribe; Tunis, south of the Httoral, with 1,000,000 
inhabitants ; 900,000 in Tripoli ; almost 1,300,000 in 
the province of Oran, and 400,000 in the southern territory 
of Algeria ; 2,260,000 in the Atlas Riff country, the 
Mulaya Valley, the Sus Valley, and the Sahara district of 
Morocco; 800,000 in Portuguese Guinea; about 1,700,000 
in French Guinea ; 800,000 in Dahomey ; 500,000 in the 
Ivory Coast; Eastern Liberia, with 1,500,000 pagans; 
the northern districts of Togo ; sections of Nigeria, 
especially to the north-east, whose population would 
approximate 6,000,000 ; 3,000,000 in the eastern part of 
Kamerun : 8,000,000 in the French Congo, besides4,ooo,ooo 
of the Baghirmi, Kanem, and Wadai districts ; at least 
20,000,000 out of the 30,000,000 of the Belgian Congo ; 
about 2,000,000 in the north-eastern and south-eastern 
sections of the Portuguese territory of Angola : 2,500,000 
in Portuguese East Africa ; large districts in German 
East Africa, with an aggregate population of about 
3,000,000 ; sections of British East Africa, especially to 
the north and north-east; 750,000 in the Italian, British 
^See Statesman''s Year Book. 


and French Somali lands ; and 1,000,000 in the Egyptian 
Sudan, chiefly west of the White Nile. Scattered over a 
territory which is vast, even without including the desert 
stretches of the Sahara, and which is fairly unified, there 
are therefore to be found in Africa about 70,000,000 
people, more than one-third of the population of the 
entire Continent, without any existing agency having 
plans actually projected for their evangelisation. These 
figures are overwhelming, and they become more so when 
it is pointed out that the extent of the effective influence 
of existing missionary agencies has probably been greatly 
overestimated. The question can be seriously raised, 
Has tlie Church more than made a beginning in the evan- 
gelisation of the Dark Continent ? 

2. Smaller Integral Areas. In addition to these great 
stretches of unoccupied territory, there are also, especially 
in Asia, other integral areas smaller in size, yet constitut- 
ing distinct geographical units and wholly without any 
missionary provision. 

In Arabia the provinces of Nejd, Hejaz, and Hadra- 
maut are unoccupied. These provinces have a population 
of perhaps 3,000,000, for whom no missionary agency 

East of the Jordan in Syria are sections of country, 
with an aggregate population of 550,000 inhabitants, 
where no missionary works. 

In the Sinaitic Peninsula there is no missionary or 
mission station ; here are 50,000 people. 

In the Malay Peninsula, the districts of Kedah, Tren- 
gannu, and Kelantan have recently come under the 
British flag. This population of perhaps 1,000,000 has 
no Christian missionary. 

In addition to these areas, whose population is con- 
siderable, there are a large number of areas whose in- 
dividual populations are more limited, and of which a 
complete list may not be attempted here. Such areas 
are to be found not only in Asia and Africa, but also in 
the Island World, and in both North and South America 
where Esquimaux or Indians are to be found. 



Impressive and overwhelming as may be the broad 
survey of these unoccupied fields, which has brought into 
view 122,000,000 people without missionary provision, 
there are other unoccupied fields which appear to be of 
possibly greater importance. These are the areas which 
are included within the scheme of existing missionary 
operations, but which are not yet occupied. 

A special consideration _ of these unoccupied sections 
is necessary because their needs are so easily and so often 
overlooked. The fact that they are regarded as lying 
within or adjoining the sphere of influence of some 
missionary organisation leads to their dismissal from the 
thought of the Church as though provided for. Yet 
careful investigation shows that such sections are as 
destitute as those other sections which are farther 
removed from existing missionary agencies, and which 
stand out distinctly upon the map as the great un- 
occupied fields. 

Judging from investigations made, it is believed that 
a complete survey would show that the populations of 
these areas would, in the aggregate, exceed the large 
total of unoccupied areas already considered. A further 
consideration in favour of the prompt occupation of these 
sections is found in the fact that provision could be made 
for their needs more economically than for the needs 
of remote sections. The mere extension of adjoining 
missions by reinforcements would ordinarily constitute 
the simplest, wisest and most effective plan for the speedy 
occupation of most of these areas. 

In spite of the considerations urging a survey of these 
unoccupied fields, and in spite of considerable effort to 
accomplish such a survey, it was not found possible to 
accomplish this work in time for use in this Report. In 
the Appendix ^ the difficulties which have been en- 
countered are enumerated, and suggestions are offered 
See Appendix B, p. 393, 


for the future accomplishment of this work. Let it 
suffice to state here that the investigations which have 
been made create a profound conviction that, in the 
aggregate, the unoccupied and destitute areas, which lie 
within or closely adjoin the spheres of influence of ex- 
isting missionary agencies, present the most extensive, 
the most pressing, and the most pathetic need of the 
missionary world because the Gospel, which is the 
power of God unto salvation, is so near and yet so remote 
from the people in these neglected regions. 


The discovery of great stretches of unoccupied territory 
and of populations aggregating so many millions must 
rebuke missionary apathy and awaken some sense of 
the urgency for im^mediate action. If the problem is 
to be solved, there must be a careful study of the causes 
which have contributed to the creation of these conditions 
of neglect. Among these causes are the following : 

I. Isolation Due to Absence of Exploration or Difficulty of 
A ccess. Without losing sight of the fact that missionary 
work has provided many of the most powerful incentives 
as well as many of the most effective agencies for geo- 
graphical exploration, it remains true that in certain 
great sections of the world as yet unoccupied by Christian 
forces, missionary work has been arrested by the absence 
of such exploration. Many sections of Africa, such as 
the hinterland of the Mediterranean littoral, and parts 
of the interior removed from great river highways, are 
calling for twentieth - century missionaries who, like 
David Livingstone, will view " the end of the geographical 
feat as the beginning of the missionary enterprise ! " 
Such is also the case in the great unoccupied stretches 
of Central Asia, to a considerable degree in Arabia, and 
in more limited fields like Borneo, New Guinea, and many 
other islands. 

In other cases, while the lands have been measurably 
explored, they are without means of transportation. It 


has been pointed out that " no greater revolution was 
worked in the last century than that which diverted the 
great highways of the world from the overland routes to 
the approach by sea." This has resulted in the abandon- 
ment of many much-used caravan routes. Even where 
these have been maintained by trade, it is more frequently 
the Moslem trader who makes use of them to the extension 
of his faith, while the Western traveller and the Christian 
missionary are tempted to turn to the seaboard areas 
and to leave the interior sections unvisited. However, 
both political and industrial developments are preparing 
highways for the Kingdom, and the day is not far distant 
v/hen no country can be described as unexplored or 

2. Political Hindrances. Vast territories have been 
closed to the missionary enterprises for political reasons, 
often based upon or accentuated by religious antagonism. 
Tibet still forbids entrance to the Christian missionary. 
The two independent kingdoms of Nepal and Bhutan, 
lying along the northern frontier oi IncUa, are generally 
considered closed to the missionary. Certain native 
States, representing smaller areas in India, either have 
no resident missionary or are wholly untouched by any 
missionary work because of political prohibitions, for 
example, the Tributary States of Surguja, Jashpur, 
Korea and Chang Bhakar and the Independent State 
of Tippera. In Afghanistan religious fanaticism unites 
with political authority in excluding all Christian mis- 
sionary effort. In sections of Arabia and of Northern 
Africa a similar exclusion of Christian missions is sup- 
posed to obtain. 

Pohtical hindrance becomes a much more complex 
problem when interposed by a Western Government. 
Such political hindrance has been a great factor in the 
almost total absence of Protestant Christian missions in 
such large areas as the French colonial possessions in 
Eastern Asia and in West and Central Africa. Elsewhere 
it has limited and even threatened to wipe out estabhshed 
missionary work, as in Madagascar. 


Nevertheless, it ought to be recognised that the re- 
moval of political prohibitions can reasonably be hoped 
for, and that, even where political restraints remain, much 
may be done by indirect methods. In too many instances, 
the supposed existence of political hindrance has been 
allowed to discourage the Church from even making the 
effort to enter a given field. The promise has not yet been 
fully tested : " Knock and it shall be opened unto you." 
In other instances, there has not been a worthy and 
united effort on the part of all Christendom to exert its 
influence for the removal of these hindrances through 
some central authority representing the entire missionary 
movement. Nor has the Church tested fully the power 
of God, who can burst every barrier and open every door. 
Nearly all the fields were considered closed at one time, 
and no field has ever opened its doors save through prayer, 
effort, and sacrifice. 

3. Lack of an Adequate and Comprehensive Vision. The 
neglect both of great integral and of scattered smaller 
sections of the non-Christian world is directly traceable 
to a lack of a comprehensive vision of the goal of missions. 
The thought of carrying the Gospel to all the world has 
not widely dominated missionary effort. The enterprise 
has been viewed too frequently from the standpoint of 
])rogress made and not sufficiently from that of the_work 
to be done. Unoccupied territory has, therefore, been 
looked upon in the light of a worthy opportunity for 
missionary effort rather than as a ground for humiliation 
and rebuke because of missionary neglect. The destitu- 
tion of innumerable small areas within or adjoining 
mission fields regarded as occupied, has not received due 
emphasis. The absence of a comprehensive plan for 
carrying the Gospel to all the world is responsible also for 
the absence of any agency correlating the missionary 
operations of the several societies or boards representing 
Christendom. Important areas have therefore remained 
unoccupied because not definitely committed for evangelisa- 
tion to any agency. 



If the Church is to remove the reproach that, in this 
twentieth century of the Christian era, so much of the 
world's population is without any agency aiming to bring 
to it the Gospel message, definite plans must be pro- 
jected and definite action must be taken. 

1 . There must be knowledge of the facts. There has been 
ignorance of the true situation. The absence of representa- 
tives of missionary societies in unoccupied areas has robbed 
these of the very agencies by which their spiritual destitu- 
tion could be made known and their needs voiced to 
the Christian world. Some central organisation or com- 
mittee is desirable to press the investigations referred 
to in another section,^ and to place before the Christian 
Church the knowledge of the need which will lead to its 
being met. 

2. There must be strategic planning for the future. 
Much territory is at present unoccupied, not merely 
because of a lack of missionary resources, but also because 
of a lack of wise direction of the missionary activities 
of the past. Some provision must be made, therefore, 
within the Church, not only for making known the needs 
of these fields, but also for determining the societies 
which should occupy them, and the best method and 
moment for effecting such occupation. 

3. The effective occupation of these now unoccupied 
areas will call for the strengthening of existing missions 
by reinforcements, both of men and of money, so as to 
enable them fully to occupy the territories which they 
now claim, and to reach out into those innumerable 
smaller areas adjoining their mission fields, in which no 
work is now being carried on. 

4. There is need, also, for the establishment of missions 
within the unoccupied territories which are far removed 
from established missions. It is especially desirable 
that such new missions should so far as possible be in- 
augurated by the existing missionary societies. The 

1 See Appendix B, 


problems to be solved in entering new fields are excep- 
tionally difficult and this calls for the wisdom, experience, 
and resour ces of well-es tablished missionary organisations! 
It would" nol be wise, however, for those missionary 
societies and agencies, whose resources are limited and 
whose burdens are already large, to attempt the estab- 
lishment of new missions to the impoverishment of older 
stations and the weakening of existing work. The " far- 
flung battle line " of the army of God is even now, at 
many points, a perilously slender line. It must not be 
made more slender still, not even for the sake of extension. 
In case the existing missionary societies do not find it 
practicable to extend their work to certain unoccupied 
fields, it may become necessary to start new societies 
in order to meet the need, but this should be done in such 
a way as not to diminish the number of workers or the 
financial resources of other organisations, but rather in 
such a way as will' enlist enlarged giving and result in 
sending out, as it were, a new regiment. 

5. The ideal of carrying the Gospel to all the world 
must be Hfted and steadily upheld. There should be a 
fuller recognition of the world-wide scope of the Com- 
mission which our Lord gave to His Church. A serious 
effort to occupy all the unoccupied fields and to carry the 
Gospel to all the world must be made a test of the Church's 
loyalty to Christ's command. The Church has abundant 
resources for the unfinished task, not in some fields but 
in the whole world. With a spirit of co-operation among 
missionary agencies, with a recognition of their unity of 
purpose and of their fellowship in their common Lord, 
with a proper distribution of the responsibihty and burden 
of this world enterprise, with a comprehensive plan for 
world occupation, and, above all, with a humble depend- 
ence upon the enabling grace of Him who gave the Com- 
mission, none dare deny that this task may speedily be 




The study of the pcoblejiL of carrying the Gospel to the ^ 
non-Christian world involves the question of how best to 
utilise the comparatively insufficient yet valuable force at 
the disposal of the Church so as to make Christ known to 
the largest possible number of people and to build up 
strong and enduring Churches. On this point perhaps 
more than on any other have the correspondents in the 
various mission fields given a full expression of opinion 
based upon individual or local experiences. The attempt 
will be made to indicate, in the light of such experiences, 
the conditions and principles which should influence this 
distribution or disposition of the forces. 


One factor in determining the distribution of the 
missionary forces is the density of the population to be 
evangelised. Wherever the population is very sparse, 
as among the nomads of Central Asia or among the 
American Indians, it is wise policy to establish stations 
where it will be possible to influence at least a few hundreds 
of the natives or one or two tribes. Of necessity there 
will not be many workers at such stations since the 
COM. I. 19 


number to be reached is so small. The same principle 
will apply to parts of Africa where in large areas the 
population is sparse and the tribes are separated by long 
stretches. Wherever the circumstances suggest the dis- 
tribution of the forces over a wide area, or over groups of 
islands like the New Hebrides, a sufficient staff should be 
sent to permit of having stations near enough to each 
other so that isolated workers may have the benefit from 
time to time of taking counsel together and of helping 
one another. 

Quite different is the situation in such densely popu- 
lated countries as India, China, and Japan, where great 
cities, whose influence radiates over a large surrounding 
district, and numberless villages within a comparatively 
limited area provide imlimited opportunities for mission 
work. In such regions the method of procedure should 
be to establish strong stations adequately manned. 
They should be able not only to maintain their own 
vigorous life but also to put forth aggressive efforts on 
behalf of the surrovmding population. In these densely 
populated districts a mission may choose between two 
principles. Either it may concentrate its attention on the 
building up of the Christian community which is already 
under its influence, expanding its work only so far as what 
it does among the Christians brings the mission into 
contact with the surrounding non - Christian peoples. 
This may be described as a policy of concentration in 
order to diffusion. Where this policy aims at developing 
a strong native Church, animated from the first by the 
evangelistic spirit, it may in the end yield the more 
satisfactory result. Or, the mission may direct its efforts 
mainly to the surrounding non-Christian peoples with the 
view of evangelising the whole region as speedily as 
possible, while seeking at the same time to care for the 
training of the Christian population. It might seem at 
first thought as if this policy of diffusion were the only 
course adequate to the situation, but, if it be attended 
with success, it requires inevitably to be followed by a 
policy of concentration. For the fact is that wherever 


mass movements or widespread evangelisation have 
brought in great numbers of non-Christians and the 
desire for Christian instruction has become general, the 
importance of following up the work begun among the 
enquirers and converts is so great as to absorb the major 
energies of the missionaries owing to the importance of 
following up thoroughly the enquirers and converts. 
It is a deplorable fact that certain hopeful mass move- 
ments have largely failed simply because the missions 
related to these movements were not sufficiently manned 
to conserve the results. Yet the primary missionary 
instinct is toward wide evangelistic effort and toward 
pressing out further and further into the jm evangelised 
regions, and the cry, albeit a silent cry, of thelmevan- 
gelised cannot be disregarded. It would be fatal to the 
life of the Church if it could. 


The unfavourable climate of certain fields has an 
important bearing on the disposition of the forces. One 
of the sad chapters in the history of modern missions 
is the record of attempts unguided by the experience 
of long established boards, and therefore resulting in the 
inauguration of missions without sufficient safeguards 
n gainst unnecessary suffering and loss. The risks to be 
laced constitute no vahd reason for holding back. On 
tlie contrary such sacrifices as have been involved have 
not been without their large fmitage and have also been 
to many a zealous soul a romantic and inspiring call. 
The occupation of such fields should be governed by the 
experience gained often at great cost. Stations should 
be manned with a sufficient number of workers to prevent, 
so far as possible, their breakdown in health, and workers 
should be within easy reach of medical help. The 
different stations, likewise, should be wisely located and 
equipped with reference to protecting the health of the 
workers. More frequent furloughs should be taken, and 
vacations at health resorts on or near the different fields 


should be insisted upon. These matters of prudence 
are of great importance in the economy of missions. 


The temperamental characteristics, the state of culture 
and the religion of the people to be evangeUsed have much 
to do with determining the disposition of the forces. It 
makes a great deal of difference whether the people are 
ignorant and superstitious tribes in the heart of Africa 
or whether they constitute the highly civilised inhabi- 
tants of the more enlightened parts of the Orient, who may 
in addition have availed themselves of Western education. 
The former will not require as large and complex a mis- 
sionary staff as the latter. There are some races which 
liave shown a singular readiness to accept the Gospel, 
such as the people of Uganda, Korea, and some of the 
islands of the Pacific. Among such peoples a more 
diffused effort is obviously more practicable and effective 
than it would be among peoples less easily influenced. 
A comparatively small number of well-qualified mis- 
sionaries, if properly related to each other, can in the 
midst of such a population kindle into flame a whole 
countryside. But even here the need soon develops for 
strong centres in order to consolidate the results and 
build up a powerful and abiding Church. 

The difficulties presented by different religions also 
have a bearing on the question of the number and dis- 
tribution of workers. The great and highly organised 
religions present a stronger resistance than the simpler 
nature worship of barbarous tribes. Perhaps it might 
be laid down as an axiom that whatever force is stationed 
in a district ought to be of sufficient strength and equip- 
ment to make itself felt in spite of all the difficulties. 


The historical development of missions has had and 
still has a strong influence in determining the disposition 


of the missionary forces. It is a commonplace to point 
out that mission stations have to a large extent been 
occupied not upon any definite plan, but as circumstances 
permitted or the way opened. For example, prior to 
1841 it was almost impossible to establish regular mission 
stations in China. As a result the missionaries settled 
among Chinese immigrants in places like Singapore, 
Bangkok, and Batavia. In the second period of China's 
missions, 1841-62, but five treaty ports were open to 
the missionaries. Many missionaries entered China in 
this period and the result was a strong concentration of 
forces at these few centres. As a rule missionary 
so cieti es__are__neluctant to withdraw except as a result 
of unavoidable pressure, so that even after the wide 
opening of China most of the societies continued to 
maintain their positions in the treaty ports and to locate 
in these places a disproportionate number of their workers. 
While it is true that many of these workers minister to 
areas lying back of these cities, it is doubtless equally 
true that there is relatively an over-concentration of 
missionaries in them. The purpose here is not to pass 
a critical judgment on those who opened up the work 
in such fields. For the most part they did the only 
thing possible and under conditions of extreme difficulty 
and discouragement. The more closely their record is 
examined the greater is the appreciation of their labours 
and the deeper the confidence in^ the^ overr uling and 
guiding hand of God. The problem of the Church of 
Christ to-day is far otherwise. There is comparatively 
little to hinder it from disposing of its forces in any way 
which wisdom and experience suggest. The call of the 
present is for a reconstruction of the policy of distribution 
of the available missionary staff. 


Another factor which largely influences the disposition 
of available forces is the number and character ^ of the 
missionary staff at the disposal of the missionary 


societies. The training which missionaries receive before 
they are sent out to the field varies both with different 
societies, and, in the same society, with the positions 
which they are to fill. The missionary who is to serve 
as general supervisor or director of the work in an isolated 
place requires an all-round training. Those who are to 
work in groups in the large centres require, as a rule, a 
more highly specialised training. Among the members 
of a simple race, possessing a narrow .horizon and a 
restricted religious world, one missionary of compre- 
hensive missionary attainments may be able to overtake 
a large range of missionary activities. He may be 
able to preach the Gospel, teach in the school, care 
for the sick, guide in the learning',' of trades, and 
engage in itineration in the surrounding country. It 
must be admitted, however, that even under such con- 
ditions it is often advisable to establish medical or in- 
dustrial work calling for men with larger professional 
or expert training. It should be added that work 
among primitive peoples has too often been greatly 
retarded by failure to make suitable provision for the 
Christian training of women. At every station the 
force should be planned with a view to meeting all 
the needs requiring to be met at each particular stage 
of the work. The more advanced the culture life of 
the people, the more demand there is for specialisation 
in missionary work. Moreover, wherever there is a 
special need for work among women, because of their 
seclusion in zenanas or harems, the specialised form of 
women's work for women becomes necessary. Wherever 
higher education is permitted in order to gain access to 
the influential classes of the nation, large establishments 
manned by p educationists will be required. It is both 
natural and desirable that various classes of institutions 


working on widely different lines, and influencing different 
sections of the population, should be grouped together 
at large centres ; and this results in a concentration of 
missionary forces. 

An outstanding impression made upon the Commission 


by the study of the problem is the numerical inadequacy 
of the present missionary staff. We must not lose sight 
of the great ideal the making of Christ known to all 
people. A spirit of faith demands the vision of a greatly 
reinforced army. The efficient occupation of every field 
must be continuously kept in view and striven for until 
it is accomplished. The disposition of the present 
available forces should be determined in view of the 
expected realisation of this ideal. 


A further factor of great importance is the native 
agency. The section of this report bearing on the 
Native Church as a factor in carrying the Gospel to all 
the non-Christian world shows how essential and diversi- 
fied are the services which well-trained native workers 
are able to perform. As they become able to administer 
the native Church and care for it spiritually, the mis- 
sionaries are relieved of a great and important responsi- 
bility, and can thus devote themselves more largely to 
extending the missionary propaganda into unevangelised 
regions. At the same time it is generally recognised that 
the most highly multiplying work which the missionary 
can do, in the interest of accomplishing the evangelisa- 
tion of a country, is that of raising up and training an 
adequate staff of native workers and of inspiring them 
and co-operating with them in the work of evangelisatiorTT 
Recent achievements in Manchuria, Korea, Livingstonia, 
and Uganda suggest the great evangelising possibilities 
of the native workers and leaders. 


Though it may seem like a truism, one of the deter- 
mining principles, and in some respects the most funda- 
mental and distinctive principle, in determining the dis- 
position of the forces is that of seeking to make Christ 
known to all the people who know Him not. This 


surely includes the most neglected and most difficult 
fields. The Gospel is to be preached to all men. 
Whilst it is obviously wise to push forward the work 
along the lines of least resistance, it is not only bad 
polic}^ but it is dislo3-alty to the Lord Jesus Christ^ To 
neglect the great citadels of the non-Christian world. It 
is high time that the Church thus deliberately and 
resolutely attack some of these hitherto almost impreg- 
nable fortresses. 

It is believed by the Commission that a thorough 
recognition and application of the principles here em- 
phasised will accomplish large results in the direction 
of the realisation of the great aim of carrying the Gospel 
to all the non-Christian world. But if this is to be true, 
it is imperative that the different missionary societies, 
and the foreign and native leaders of the enterprise on 
the field, make a fresh study of the present distribution 
of the forces with reference to bringing about any necessary 
readjustments and enlargements. The development of 
missions has caused overlapping in some centres, and 
absolute neglect in many others. Much can be done to 
avoid overlapping not only in stations but also in different 
branches of specialised work, such as colleges, hospitals, 
literary work, and presses. It may be that reconstruction 
wiU involve temporary sacrifice, some uprooting and 
transplanting, and a large measure of mutual considera- 
tion on the part of missionary societies working in the 
same field. These, however, are merely difficulties to 
be faced and overcome. The available forces are so 
inadequate to the task that waste, friction, and in- 
efficiency ought not to be tolerated. The courageous 
rearrangement here called for will in some fields seem 
almost impossible. The possession of mission property 
may prove one of the greatest hindrances to such a 
programme. But if it be right to be true to the ideal 
before us, no question of property should stand in ^'^ the 
Y^ way of the necessary changes. In some fields the re- 
arrangements will require a new definition of the territory 
for which each society is responsible. 


In fields where there are several societies working, it 
would be decidedly helpful to have a committee appointed 
to consider the best allocation of the foreign and native 
staff, not so much from the viewpoint of each particular 
society, as from that of the Christian Church as a whole. 
This committee should from time to time make a fresh 
study of the plans and methods followed, and place the 
results of its investigation and discussion at the dis- 
posal both of the body of workers concerned on the 
field and of the home societies.^ The Commission would 
also express its conviction that the time has come 
for the creation of an international committee, repre- 
senting the missionary societies of Christendom, to make 
a more scientific study than has hitherto been possible 
of the needs and requirements of the non-Christian 
world, and of the problems involved in the wisest and 
most effective disposition of the forces of evangelisation. 
All such plans and arrangements should ever be sub- 
ordinated to the free and unerring working of the 
Divine Spirit. 

A most hopeful, significant, and inspiring fact is the 
way in which an increasing number of leaders in the 
missionary enterprise, both at home and abroad, have 
come to recognise the responsibility of the Christian 
Church to carry the Gospel literally to all the non- 
Christian world, and to consider the claims of entire 
nations, races, and religions, as contrasted with the 
claims of the more restricted fields to which they are 
directly related. Great gain will come to the Church 
from this widening outlook, and from the practical con- 
secration of Christians to realise this inspiring vision. 

^ In this connection attention may be directed to the practical 
working of the institution of the missionary consulate of the 
Dutch East Indies. The missionary consul, primarily intended 
as a link between missions and government, has also proved useful 
in matters that may arise between different societies, and between 
missionaries and their societies. 


We deal with a question both of policy and strategy 
when we enquire what are the lessons of experience as to 
the most effective methods of approach and permanent 
occupancy, in Christ's name, and in the interest of His 
religion, of the great mission fields of the world. It is 
apparent at once that the experience thus appealed to 
must bring its testimony from greatly differing environ- 
ments, and be modified to a considerable extent by 
individual judgments and racial characteristics. It is 
evident, too, that there are peculiar difficulties in 
gauging the efficiency of different methods of work, 
since this varies in different fields, and often in 
different localities in the same field, and is itself 
subject to possible change in an identical environment, 
owing to the influence of times and circumstances. 

It is plain, also, that some embarrassment must arise 
from the fact that there is undoubted good, and a certain 
measure of efficiency in all the methods in use in mission- 
ary work, and that very cogent reasons may in some 
instances be given for the use of many, if not all, methods 
in one single field, each in its owiTsphefe doing the work' 
which no other can do. It may thus happen that the 
practical excellence and benefits of each and all of these 
separate methods may present themselves so clearly and 
obtrusively in such fields that judgment refuses to pro- 
nounce upon the relative efficiencj^ and takes refuge in the 



statement that all existing methods are needed, and that 
all are equally to be desired, each in its proper place. 

We may find an analogy to this situation in Nature. 
In the cultivation of the soil, after the initial process of 
clearing the land has been attended to there is a demand 
for ploughing, for fertilisation, for sowing, perhaps for 
watering, it may be for pruning, for the long slow process 
of ripening, and for the thrusting in of the sickle when 
the hour for harvesting comes. It would produce some- 
thing like paralysis in the mind of the farmer to ask him 
to decide as to the relative efficiency and usefulness of 
these processes in the successful prosecution of his task. 
It is possible, to be sure, that Nature herself may stand 
sponsor for certain of these processes, and the farmer 
may find a soil already fertilised and well prepared for 
the sowing ; or he may be so sure of abundant rain and 
natural irrigation that his anxieties vanish on that score, 
or his crop may be so hardy and prolific that his harvest 
is assured. If any, or all of these suppositions prove true 
he may find himself able, more or less, to differentiate, 
and to assign a relative importance to the various 
stages or processes of his task. Under these circum- 
stances it might be possible for a certain farmer to pass 
judgment upon the superiority of one or other of these 
processes in the fields under his care. Under similar 
circumstances a missionary might be able to testify as 
to the relative efficiency in his special field of certain 
of the methods which are commonly used in the 
prosecution of his task. We might find another analogy 
in an enquiry as to the relative efficiency of different 
branches of service in a great army. Would the choice 
fall upon infantry, cavalry, artillery, the engineering 
corps, the quartermaster's department, or upon some 
other arm of the service ? The answer might vary 
many times in a single campaign in which not one of these 
departments could be spared, and in which they would 
all be mutually helpful. 

With these preliminary remarks, and with a view to 
giving practical value to the study, we purpose to glance 


at separate fields, and give an outline survey, necessarily 
very brief, of the methods which have been found rela- 
tively of value in each field from the pDint of view of 
evangelisation. In conclusion, and with a desire to add 
further to the usefulness of this investigation, we shall 
make the attempt to appraise the value of these 
methods as applied to missions in general without 
reference to special fields. 


In Japan, the evangelistic campaigns, well supple- 
mented by personal work, seem to have a special value.. 
They are effective in bringing the will to a decision in the 
case of those who are under conviction, as the result of 
previous influences. Street preaching is not specially 
favoured in Japan, but preaching services in shops, or 
appointed places, are more likely to yield results. The 
circulation of the Scriptures and of Christian literature 
is ranked high as having a distinct value as a method of 
reaching the Japanese. There is a special need, moreover, 
for commentaries and expository helps in Bible study. 
The Japanese are a nation of readers, and attractive 
.Christian literature, edifying and wisely apologetic, is 
sure of a welcome. Yet there seems to be at present a 
serious lack of suitable literature. Christian in tone and 
modern in content, for Japanese readers, and a special 
effort is to be put forth as a result of the Fiftieth Anni- 
versary of Mission Work in Japan, to supply a fresh, 
informing, and inspiring literary output for general 

Education as a missionary agency had its larger and 
more effective opportunity in the early days, before the 
present elaborate system of Government education was 
developed ; yet, because of the indifferent attitude of 
the national system to direct Christian culture, the Chris- 
tian school (especially the boarding school) has at the 
present time a placD of exceptional usefulness. The 
training of Japanese for evangelistic or ministerial service 


is especially emphasised, as of the utmost importance to 
the progress of the Christian religion in Japan. The call 
for thoroughly competent Japanese ^.evangelists and 
pastors is named by several missionaries as one of the 
most urgent needs of the Empire. It is also generally 
agreed that Christian institutions of learning higher tham 
any which now exist, cro\\med by a first-rate university, 
are indispensable both for the higher training of Christian 
ministers and for sending forth laymen thoroughly 
grounded in the faith and able to lead the evangelistic 
and social enterprises of Christianity. 

The work of the Young Men's Christian Association 
in Japan is commended as an effective help to the mis- 
sionary propaganda in that country. Special work for 
women is of high value and timeliness, but should be 
skilfully and tactfully conducted. It is especially effective 
in a social atmosphere, and in the form of Bible classes in 
homes. There is a great hungering on the part of the 
women of Japan for something better in culture and life 
than has been granted them in the past. In fact, Bible 
classes for both men and women, especially if they are 
accompanied by an opportunity for learning English, are 
attractive to the Japanese, and afford exceptional oppor- 
tunities for getting into personal touch with students 
and officials, and expounding to them the essentials 
of the Christian system. The value of Biblical instruc- 
tion as a guide to higher morality, and a basis of 
Christian ethics, is becoming more and more widely 

There seems to be little insistence among missionaries 
in Japan upon the need of medical or industrial effort. 
Medical missions, except as a benevolent ministry to 
the poor, appear to -occupy a subordinate and waning 
position, on account^ of the high standing of medical 
science in the country, and the extensive provision of 
excellent Government hospital facilities. 

Korea is a mission field of such rapid i^ 'development 
and remarkable fruitfulness that particular interest 


attaches to the enquiry as to the methods which have 
been in use there. It is a field in which the services of 
Korean evangehsts have been largely used, and greatly 
blessed, and it may be said that the development and 
use of a voluntary and comparatively inexpensive native 
agency has been one of the characteristic features of 
mission work in that country. 

An individual believer in Korea has seemed to imply 
a missionary agent whose business it is to win others 
to the same faith. This trend of missionary progress 
has given special emphasis to the informal training of 
Korean workers, and the development of native efficiency. 
Immense Bible classes, or conferences for the study of 
Scripture truth, and the enforcement of Christian living, 
have been conducted with great success. . Personal re- 
sponsibility frankly recognised and gladly assumed for 
the souls of others seems to have awakened large and 
hopeful plans for extensive ingatherings. One changed 
life seems as if by a kind of spiritual magic to have pro- 
duced a group of changed lives, and even to have moved 
entire villages with a new religious purpose. It has become 
thus an important service of the missionary to direct these 
living forces, to build them up, to increase the:r efficiency 
and enlarge their influence. 

As time has passed, the era of evangelism has developed 
into that of the missionary Church, and the established 
community of Christian beUevers. A cogent call for 
education has followed. The demand for Christian 
literature has arisen. The Bible classes, the Sunday 
Schools, and special efforts among women have called 
for attention, and large opportunity has come for pas- 
toral ministry, and the stated preaching of the Gospel, 
and communal worship in the Church. Personal work 
by missionary and by native Christian has been to the 
fore. Individual Christians have hoped and laboured 
for other individuals. Personal evangelistic work has 
thus been a watchword of mighty power in Korea. This 
method, however, can never be pursued with sustained 
success, unless larger and more effective provision than 


is at present apparent is made for the thorough education 
of native pastors and leaders. 

Medical work as a method has not been very prominent, 
or extensively used, although efforts in that line, wher- 
ever adopted, have been of superior excellence, and 
have been generously supported. Nor have industrial 
methods been much in use ; and educational plans have 
been but slowly developed, until quite recently, when 
special efforts in that direction have been made. The 
circulation of the Scriptures, and of Christian hterature 
as far as it has been made available, has been a marked 
feature of mission policy, and there is still need for great 
expansion in this line of effort. 

We may sum up the historic missionary programme 
of Korea in the word " evangehsm," as including the 
missionary and native presentation of the Gospel directly 
and personally through every channel of contact and 

In China there is a loud and insistent call for all the 
methods in ordinary use in mission fields, with the ex- 
cation of industrial training, which is not regarded as 
needed to any appreciable extent. The large areas within 
the Empire which are yet without a mission station will 
for long necessitate pioneer and itinerant evangelistic 
work. Preaching the Gospel in stated places of worship 
and in " street chapels " is highly esteemed as an indis- 
pensable method. The usefulness of the Chinese evangelist 
is accentuated by the testimony of many missionaries, and 
when he is fitted for the service, his ministry is found to 
be especially effective and fruitful. This call for native 
leaders and preachers and for a devoted working ministry 
is pronounced pressing, and vital for the development of 
the Christian religion in China. It is manifest that this 
verdict imparts a pecuhar urgency to the caU for the 
training and equipment of native workers for the mighty 
task before the Church of Christ in China. 

A strong appeal is made for the distribution of the 
Bible and of Christian literature, a plea which places 



this method, in the judgment of many, high in the hst 
of possible methods. High honour is given to the service 
of the Bible ocieties, and to those organisations devoted 
to the preparation and distribution of religious and 
other literature. In connection with Vhis plea, the 
necessity for literature, explanatory and expository of 
the Bible is much insisted upon, and the amount of 
Christian hterature in circulation is pronounced quite 
insufficient for the present needs of China, while the 
importance of increasing the number of missionaries 
who devote themselves to this valuable department 
of service is much accentuated. It is not denied that 
much Hterary work has already been done in China, 
but inasmuch as the Chinese are a hterary people, and 
hold hterature in special esteem, and are in the mood 
of alert enquiry, covering a wide range of knowledge, 
the call for an immense increase in the production of 
literature dealing with \atal themes, rehgious and secular, 
suited to the needs of a great people who are advancing 
to higher levels of thought and more enlightened ways 
of hving, seems imperative. There is not, for example, 
any special Chinese literature for the large Mohammedan 

There is, moreover, a relatively high efficiency to be 
. ^ assigned to education according to Western standards, 
and for teaching along the hues of up-to-date knowledge, 
throughout China. This represents an almost universal 
7 desire on the part of the Chinese. The " New Learning " 
has become a regnant ralljdng cry, and it is of the utmost 
importance for the rehgious welfare of China, and the 
stability of the Christian Church, that this education 
should be as far as possible under missionary auspices, 
or, at least, within the range of Christian influence. 
This demand for education, so unusual and insistent, 
represents an intellectual renaissance which is revolu- 
tionary in its significance, and stands for a change in 
mental outlook and inspiring ideals which will ensure 
the making of a new China. Such a desire for schools 
and colleges is almost unprecedented in the history of 


any nation, especially one just emerging from the seclu- 
sion of a conservatism which has been for centuries 
phenomenal in its rigidity. Such an educational oppor- 
tunity as China offers at the present moment is considered 
to be unsurpassed in the history of missions. 

The favourable openings presented through medical 
missionary effort have also weighty advocacy from 
men of long and eminent service in China. The call 
for women doctors is especially emphasised, as their 
services are most acceptable, and, as a rule, essential to 
the treatment which suffering womanhood often needs. 
Facilities for the medical education of the Chinese, 
both men and women, are greatly needed, and produce 
results of large usefulness as a missionary agency. 

The value placed upon woman's work for woman in 
China is frequently referred to with 'much urgency in 
the replies of missionaries to the question we have under 
consideration. The service rendered in visiting, in 
Bible classes, in schools, and in medical treatment, is 
commended without reserve. 

It should be reiterated that the greatest need of 
China from the point of view of its evangelisation is that 
of a great increase in the direct evangelistic agency. 
This is strongly set forth in the report of the Evangelistic 
Work Committee, appointed at the China Centenary 
Missionary Conference, as follows : " No one can 
question the importance of the work done by those 
engaged in the medical, educational, literary, and philan- 
thropic branches of our great missionary enterprise : 
but we would impress upon thejiome churches the fact 
that the time has come when direct evangelism must be 
given the first place. Less than one-half of the whole 
missionary staff m China' is now engaged in this direct 
evangelistic work, and even this proportion, in itself 
far too small, is due mainly to the importance which 
the China Inland Mission places upon evangelistic as 
compared with institutional work. Out of 678 members, 
this Mission has 560 in direct evangelistic work ; while 
Recording to the m.ost rleiable. statistics to which we have 
COM. I. 20 


had access, of the 1758 missionaries of all other societies, 
less than 600 are engaged in this work. Owing to different 
methods of reckoning in the various missions, the wives 
of missionaries (1035) are not included in any of the above 
figures, though nearly all of the wives do more or less 
missionary work. To add the number of wives would 
not alter the ratio." 

In India evangelistic preaching seems to be commended 
by the missionaries more warmly and universally than 
any other single agency. This preaching may either be 
identified with itinerating tours, or may be the important 
feature in evangelistic campaigns among the villages, or 
wherever churches or stated places of worship are ready 
for use. There seems to be much difference of opinion as 
to the value of street preaching, or services in the open 
bazaars, and this evangelistic method once so popular is 
now regarded by many as not sufficiently fruitful in 
results, and as having fallen into disrepute. In any case, 
it is thought to be of doubtful value, unless followed up 
by personal interviews and a sympathetic heart touch, 
with further individual presentation of Gospel truth. It 
is frequently insisted upon, moreover, that it is a grave 
mistake to commit this difficult service to other than 
picked men, both among missionaries and native workers 
men poss^sing special gifts and an adequate equipment 
for this responsible function. With this qualifying 
statement as to the expediency of a continuance of street 
preaching, it is evident that there is virtual agreement 
that the first need of India is for the preaching of the 
Gospel message, and the clear, patient presentation of 
the historic facts and the essential truths of Christianity, 
in order that the vast multitude of the dwellers in the 
villages may have an opportunity to hear the Gospel, 
since they are necessarily quite beyond the range of the 
institutional work of missions. 

The " itinerant " is pronounced to be " the need of 
the time, working on plans carefully prepared, and with 
methods that will ensure thorough work." This would 


involve a body of workers sufficiently large and mobile, 
and adequately equipped for service, with plans for 
strategic centralisation wherever there are indications of 
mass movements toward Christianity. With a sufficient 
number of such workers, it is the judgment of competent 
observers that in several sections of India many millions 
might be gathered into the Church within the next decade. 

Second only to the provision for a widespread and 
effective evangelism by direct preaching is the call for 
education, especially in the vernacular, as a means of 
facilitating evangelistic effort. Through Bible teaching 
education is in fact a direct means of evangelistic effort. 
Every grade of educational effort seems to b^ in demand, 
from the primary village school to the college, and as an 
appendage the supplemental service of the hostels is 
coming to be highly appreciated. 

Repeated emphasis in the papers submitted is given to 
the necessity and value of special work for women by 
those of her own sex, both foreign and native. Men can 
do little in this department of service ; women only can 
have access to women, and the zenanas are open as 
never before. 

The plea for medical work in India is marked by 
much urgency. The provision which the Government 
makes in large centres is regarded as modifying somewhat 
the need in cities and towns, but there are large outlying 
regions where medical missions can push into fresh 
districts, and avoid competition with the elaborate 
facilities under Government auspices, and at the same 
time reach in the rural districts a maximum of souls by 
a minimum of outlay in money and service. The oppor- 
tunity presented in the villages, according to the opinions 
of experienced missionaries, is, however, hardly as yet 
appreciated and used as it should be. Magnificent work 
is, nevertheless, being done in mission hospitals by an 
exceptionally able class of practitioners, and much is 
being accomplished in breaking down the barriers of 
intolerance, ignorant antagonism, and serious misunder- 
standings of our faith. 




The circulation of Christian literature, including the 
Scriptures, and the dissemination of religious matter in 
the various vernaculars of India, and also to a consider- 
able extent in English for the 883,000 educated Indians 
who are familiar with it, finds earnest advocacy on the 
part of missionaries of large experience and ripe judgment. 
The Bible is itself a power, and its distribution is one 
of the open secrets of success in India. Missionaries of 
high standing declare that in the matter of conversions, 
the circulation of the Bible, and of Christian books and 
tracts, is an agenc^^ of hidden power and unknown value, 
revealing at times an efficiency and fruitfulness which is 
as surprising as it is welcome. 

Strong paragraphs are scattered through the responses 
sent from India advocating the necessity of the develop- 
ment and education of the native Church, and the 
placing upon it of a large responsibility concerning the 
progress of Christianity in India. Coupled with this is 
the call for the training of native Christians for evangelistic 
service and pastoral work. It seems evident that the 
Indian Church must ultimately be under the guidance 
and control of Indian Christians, and this implies a 
native leadership of ability, zeal, and spirituality. 

Industrial training is regarded as having both an 
economic and philanthropic value, and as affording an 
opportunity foPreligious influence and practical helpful- 
ness, in circumstances where the pressure of isolation for 
reasons of caste, and ostracism from usual employments, 
weigh heavily upon the Christian convert. Its useful- 
ness, however, is largely among Christian converts, and 
consists not only in the opportunity it gives for the 
spiritual uplift, but in the material advantages which it 
affords by creating industries which Christians can cany 
on by themselves, or by improving their efficiency in the 
ordinary occupations of life, and this especially for the 
j.i pariahs, or helpless outcastes. The introduction of the lace 
Industry is an example, and the improvement of methods 
in the \veaving trade is another illustration. Industrial 
training \h especially useful in the many orphanages under 

^^i*'^^ X>t-'-^-^^* ' 


niissionary care. Agricultural c olonies . are of large value, 
if properly managed. While this is true, some doubts 
here and there appear in the papers handed in as to the 
wisdom of pushing industrial work especially when 
costly machinery is required except under the pressure 
of necessity, and where it can save a Christian community 
from disintegration and despair. As a method of evan- 
gelistic pioneering among non-Christians, its usefulness 
is questioned. It would be likely to furnish a grave 
example of unsuitability of method and waste of funds. 

In Africa it is unusually difficult to determine the 
relative value of mission methods. There is one generalisa- 
tion, however, which is universally applicable, and that is 
that the great need of Africa in all its fields is for enlighten- 
ment. How that enlightenment may be most effectively 
imparted becomes the crucial question for the missionary. 
A careful study of the replies which have come to hand 
seems to indicate that the teaching function is the first 
missionary expedient for the greater part of the continent. 
The true evangelist seems to be the teacher, in some 
phase or department, of an instructive discipline. The 
missionary who preaches should preach with the aim of 
the teacher. The translator should have that object pro- 
minently before him. Tlie itinerant evangelist should be 
above all things a teacher of the simplest essential truths 
about God, and His relations to man. A pedagogical 
campaign along all the lines of missionary work seems to 
meet the dominant demand of Africa as no other method 
can at the present stage of development. There are still, 
however, large sections of the continent where the first 
requirement of missions seems to be the reduction of 
the language to a written form, and the translation 
of the Scriptures into the vernacular, but this once 
accomplished opens the way for the campaign of the 

The call for the preaching of the Gospel is by no means 
overlooked in the mass of missionary testimony which 
has been consulted, and there are open doors in villages 
and kraals, and in stated places of worship, but almost 


every missionary supplements his advocacy of preaching 
by emphasising the desirability of making the preaching 
service chiefly a teaching function characterised by the 
utmost simplicity and directness, and also by references 
to Bible study as especially useful. Street preaching 
in the more literal sense seems to have little scope in 
Africa, especially in Moslem communities, and in some 
sections of the continent under foreign political control 
it is forbidden by the Government. It is fair to say, 
however, that in some prominent African fields touring 
visits on the part of the missionary, with a view to holding 
preaching services, or conducting evangelistic campaigns, 
is spoken of with high commendation, as, for example, 
in Uganda. 

Industrial training is advocated not only because of 
its utility as an instrument of education, but because of 
its philanthropic usefulness, and as giving dignity to 
labour, and affording a training in the elementary trades 
which provide means of support to the native- 
Medical work is extremel}^ useful in many parts of the 
continent. It is an offset to the evils of witchcraft, and 
directs sufferers to the true sources of healing. It is 
specially valuable in newly opened districts, where tlie 
itinerant physician is always a welcome visitor. 

The testimony from Africa may, therefore, be summed 
up as in favour of the presentation of Gospel truth, 
along the lines of an instructive discipline, although 
not exclusively in schools, but rather by a wise adaptation 
of the teaching method to all missionary approaches 
to natives. The command of our Saviour, " Go ye, 
therefore, and teach all nations," seems to have a special 
adaptation to the great African Continent. 

The problem of " relative effectiveness " is the same 
stumbling-block to missionaries in Moslem lands, like 
Turkey and Persia, as elsewhere. If, however, a verdict 
must be recorded in a judicial spirit, it may safely be 
given a Mohammedan environment being presupposed 
in favour of education and Scripture distribution as 
missionary instruments. It is education, conscientiously 


and loyally conducted with the evangelistic aim, which 
is thus advocated by the missionary. 

Medical missions in Moslem lands are invaluable as a 
pioneer agency for breaking down the barriers of pre- 
judice, and dissipating misapprehensions concerning the 
Christian faith. Nothing can be more effective in dis- 
arming suspicion and in modifying the attitude of both 
Government and people toward missionary work. The 
clinical services afford an unparalleled opportunity for 
reaching a mixed and continually changing audience, 
while in the hospital wards there is a unique opportunitj^ 
for reaching Mohammedan patients, and, in the form of 
an itinerating clinic, medical missions open the door 
wide for entrance into Moslem communities, especially 
in times of epidemic, disaster, and sometimes of massacre. 

Much may be said concerning the value of Christian 
literature adapted to the needs of Moslem readers, and 
especially the circulation of the Scriptures. A peculiar 
value attaches to this department of service at the present 
time in the Turkish Empire, because of the exceptional 
liberty granted under the new Constitution to the distri- 
bution of religious literature. Woman's work for woman 
is held in high esteem, and is greatly needed. Women 
physicians and nurses have a mission of mercy among 
women and children. Industrial work has been largely 
a charitable and philanthropic feature of missionary 
activity, and has in some instances opened the way for 
the entrance of the Gospel. 



The results of this study have been suggestive as to 
some general conclusions in regard to the efficiency of 
methods, which may be considered as indicated not only 
in special fields, l)ut in the broad realm of missions as 
a world enterprise. In elucidating this broader aspect 
of the subject, following still the suggestions of the 
material which has been sent from various mission 


centres of the world, we find the following analysis to 
be justified : 

I. There are certain methods which are indispensable, 
and have been standardised as essential to effectiveness, 
and have everywhere been identified with the missionary 
successes of Christian history. 

(i) The preaching or teaching of the revealed Gospel, 
including and based upon the historic facts of the in- 
carnation and atoning work of our Risen Lord, cannot 
be regarded as otherwise than indispensable. The 
chief aim must ever be to persuade human hearts 
ever^-where that Jesus Christ is their Saviour, standing 
ready in an attitude of love, compassion, and power, 
to realise Lo them, upon condition of repentance and faith, 
all that the Gospel promises to do for a soul that receives 
it. In the train of this great essential follow certain 
implied requirements, and a variety of expedients for 
accomplishing the aim in view. The language must be 
mastered ; preaching places must be secured, either 
itinerant or temporary, or more regular and permanent ; 
opportunities of personal contact and appeal must be 
sought ; catechumens must be instructed ; the con- 
solations and hopes of the Gospel must be brought to 
bear upon the poor, the oppressed, the afflicted, the 
desolate, the bereft and despairing. In a word, the 
ministry of spiritual truth, in its fulness and abounding 
adaptation, must be given to human souls ; not, of course, 
by foreign missionaries alone, but also by trained native 

(2) Again, among indispensable methods is the estab- 
lishment and edification of the native Church. Con- 
verts must be gathered into a visible body, with due 
provision for oversight, and with orderly administration 
of the sacraments, including also a sufficient power of 
disciphne, and with special facilities for the instruction 
of the young of the flock. It seems essential, also, that 
sooner or later (the sooner the better) the goal of this 
native Church should be self-support, self-government, 
self-propagation, and orderly ecclesiastical relations, at 


once indigenous and helpful to growth and capacity for 
service. This great essential of method involves of 
necessity the education and training of native pastors, 
who can serve the native Church, and build it up in 
spirituality and evangelistic fervour. 

(3) A method which cannot be relegated to any 
secondary position is the translation and circulation of 
the Bible in the vernacular. It is not necessary to dwell 
upon this. God's message answers to an indisputable 
need of every human heart. It would be whoUy futile to 
hope for permanent missionary success without it. But 
of course this success cannot be achieved without the 
faithful use of the Bible, or at least some portion of it, 
as a basis of study and instruction in Bible classes or 
conferences, and in the special teaching of catechumens. 

2. There are other methods, which although of high 
and undoubted value, vary in their adaptation and use- 
fulness in different fields. They are the specialties of 
the mission propaganda. In some fields, under certain 
conditions, they may seem worthy to be ranked almost 
in the same class as those named as indispensable, but 
in other fields, under other circumstances, they may 
have less claim to importance. Due regard should 
always be given to their usefulness as evangelising 

The most prominent among them is education, in all its 
grades, which may be made, in some instances, invaluable 
as a Christian force, and may co-operate with and supple- 
ment the more directly evangelistic agencies. There is 
hardly a mission field in the world where missionaries 
would deliberately and permanently neglect it, although 
the call for it may vary in its emphasis. China, India, 
Africa, and Moslem lands in general, illustrate an insistent 
call of invaluable opportunity. 

Medical missions are practically on the same level as 
a method of high value. They are a noble feature of 
modern missions They break down barriers ; they 
attract reluctant and suspicious populations ; they open 
whole regions ; they capture entire villages and tribes ; 


they give a practical demonstration of the spirit of 

Literature in broad and generous measure is called for 
in many fields, as an enlightening, educational, and 
edifying provision for minds stirred with new cravings 
for knowledge. It should minister also to the higher 
literate classes, who need intellectual guidance and 
inspiration. The volume of output may vary, but the 
quality should be excellent, and the adaptation wisely 
gauged. Its moral power, its mental stimulus, its 
illuminating suggestiveness, its broadening and uplifting 
ministry, may be fruitful in results of lasting value. 

Special efforts in behalf of woman are called for where 
there are serious barriers preventing access, except 
through the agencies of female missionaries. In many 
Eastern lands the woman missionary alone can minister 
spiritually to those of her own sex. Even in lands where 
there is no difficulty of access to women, there is need of 
a Christian training of women in order to develop a stable 
Christian community. 

Industrial training becomes in many fields of special 
value to converts, not only because it is helpful in pro- 
viding a means of support, but because of the discipline 
it imparts to character and the desirable change of 
direction it often gives to life. 

3. There are still other methods which recent changes 
and developments in mission fields call for as especially 
timely and efficient, under present conditions. 

Under this heading attention should be called to the 
work of the Young Men's and the Young Women's 
Christian Associations in certain mission fields, chiefly, 
but not altogether, among the student class. Of special 
value also are the hostels recently established in con- 
siderable numbers for the moral and physical benefit of 
students. There are methods, also, especially intended 
to reach the higher, or official, classes, as well as efforts 
suited to stimulate and foster mass movements. Where 
the system of caste prevails, there are opportunities 
1 See Appendix to this chapter. 


for methods which have a tendency, without unwise 
aggressiveness or undue precipitancy, to hasten the 
disintegration, and eventually to effect the moral and 
social discrediting of caste exactions. It is hardly necessary 
to say in this connection that where caste is concerned, 
and where the interests of the official classes are involved, 
great care and much firmness may be required, lest a too 
lenient, or even dangerous, spirit of compromise may 
govern the attitude and policy of missions. Caste should 
never be allowed, for reasons of expediency, to lower 
the standards of Christian brotherhood, or foster the 
notion that God is influenced by the laws of caste in His 
attitude of love and graciousness toward all men. No 
Chinese Mandarin, for example, should be permitted to 
imagine that either the Gospel or its ethics can be adjusted 
to any anti-Christian custom or notion he may wish to 
retain. No Indian notables, Hindu or Moslem, nor any 
African chieftain, should cherish the expectation that they 
can introduce polygamy into the Church, and graft it upon 
the Christian system of ethics. In a word, the Biblical 
system of essential truth and indisputable morality must 
stand as a controlling force in every mission method, in 
all fields, and among all races. 

The preparation of special literature for certain classes 
of readers, or to meet diverse conditions, or to answer to 
peculiar needs, or to further great social or national 
movements, is a method which may vary according to time 
and circumstances, in different fields. In China and Korea, 
for example, at the present time there is a call for a whole 
library of literature giving light and insight as to the moral 
forces which have been chiefly instrumental in developing 
Western civilisation, and may be regarded as characteristic 
of it. 

There are also certain methods which have a bearing 
upon the prevalent social evils of the non-Christian world, 
and which aim at their modification, or, eventually, 
their abolition. Among such evils may be mentioned 
intemperance, immorality, gambling, the opium habit, 
foot-binding, child marriage, infanticide, cannibalism, 


idolatry, vvitchcralt, the slave trade, and others concerning 
more particularly the interests of women and children. 
The attitude of the missionary to the established customs 
and the traditional entanglements of non-Christian society 
should not be to any unwise degree that of direct attack, 
but rather that of indirect, but unmistakable protest, 
based upon influence, example, the advocacy of principles, 
the uplifting of standards, the firm alliance with the 
recognised essentials of a Christian civilisation, the steady 
pressure for justice, liberty, enlightenment, moral order, 
and especially the betterment of the lot of woman in 
Eastern lands, and among savage tribes. 

Presupposing always the religious and moral essentials, 
the adoption of particular methods should be determined 
by the consideration of their practical utility. There 
must necessarily be taken into account the efficacy of 
any proposed agency to promote the supreme purpose 
of missions, which is to give effectiveness to the Gospel 
message, and make it, by the aid of the Spirit, an 
instrument for enlightening the mind, and, at the same 
time, a moral incentive and guide to life. All methods, 
it need hardly be said, should be sanctified and vitalised 
by prayer. It is sufficiently apparent, also, to every 
candid student of this theme that no method should be 
counted so dear, or be so inflexibly wedded to time and 
place, amid changing conditions, that prompt readjust- 
ment, when called for, cannot be secured. Missionary 
leaders both at home and abroad should be awake to this. 
Instruments and agencies are the servants of opportunity, 
and should ever be responsive to the call for strategic 
movement and to conform to the demands of an enter- 
prise which is instinct with living forces. 


On 2oth and 21st June a Sectional Conference on Medical 
Missions was held, at which the following document was adopted 
for communication to Commission I. The Commission received 
the document at its linal meeting after the close of the Conference, 
and agreed that, without any pronouncement being made upon 
the findings, they should be recorded at the close of this chapter. 


Findings of Sectional Conference on Medical 


This Sectional Meeting of Medical Delegates, Medical Mis- 
sionaries, and other Medical Practitioners interested in the Medical 
Aspects of Missionary Work desire to represent to the Commission 
on " carrying the Gospel to all the world " their unanimous 

(i) That Medical Missions should be recognised as an integral 
and essential part of the Missionary Work of the Christian Church 

(a) Because we are led by the example and command of 

Christ to make use' of the ministry of healing as a 
means of revealing God to man ; and 

(b) Because the efficacy and necessity of such work as 

an evangelistic agency have been proved in manj' 
lands again and again," and such work has been sealed 
by the blessing of God. 

(2) That Medical Missions should be continued and extended, 
and that they should be under the charge of fully qualified Medical 
Missionaries, with properly staffed and equipped Hospitals, and, 
where possible. European or American Missionary Nurses to 
supervise the Native Staff of Nurses. 

(3) That all the Societies should send fully qualified Medical 
Missionaries to every district where Missionaries are located when 
other qualified medical assistance is not available. 

(4) That Branch Dispensaries are a valuable extension of 
Hospital work, and are especially so in districts where Christians 
are scattered amongst the villages. Only trained and experienced 
assistants should be placed in charge of branches. The con- 
nection with the Central Hospital should be close and the super- 
vision thorough. 

(5) That in view of the desirability of providing for furlough 
and vacation, without closing hospitals which have once been 
established, and in view also of the great responsibility entailed 
by serious operations, the necessity of having tv/o fully qualified 
doctors on the regular staff of each Medical Mission Station 
should be urged upon the Home Committees and Boards, especially 
in the case of Women's Missions. 


To Commission II. has been allotted the discussion 
of the proper development of the Church in the mission 
field. A most important part of this development is 
the undertaking of the evangelisation of the nation or 
people of whom it forms the first - fruits unto Christ. 
This doubtless will be fully dealt with from the stand- 
point of Commission II. But without trenching upon 
the function of that Commission, it is necessary to con- 
sider the part which the newly-formed Church in each 
mission field has to fill, in order that the Gospel may be 
carried to all the world. For this is not a task which 
can ever be accomplished solely by foreign forces. It 
has become a commonplace that if Africa, India, or 
China is to be evangelised, it must be done by Africans, 
Indians, or Chinese. The vastness of the population 
in a land like China, and the unhealthy climate in many 
parts of Africa, make this fact obvious. The native 
Church is the indispensable complementary ally of the 
foreign force. Of necessity, the introduction of the 
Gospel amongst a non-Christian people must be the work 
of those of another nation rejoicing in the knowledge of 
Christ ; but the completion of the work within the 
national area can only be effected by the native Church. 
The object accordingly of the foreign missionary in the 
initial evangelisation devolving upon him is to create 
a native Church which may from the first enter into 
supplement, and extend the evangelistic work begun by 
the foreign mission, and shall ultimately become strong 
enough, not merely numerically, but even more in under- 


standing and in life, to undertake for itself and carry 
to completion the evangelisation of the nation. From 
the time that a native Church is founded, there exists in 
the mission field a new evangelistic force, and this force 
is not only to be permanent, but ought also to become 
the most potent. It is impossible, therefore, to discuss 
how the Gospel may be carried into all the world without 
considering the part which the native Church is to fill 
in this great endeavour, 


In order accurately to appreciate the importance of 
the place belonging to the native Church in this work, 
it is necessary to compare the relative advantages of 
foreign and native agency in the proclamation of the 

I. The Advantages and Drawbacks of the Foreign 
Missionary. Among the primitive races, the white 
man, when he has been able to settle peacefully in their 
midst, wields commonly an enormous influence. He 
comes to them as the representative of the higher know- 
ledge, the superior forces, the marvellous apparatus 
of the outer world which is breaking in upon their lower 
level ; he is associated in their minds with the deference 
due to the foreign power whose authority overshadows 
them ; the qualities developed in him by education and 
culture, and still more the Christian principle which 
regulates his life and work amongst them, win their 
confidence, or at least compel their regard. These are 
advantages not to be under-estimated. They help to 
procure audience for his message, respect for his counsel, 
and compliance with his requests. Amongst cultured 
peoples, on the other hand, entrenched behind their 
own forms of civilisation and literature, it is of no advan- 
tage for the missionary to be a foreigner. Frequently 
he finds the initial stage of his work to be specially trying, 
as well as difficult, on that very account. It may be 


that, as the personal quality of the missionary emerges, 
as the commanding influence of education, knowledge, 
skill, and character makes itself felt, the m.easure of 
recognition and respect gradually accorded to him is 
enhanced by the very fact of his being a foreigner. It 
would be wrong to overlook the helpfulness of such 
prestige and influence. It would be equally wrong to 
overlook the advantages to the general work arising 
from the fact that the foreign missionary brings with 
him into the service of the Gospel on its new enterprise, 
not only an acquaintance with the history and life and 
work of the Church in the past, but also a certain com- 
mand of the resources of civilisation, as well as gifts of 
leadership and organisation, which are of special value 
in the case of primitive races. These advantages are not 
free, indeed, from peril to the object in view. They 
constitute, in many cases, a temptation to natives to seek 
association with the foreigner or dependence on him 
from other motives than the sincere acceptance of the 
Gospel which he preaches. Attachment to the religious 
community presided over by the foreigner tends to 
obscure the true meaning of membership in the Church 
of Christ. Still the fact remains that the foreign mis- 
sionar}^ agency is not only absolutely necessary in the 
first instance, but is also, on to an advanced stage in the 
accomplishment of the task, of such immense value in 
various directions as to be almost indispensable. 

There is, however, one matter relating to the position 
of the foreign missionary which requires consideration, 
and may be dealt with here. A considerable amount 
of testimony has been received from the mission field 
with regard to what is \ ''^wed by some as a very serious 
disability on the part of the foreign missionary, viz. his 
singularity in dress, in style of dwelling, and in habits of 
life. It is not only that in such things as these he holds 
himself apart from the natives, but also that through 
these there is a presentation to the natives of wealth and 
luxury and social superiority which makes impossible to 
them a clear vision of the sympathy and love forming 


the very spirit of Christianity. In other words, the 
social aloofness and superiority of the missionary is 
inimical to the realisation of Christian brotherhood 
between him and his fellow- Christians in the native 
Church. It is well known that in certain missions a policy 
has been largely followed of obhterating as far as possible 
all distinctions between the foreigner and the native. 
In proof of love, and on the principle of being " all things 
to all men," foreigners have, as far as possible through 
mere externals, transformed themselves into natives in 
order the better to win the natives to Christ. But some, 
even of the most gifted men, eminently fitted personally 
to achieve success through the adoption of such methods, 
have confessed in the end to their practical failure. In 
any such method there must always be an element of 
artificiality which makes it inferior in convincing power 
to a method which frankly recognises and accommodates 
itself to necessary differences. The end in view can be 
reached without abandonment of the conditions necessary 
for the well-being and comfort of foreigners in the mission 
field, provided only that consideration and love for the 
natives have also their due influence in the adjustment 
of these conditions. On this point there is a remarkable 
consensus of testimony from the various fields. A few, 
indeed, express the opinion that the difference in social 
status and comfort is a hindrance to the success of the 
missionary, while others declare it to be an aid in this 
direction. From a small number comes the self-evidencing 
criticism that where there is obvious cultivation of 
luxury, or obtrusion of European and American, in pre- 
ference to native, customs, in matters which make access 
to the missionary and intercourse with him difficult on 
the part of the native (e.g. the internal arrangement of a 
reception room in disregard of Chinese etiquette), there 
is a direct hindrance to the achievement of the missionary 
purpose. But there is no suggestion that such cases are 
numerous. On the other hand, there is a very wide 
expression of opinion that the natives generally regard a 
certain difference and superiority of social condition and 
COM, I. 21 


life as entirely fitting in the case of missionaries, as well 
as of other Europeans, it being not only necessary for 
their health, but also for their efficiency in work in a 
climate to which they are strangers. Only, the supreme 
rule for the missionary in determining his social arrange- 
ments must not be conformity to the standards and 
fashions of other Europeans, but regard for the ends he 
is to attain among the natives. Emphasis is laid by the 
majority of correspondents on the necessity for as great 
plainness and simplicity of living as possible, for such 
accommodation of European arrangements to native 
ideas as does not impair their real benefit, for the adoption 
of as many native fashions as are congruous to Europeans 
and Americans in the circumstances, and for the most 
scrupulous regard to local etiquette. It is desirable also 
that the missionary should reside in sufficient proximity 
to his native constituency to be easily accessible. Where 
these points are attended to, and above all, where real 
love to the natives rules all the arrangements of the 
missionary's establishment and the habits of his life 
amongst them, the social differences which are unavoidable 
present no hindrance to the influence of the Gospel. In 
the ordering of his own domestic establishment and 
social life, as in other departments of his duty, love 
secures the fulfilling of the law of Christ. 

2. Advantages and Drawbacks of the Native Church. 
On the other hand, the advantages attaching to the 
native Church as an evangelistic agency are many and 
obvious. Its work is free from the limitations and 
interruptions commonly imposed upon that of foreign 
missionaries by alien climate, and there is no division 
between the Church and the people to whom it appeals 
in respect of status, modes of life, and social customs, 
such as that which can seldom be obliterated in the case 
of the foreign missionary. It is, however, when we come 
to what constitutes the very essence of the task of evan- 
gelisation, VIZ. the due presentation to the people of the 
tfuth and power of the Gospel, that the superiority of the 
native Church as an evangelistic agency becomes apparent. 


In the first place, the native speaks the language of 
the non-Christian people. Not all missionaries have the 
inclination or the genius really to master it. Many are 
satisfied with such a working knowledge of it as may 
enable them to express their thought in correct terms. 
Some are content with a vocabulary sufficient for 
ordinary conversational purposes. It is true that some 
missionaries have done great things with a very im- 
perfect knowledge of the language, and have even in a 
few cases carried on their work with a surprising measure 
of success through interpreters ; but the man with a com- 
})Iete vocabulary, a true accent, and a perfect idiom, 
whose speech has in it no element of strangeness, is 
obviously the more effective instrument for evangelistic 

In the second place, the native understands the mind 
of the non-Christian people. He knows the native 
ways of thinking, the values they attach to different 
things, the modes of argument that influence them, the 
illustrations that appeal to them, the beliefs, traditions, 
customs, etiquette that instinctively shape the movement 
of thought or the play of feeling in short, the whole 
mental world in which the native dwells, and from which 
he looks out on new claimants for belief and obedience. 
Some missionaries never discover the hindrance created 
by their ignorance of the native mind, its world and its 
working ; and with others it is the toil of a hfetime to 
get into the heart of it. But the native is at home in it 
from the first, and the advantage which this gives him in 
enforcing the truth and claims of the Gospel is simply 
inestimable. The Principal of a large college on the 
mission field bears testimony that even in addressing the 
lads in English, one of the native masters, who is a man 
of third - rate education and no outstanding ability, 
seems to know how to reach their minds with personal 
reference and illustration, and is in this way for the 
practical purpose of extending the Kingdom of God a 
bietter instrument than the more brilliant missionaries 
above him. 


In the third place, the native Church attests to the 
non-Christian people what the Gospel will do for them 
individually and socially. It exhibits the Gospel as 
having a proper sphere of power and realisation in their 
own land and among their own people. May we 
illustrate this idea ? Primitive Malayans do not object 
in the least to the whites having other gods than their 
own, and do not deny that those gods are more 
powerful, wise, and gracious than theirs. But this 
acknowledgment is a poor incentive to the acceptance 
of the foreigner's god. For they say : " We are under 
the influence of our ancestors, and we must be careful 
not to offend them, because they are able to avenge 
themselves and to enforce their supremacy. If we should 
forsake them, they would destroy us. The missionary 
cannot understand this situation, because he has of 
course no connection with our ancestors and gods." 
The missionary is unable to meet this hne of thought. 
It is the native Christian who proves that he, though 
born in the land, is really free from the power of demons, 
that he can live a happy and secure life under the mighty 
protection of the God who is God of the Malayan as well 
as of the European. The tribes of Africa are organised 
generally upon the basis of despotic rule, and among them 
there is found a prejudice against Christianity on the 
ground that it destroys the power and influence of the 
chiefs, that men who become Christians are rebels 
against their native superiors, and that it is impossible 
to live consistent Christian lives while maintaining the 
inherited connection with the native authorities. It is 
again the native Christian who proves by his life, much 
more intelligently than the missionary by his preaching, 
that native rule is consistent with Christian confession. 
In India where the whole social life is entwined with 
caste rules, it seems impossible to the undecided enquirer 
to live at all after breaking and losing caste. In his old 
life he sees order, however imperfect ; in the new Christian 
life he can only discern disorder and desolation. It is 
the well-organised Christian community which showsi 


him that not only an organised life, but even a social 
life of a higher type is possible through obedience to the 
Gospel. The native congregation is the object-lesson, 
read and understood by the non-Christians, as to what 
Christianity really means. 

In the fourth place, it is a natural consequence of 
the facts already stated that as the Church becomes 
stronger, and the beneficent effects of the new Christian 
life are exemplified in it, it attracts the non-Christian 
community in contact with it. Christian education 
gives the children a greater intelligence and more 
bread-winning power. The homes of the Christians 
become cleaner, larger, healthier. By the practice 
of industry, economy, and temperance, the Christians 
advance in prosperity, their manhood and their woman- 
hood is elevated, strengthened, purified. The non- 
Christian people see the beneficent power at work 
in their midst, and begin to call for Christian teaching 
and seek a place in the new and better order. In many 
a mission field in the islands of the Pacific, in Africa, in 
India, in China, in Korea, and in Japan, there are illus- 
trations of the power of a strong Christian community 
to attract and to assimilate. We are safe in regarding 
this power as at least an important factor in the production 
of the so-called mass movements which have become a 
feature in modem missions. The leaven works more 
effectively the greater the affinity and the closer the 
contact between the leavening element and the lump to 
be leavened. 

The drawbacks attaching to the native Church in the 
work of evangelisation may be summed up as those 
naturally arising from infancy and novelty. Conse- 
quently they are drawbacks which tend to disappear 
as knowledge grows and experience gathers. There is 
an enthusiasm inseparable from the wonderful first 
impressions of the Gospel received into the hearts and 
lives of men, and on many fields this enthusiasm forth- 
with transforms converts into witnesses and soul-winners ; 
but they are naturally for a time without the amount 


of knowledge requisite to give perspective to the view 
and balance to the judgment. In addition to the de- 
fective and partial apprehensions of Divine truth, there 
is at first on the part of the native Church a total absence 
of acquaintance with the errors which are apt to spring 
up through the endeavour of the human mind to adjust 
the truth of God to its own prejudices or its own limits, 
as well as a total absence of acquaintance with the laws 
of Church life and membership, and v/ith the experience 
and work of the Church in past days and in other lands. 
Above all, there is a danger of failing to apprehend aright 
the methods of the Spiiit of God, and of importing into 
them ideas and practices derived from heathenism. 
On the other hand, there are often manifested by the 
more intelligent and more thoroughly awakened converts, 
a singular freshness, spiritual acumen, and uncompromis- 
ing fidelity in applying the laws of New Testament 
Christianity to the conditions in their environment 
and the consequent obhgations of Church membership. 
What is of importance here is that the foreign mission, 
while aiming at and fostering the freest operation of 
the evangelistic activity of the native Church along its 
natural lines of operation, should be continually on the 
watch to apply such correction, suggestion, illumination, 
and guidance as may enable the nascent Church to benefit 
from the accumulated experience of past centuries of 
Church life and work. 

Before quitting this section, reference must be made 
to an experience reported from some of the older fields. 
It is that the second generation of native Christians, and 
still more the following generation, loses that intimate 
knowledge of and touch with native life possessed by the 
first generation. This is due in part to their receiving 
training in mission schools, and to the care which is 
naturally taken to shield them from the corrosive influence 
of surrounding heathenism. At the same time, they often 
imbibe from their European teachers modes of expression 
and even modes of thinking which render their preaching 
less effective in its appeal to their fellow-countrymen. 


There is here a danger to be guarded against as much as 
possible. It seems to suggest the importance of en- 
deavouring to find among the very first converts men of 
abihty, insight and personal influence, who may be them- 
selves so trained in the knowledge of the Gospel and of the 
Christian life, that they shall be able, if not to conduct, 
at least to assist in, the practical training of the 
preachers and evangelists who are to follow them. It 
must be a cardinal aim in all foreign mission work that 
not only the native evangelist, but also the convert, 
shall not lose his nationality. He should live among 
his own people, and think of himself, while called to be 
"in Christ," as still one of them, continuing in their 
manner of life and national customs in so far as these 
are consistent with the Christian faith and Christian 


This is a question to be considered by itself. Hitherto 
the missionary has been spoken of as constituting the 
foreign agency in the work, and the native Church and 
native evangelists as constituting the native agency. 
While these are clearly distinguishable in thought, they 
are naturally in practice most closely associated. There 
is, however, on many mission fields a considerable number 
of native evangelists or preachers chosen, directed, and 
paid by the foreign mission, which may be described as 
the native corps of the foreign force. They represent 
not so much the evangelistic activity of the native Church, 
as a further extension of the evangelistic enterprise of 
the foreign Church. What does experience teach re- 
garding it ? 

The discussion of this question relates of course only 
to those fields where a foreign-paid native agency is 
at work alongside of a more or less organised native 
Church. And, first of all, we have to express our regret 
that a separate and specific enquiry regarding it was not 
submitted to our correspondents on the mission field. 


There is consequently lacking an adequate expression 
of opinion upon it, but in not a few communications 
it is touched upon, in some emphatically, and in almost 
all of these in a sense adverse to the extension of this 
method of evangelisation. This does not appear to be 
due to any failure to appreciate the advantages of this 
method, but rather to the unhappy discovery that it 
tends to postpone the time when the foreigner shall 
become the decreasing force and the native Church 
the increasing force in the evangelisation of the people ; 
nay, more, that from the beginning it tends to put 
the native Church into a wrong relation to this duty. 
There are some obvious advantages in the method. 
The foreign missionary, especially in the initial stages of 
his work, is able greatly to augment his own usefulness 
by the employment of trusted natives who can accompany 
him in itinerations, assist him in his meetings, and carry 
on evangelistic work under his direction and supervision. 
And then, after the initial stages have been passed, he 
can, by means of such an agency, multiply greatly the 
evangelistic operations of his mission and their efficiency, 
and procure an ingathering which could not otherwise 
have been so rapidly effected. 

On the other hand, there is testimony from various 
fields, notably from India and from China, to the mischief 
and hindrance of such a system where it had been long 
in operation. Prejudice is stirred against the native 
evangelists because they are known to be in the receipt 
of foreign pay ; the work of the paid evangelist tends to 
degenerate into professionalism and routine ; the idea 
is fostered in the native congregation that evangelisation 
is properly the work of a paid class ; the evangelisation 
of the people is looked upon rather as the concern of the 
foreigner than the responsibility of the native Church ; 
and there is generated a temper which absorbs the gifts 
of the foreign Church as a right, but repudiates a direct 
obligation towards the unevangelised world. From 
India, in particular, come protests by missionaries of 
experience against the old custom of practically taking 


every fit worker into missionary employment, instead of 
patiently waiting the formation of an infant church 
able to support its own agents. Regard must ever be 
had, both to the variety of circumstances in different 
mission fields, and the various requirements at different 
stages of a mission, but these varieties are best dealt 
with when principles affording true guidance are clearly 
seen, even although there may be temporary modifica- 
tions in the application of them. It appears to be de- 
sirable that a foreign-paid native agency should be re- 
stricted to the provision of the necessary personal 
assistance for the foreign missionary (this is now the case 
in Korea, where no missionary, unless in exceptional 
circumstances, has more than two paid assistants) ; 
that neither the ofhce nor the pay of the native assistant 
should be on a level above those of the corresponding 
workers supported by the native Church ; and that the 
ruling policy of the foreign missionary should be, not to 
extend the Church by himself paying selected members to 
evangelise, but to lay the duty of evangelisation upon the 
heart and conscience of the Church itself. It is a grave 
objection to the payment of native agents by the foreign 
mission that it created a body of native workers separate 
from and independent of the Church. 

It is possible to minimise this objection, as in Living- 
stonia, where there is a considerable native agency 
supported by foreign funds. The whole arrangements 
there are such that the men so employed are not looked 
upon as in any way attached to the staff of the foreign 
mission, but only as forming part of the evangelistic 
agency of the native Church. In Uganda, on the other 
hand, the native Church supports all the paid agents 
without foreign aid. Both there and in Livingstonia 
there are large numbers of voluntary workers, but in 
order to secure locations for suitable periods in outlying 
villages, where the elementary work of evangelisation 
includes the school as well as preaching, it is necessary 
to provide for the support of the worker. The important 
thing is that the work be dealt with throughout as the 


mission work of the native Church, and that the arrange- 
ments tend to emphasise and develop the evangehstic 
obligations of the Church. Unless this is done, even 
the subsidising of a native Church, that it may employ 
its own agents, may prove a hindrance instead of a help. 
A correspondent in Japan states that the Kumiai Churches 
there received a subsidy from America amounting to 
about three what they themselves contributed. 
During the last four years of receiving subsidy the Japanese 
contributions sank steadilj^ from 1130 to 644 yen. The 
foreign subsidy was then given up, and from that point 
the annual income never fell below 3000 yen, and nearly 
every year there has been an increase over the year 

An entirely different question from that under review 
is the employment of Christian converts from one place 
to act as carriers of the Gospel to the non-Christians of 
another. The large use made of South Sea Islanders 
by the London Missionary Society to pioneer the advance 
of the Gospel into New Guinea is an illustration in point. 
In that and similar cases the agency is really a foreign 
agency, inasmuch as the agents are of a different tribe 
and have a different home from the people to be evan- 
gelised. And the question whether this class of agents 
or Europeans should be employed in entering into a new 
field calls for quite a different set of considerations from 
those which arise when the question to be dealt with is 
whether the money of a foreign mission should be spent 
in paying the converts to labour for the evangelisation 
of their fellow-countrymen. 



We come now to look more closely at the relation of 
existing Churches in the various mission fields to the 
evangelisation of the peoples from whom the}' have been 
gathered. What of the spirit which animates these 
Churches ? What of the actual devotion of their energies 


to this object ? The general impression conveyed by 
the replies from the field is certainly an encouraging 
one if the standard taken be that of the Home Churches. 
In this Commission we represent Churches which, for 
the most part, allowed more than a millennium to 
pass before taking up their missionary duty. Even 
to-day it is only a small proportion of their members who 
take any real interest in tlie foreign missionary enterprise, 
and it is a still smaller proportion who put forth any 
personal endeavour to v/in the godless in their own 
neighbourhood to Christ. A typical answer from the 
foreign field is, " Our people are not nearly as anxious to 
spread the good news as they should be if they were 
filled with the Spirit of God, but they are probably con- 
siderably more faithful than the average of the Church 
at home." Regard must also be had to the past which 
lies close behind the new converts on nearly every field 
and which still dogs them. They have been trained in 
the utter selfishness of heathenism, and habituated to 
care for none but their own kindred, caste, and tribe. 
The Church is in many cases a small and poor Christian 
community, whose resources are strained in supporting 
their own pastors, while the time and strength of the 
pastors is often absorbed in caring for the due training 
and shepherding of their uninstructed and tempted 
Church members. Where Western commerce has come 
in and brought in its train a foreign settlement, a taint 
of commercialism is almost invariably imparted to the 
native comnmnity, which tends to sap the evangelistic 
zeal at least of the youth of the Church. And it must 
also be confessed, that even on the part of missionaries 
there has sometimes been followed, consciously or un- 
consciously, a policy which has tended (in addition to 
that of a foreign-paid native agency already separately 
referred to) to discourage native enthusiasm. The 
practice, if not the policy, is thus expressed in a com- 
munication from China : " It is the missionaries' Church. 
Every plan for work or extension comes from them ; 
they meet, consult, decide what is best, and then set 


about doing it, largely with the help of the native worker, 
who has not, however, been called in to share their 
counsels." And from India comes the query, " Who can 
long interest himself in a work in the conduct ot which 
he has no voice, where he is considered a machine not to 
be consulted with, and where he is not at liberty to 
impress his personality, and where the responsibility 
also is not on his shoulders ? " These quotations illus- 
trate a situation which is serious enough where it exists, 
but which is by no means universal. And yet the 
following opinion of the Bishop of Lahore may be quoted : 
" It is certainly appalling how little of initiative and 
power for leadership there is, or appears to be, in the 
native Church at present, and I cannot doubt that this 
is due, in part at least, to our own reluctance to entrust 
them with independent charges and put them in a position 
in which the capacity for leadership can develop itself." 

Such considerations as these might well form a pre- 
liminary apology for some marked deficiency in evangel- 
istic zeal to be reported in the case of the Churches in 
the mission field. But such deficiency is by no means 
the rule. It is found, perhaps, in the older rather than 
in the newer mission fields ; more in the Churches of 
India than of the Far East, of South Africa than of 
equatorial Africa. Nevertheless, the testimonies from 
all fields convey the impression that the most fruitful 
factor in the real expansion of the Church is the direct 
work of her ordinary members. From villages as yet 
unknown to missionaries, there come converts who 
testify that they heard the Gospel from the lips of private 
Christians trading there or residents who had elsewhere 
heard the good news ; men and women are seen bringing 
in new members to the catechumen's class ; the extension 
of the area of the mission by the opening of new stations 
is very frequently a result forced upon the mission by 
the zeal and success of native Christians. A German 
missionary estimates that of the converts in his district of 
China five per cent, come from the foreign missionaries and 
twenty-five per cent, from the Chinese agency, and seventy 


per cent, from the rank and file of the Church. It is, 
however, unsafe to draw too large generalisations. 

A truer impression may be obtained from a rapid glance 
at some of the fields. From Japan the testimony is 
divided. To a considerable extent the work of evangelisa- 
tion was between 1890 and 1900 set into the background 
by the pre-occupation of the energies of the Church in 
maintaining her own existence. But this stage was 
successfully lived through, and in recent years the 
numerical increase shows that there is a life which com- 
pares favourably with that of the Church at home, and 
the conception of evangelistic responsibility has come 
again more clearly into the forefront. The Church in 
Korea, under the influence of the remarkable revival 
there, furnishes at present the brightest and gladdest 
example of a Church filled with evangelistic fire. In 
some cases it is made a condition of Church membership 
that the applicant should have endeavoured to win others 
to Christ. In some cases, also, members are pledged to 
give time for personal evangelistic work. " At one Con- 
ference, after adopting the tithe as the lowest standard of 
money giving, they pledged enough time for evangelistic 
work to equal the time of one man for ten years. At 
another meeting, one said he would give during the next 
year a hundred and eighty days free of aU charges. At 
the next annual meeting he came with apologies, saying he 
was sorry that it required more time to prepare than he 
had thought and he had only been able to give a hundred 
and sixty-nine days." 

In Manchuria the growth of the Church, after it had 
begun to be, has been almost entirely the fruit of the 
personal labours of the converts, the foreign staff being 
scarcely adequate to the work of examining and in- 
structing candidates and organising and supervising 
the infant congregations throughout the field. Many 
illustrations of evangelistic zeal might be recorded. 
Dr. Christie of Moukden narrates the following : "A 
patient came to the Moukden hospital many years 
ago. When admitted he had never heard the Gospel, 


but before he left he had a clear knowledge of Christian 
truth and showed an intense desire to make it known 
to others. For many years he witnessed for Christ, 
most of the time without salary of any kind and under 
no control but that of his heavenly Master. The 
missionary who had charge of the district where he 
laboured till his martjn-dom by the Boxers, tells us that 
he was a direct means of leading at least two thousand 
souls into the fold of Christ." In China, while there is 
great variety of testimony, there are not a few districts 
where the native Church is working bravely. In Shan- 
tung there is in use the plan of time subscription already 
referred to in the case of Korea. It is possible that 
foreigners hardly know liow much is due to native con- 
verts. One missionary in Swatow writes : " At one of 
our Conferences the question was put by the Chairman, 
' Will those please stand up who have been attracted 
to Christianity by their Christian neighbours ? ' We 
foreigners were not a little surprised ; the body of the 
audience got up," 

India has felt the difficulty of the payment of natives, 
already referred to, more than any other country, as 
also the discouraging influence of too exclusive a con- 
centration of the direction of the work in foreign hands ; 
but although it is sometimes stated by Indians that 
the dislike of foreign control keeps them out of Christian 
service, one correspondent points out that the National 
Missionary Society, though purely national in its manage- 
ment, has had few suitable offers. From many quarters, 
however, comes the expression of the belief that the 
wish to evangelise is growing in the Indian Church. 
Here and there, young men in independent positions 
are giving time to preaching. In Jaffna there is an 
annual campaign in all the Churches, and in Tinnevelly 
" every large congregation has its regular system of 
street preaching to their heathen neighbours." One 
day in the year too is set apart as a Gospel festival, when 
men and women go out into the villages to proclaim the 


From the equatorial regions of Africa we have de- 
lightful evidence of a simple but unwearied evangelism 
as characteristic of the Christian community. Thus 
one missionary in Calabar writes : " It is seldom that 
in any outlying districts there wiU not be found a house 
that is used as a meeting-place ; and although no paid 
evangelist has settled among them, one man will make 
it his diity to hold regular service among them on 
the Sabbath. In the more important districts those 
interested will combine to build a church, and if they can 
persuade one of their ov/n people to give his time to the 
v/ork, they are ready to engage him as a teacher during 
the week and as a preacher on Sunday." And a missionary 
in Livingstonia writes : " Every Sabbath hundreds of 
our Christians preach in the villages round about their 
place. I fancy that from fifteen to twenty per cent, of 
the Church members are engaged in teaching in Sabbath 
Schools or in preaching every Vv^eek, and that entirelj? 
without pay. On Saturdays preachers' classes are held, 
when a sermon is suggested for the village preachers and 
a skeleton given to them." As for the territories where 
Mohammedanism holds sway, it is impossible to discuss 
the state of the Church, in so far as it is composed of 
Moslem converts, for the simple reason that these are in 
almost every case too few to allow of their being judged 
as a Church at all. But with regard to the Christian 
Churches alongside of Mohammedanism in the Levant, 
it is sadly apparent that they have had the thought of 
evangelism crushed out of them by their surroundings. 
They have lived so long on sufferance that they scarcely 
dare to think of undertaking aggressive operations ; 
experience of Moslem morality has made them doubt 
that any Mohammedan can ever sincerely surrender 
to the Christian appeal ; and, at the same time, their 
memories of massacre throughout the Turkish Empire 
are so vivid, that the thought of contact with their 
oppressors is a serious test of their Christian character. 

There are thus the very greatest differences in the 
extent to which the native Churches in non-Christian 


lands are animated by the evangelistic spirit of the 
Gospel. But in the great majority of the reports the note 
struck is one of hopefulness. Even in the lands that are 
most backward, there is the starting of a new spirit ; 
men and women are beginning to long that their fellows 
should share in the love of Christ, and an important 
problem of missions to-day is how to accentuate and then 
to guide this divine impulse. 


In the previous section attention was directed rather 
to the measure in which the evangelistic spirit animates 
the Churches, than to its outcome in organised work. In 
practice it has attested itself chiefly through unorganised 
work, that is to say, through individual effort. It is un- 
doubtedly through the outgoing of Christian zeal along 
the opportunities given in the ordinary intercourse of 
family and social and business life, and in methods fairly 
adapted to individual and local conditions, that the great 
evangelistic task of the native Church is to be most 
largely accomplished. But in recent years there have 
come into being more definitely organised missionary 
endeavours on the part of some native Churches, of which 
account must be taken. They have reference both to 
the evangelisation of the local community, and to the 
evangelisation of heathen at a distance. 

Going back a few decades, one of the finest illustrations 
of missionary effort on the part of native Churches is 
found in the devoted labours of the Christianised South 
Sea Islanders to evangelise adjoining islands, and in the 
splendid succession of workers provided by them for the 
evangelisation of New Guinea. Endeavours were also 
made to start independent missions, but few of these 
attained an independent basis. The Church formed out 
of the freed slaves of Jamaica resolved to start a mission 
to Old Calabar, but the project was at once taken up by 
the parent Churches in Scotland and developed into the 


Old Calabar Mission of the United Presbyterian Church. 
In more recent years the Jamaica Church has instituted 
a very successful mission to the East Indian coolies in 
that island. The West Indian African Mission, now in 
organic relationship with the Society for the Propagation 
of the Gospel, has since 1855 been sending missionaries 
of African descent from the West Indies to French 
Guinea. The Basuto Church inaugurated a mission 
to Barotsiland, and M. Coillard went forth as its leader ; 
but it has become a mission of the Paris Evangelical 
Society. The Church of the Synod of Kaffraria, in con- 
nection with the Free Church of Scotland, undertook a 
mission to the Zoutpansberg ; but in recent years this 
mission has had to appeal for support to the United Free 
Church of Scotland. In aU these cases, excepting in the 
case of the Jamaica East India Mission, the original base 
was not strong enough for the task, but it has supplied 
support in agents and means. 

During more recent years, the missionary zeal of the 
native Church has taken shape in the formation of several 
more or less independent native missionary organisations 
or societies. Some of these may be mentioned. The 
Jaffna Students' Missionary Society is among the oldest of 
them. The National Missionary Society of India and the 
Indian Missionary Society of Tinnevelly are well-known 
examples in India. The Telugu Baptist Christians of South 
India have organised the Telugu Baptist Natal Mission, 
and in 1903 sent out their first missionary to South 
Africa to work for the Indians who emigrated to Natal. 
The Chinese Missionary Society in California is an inde- 
pendent effort of Chinese Christians in the United States 
to help their heathen countrymen in the Kwangtung 
Province. Many more or less independent missionary 
organisations in India have begiin or are beginning 
mission work in one part or other of that vast continent. 
Japanese missionary associations are bringing the Gospel 
to Japanese immigrants in Korea, Manchuria, and 
Formosa. Korean evangelists are being sent by the 
Korean Christians among the Koreans of Quelpart, 
COM. I. 22 


Siberia, Manchuria, Hawaii, and California. The Chris- 
tian Church of Manchuria has sent two missionaries 
to labour in the far north among their benighted country- 
men in Tsitsihar. And the Kongsi Batak, the native 
missionary society of the Batak tribes on the Island of 
Sumatra, is doing a difficult pioneering work among the 
savage tribes along the northern and eastern shores of 
Lake Toba. We hail with gratitude this widespread 
missionary movement, and trust that it will develop 
and evoke a still greater missionary enthusiasm among 
the native Churches. In most of the cases referred to 
above, it should be noted that the counsel and guidance 
of the European missionaries have been fraternally asked 
and fraternally given. 


The important question now arises, How may the 
missionary spirit best be developed in the native Churches ? 
Are there any steps which should be taken to this end ? 
The question of training the native Church up to its ideal 
belongs of course to Commission II., but a few remarks 
are called for here as to methods which experience has 
shown to be specially effective in producing a missionary 
Church. The first factor is the belief of the missionary 
himself in the importance of native help in evangelistic 
work, and in the necessity of qualifying the native worker 
to render efficient evangelistic service. The principle of 
Dr. Laws, of the Scottish Livingstonia Mission, is a sound 
one, that the missionary should never do any work 
which the native worker is able to do for himself. The 
missionaries of former generations have perhaps not 
realised this principle sufficiently, with the result that it 
has often required more toil and patience on their part 
to teach the native Christians of the following generation 
a lesson which is the more difficult because it demands 
in some measure a new departure. It is of importance 
that from the very outset missionaries should impress 


upon the converts their evangelistic obligations. There 
are missionaries who have done this, and the results have 
been of greatest advantage for the development of the 
Christian life within the Church, as well as for its numerical 
expansion. Where this spirit has not yet been developed 
in the native Church, it is obviously the duty of the 
missionary to do all in his power to kindle it and lift it into 
ascendancy. Special appeals for missionary service, and 
meetings where reports of mission work are given, should 
be of frequent occurrence. As far as possible in every 
congregation campaigns should be organised in which 
the qualified members should proclaim the Gospel to 
their neighbours in the adjoining villages or districts. It 
is well when, as in Livingstonia, each congregation has 
itself a hinterland or district for the evangelisation of 
which it makes itself responsible. Every member should 
also be led to feel an obligation to help to send the Gospel 
to those in other districts or countries which are in still 
greater need. General meetings, synodical gatherings, 
and other opportunities should be made use of for wide- 
spread evangelism in the surrounding country. Often 
special classes or Bible schools have proved useful as a 
means of developing the evangelistic spirit of the natives, 
and of increasing the native evangelistic staff. The 
appointment of special commissions or committees to 
visit native Christian centres and present the evangel- 
istic obligation has done much in some fields to raise the 
level of missionary activity. Conferences on evangel- 
istic work should be held at least in each great language 
area. The ideal is that on the one hand the whole Church 
should become filled with the evangelistic spirit, as in 
Korea, Manchuria, Uganda, and Livingstonia, and on 
the other hand a carefully instructed native staff should 
be trained in the methods of evangelistic work. If the 
Church is thus to abound with the spirit of self-propaga- 
tion, and to be an aggressive force, earnest attention 
must be given to building up its spiritual life and to 
establishing its members in the cardinal doctrines of the 
Christian faith. 



While the burden of evidence fro'n the field has 
constrained us to lay the greatest stress upon the 
importance of evangelising through the native Church, 
and to emphasise accordingly the duty of developing 
this agency, we are brought back at the close of our 
review face to face with the existing situation, and are 
compelled to ask, What, then, is the present need ? To 
secure evangelisation of those lands in which the two 
factors are presently at work, the body of foreign 
missionaries and the native Church, what is the policy 
to be pursued ? Does the situation anywhere call for 
the withdrawal or decrease of the foreign missionaries ? 

In no case does any correspondent suggest that the 
time has come for withdrawing the foreign agency. 
One correspondent, who has travelled through several 
fields with more than usual capacity for observation, 
protests against any marked increase of Western agents 
in India, China, and Japan, on the ground that it would 
arouse antagonism against Western domination and 
jeopardise the whole work. But others, whose judgment 
is entitled to equal consideration, plead a special urgency 
in the existing situation for strong rein (oi cements. All, 
including native leaders of the countries named, agree 
that there must, both for the present and for some time 
to come, be a measure of combination of the two forces. 
The question accordingly resolves itself into one of the 
proportions required in the combination, and tliis again 
depends partly on whether regard is had to the method 
of a gradually ordered advance, or to the immediate 
exigencies of the campaign 

As already indicated, the view has been expressed by 
correspondents that some missions might have attained 
a richer result to-day if in the earlier stages there had 
been more concentration of effort upon the production 
of an evangelistic Church, even although such a policy 
might have involved the limiting of the number of 


foreign workers and delay in securing the results. A 
corresponding view is expressed by some with regard 
to the present situation. The policy suggested may 
involve self-denial on the part of the foreign force in 
refusing to take immediate advantage of tempting 
openings for work ; it may involve the hardship of seeing 
opportunities pass and hindrances strengthening them- 
selves ; it may seem to involve the steeling of the heart 
against the appeal of obvious needs ; but in order that 
the truer method may be followed, and the remoter 
harvest be larger and of surer quality, they would limit 
the foreign force by regard to what is needed for the 
development of the native Church, rather than extend 
it by a regard to what is required for the immediate and 
effective evangelisation of the non-Christian people. 
But the latter consideration is that which dominates 
the expression of opinion from the foreign field. For 
one thing, on all the more prominent fields where the 
native Church is at work, the task of evangelisation is 
far larger than should be left to the native Church to 
attempt unaided. The unevangelised areas are still 
immense, and the duty of carrying the Gospel to the 
masses in these areas pertains to the Church of Christ 
as a whole. Christians of the West dare not disown 
responsibility for carrying it to those of an Eastern or 
African nation, to whom the Christians in that nation 
cannot possibly carry it within a reasonable time, while 
the Christians of the West can. The cry of the un- 
evangelised in those areas is a call for foreign reinforce- 
ments, as well as for more earnest advance on the part of 
the native Church. Further, in many mission fields 
the situation is critical. There are at present great 
opportunities which may soon pass away ; there are 
forces in movement which may soon render the situation 
much more difficult ; there are positions to be seized 
which may immensely influence the outcome of the future 
campaign. In some cases the strengthening and expansion 
of the foreign force is absolutely necessary in order to 
secure the position of the native Church, and allow ol 


the proper development of its evangelistic activity. The 
rapid expansion of Islam in Africa, the propaganda of 
anti-Christian thought and opinion in India and the 
Fax East, the inflow of materialising civilisation 
through the channels of commerce, are outstanding 
facts which emphasise the foregoing considerations. 
It is the triumph of Christianity which is at stake, and 
foreign forces must rally to the fight on fields where 
otherwise the native Churches would be left to an unequal 
combat against the common foe. 

Besides the vastness and the urgency of the work of 
evangelisation to be still overtaken, stress is laid by our 
correspondents generally, and even by such representative 
correspondents as Pandita Ramabai in India and the 
Hon. T. H. Yun of Korea, on the importance of the 
assistance, and to some extent even of the oversight, 
of the foreigner. The small native Church, left to 
itself, is in danger within a generation or two of losing 
its tone under the influence of monotony, isolation, or 
ill-success. As a rule, it needs the guidance and stimulus 
of the spiritual ideas, as well as the spiritual aids, which 
are supplied through contact by means of missionaries 
with the life of older Churches. While many noble 
leaders have arisen among the early converts in the 
field, it will take time to develop a sufficient number 
of men of knowledge, gifts, and character to enable the 
Church to stand with advantage, or even with safety, 
apart from foreign missionaries. There are also 
difficulties and temptations peculiar to the early stages 
of Church life, in respect, for example, of the exercise 
of discipline or the practice of litigation in China, and 
toward the surmounting of these the help of the foreign 
missionary is commonly invaluable. These considera- 
tions are put forward by our correspondents to show 
that even for the sake of the native Church, to make 
it a still more effective instrument of evangelisation, 
it is necessary stiU to maintain the staff of foreign 
missionaries working alongside of it and in co-operation 
with it; and this is true in almost every field. Jt is 


obviously most desirable that the missionaries who are 
entrusted with such work as tliis should be men of the 
very highest spiritual and intellectual qualifications. 

The consideration already emphasised should be 
reiterated that on almost every field the task waiting 
to be accomplished and urgently demanding accomplish- 
ment is far beyond the unaided resources of the existing 
native Church. To carry the Gospel to all the world 
requires, even in fields where a native Church has been 
developed, an immense addition to the number of foreign 
missionaries, both men and women. And besides these 
fields, there are the vast areas where no Church has yet 
been formed. 

But while the call is urgent for the sending forth of 
more missionaries than ever, it must never be forgotten 
that the great objective of their endeavour in every field 
they enter is the creation and training of a native Church. 
The Church of Christ in each nation or tribe is the 
supreme instrument for its complete evangelisation. 
Directly or indirectly, the missionary of the future will 
be judged according as he is the maker of evangelists 
in the native Church men and women who devote 
themselves to the work under the constraining influence 
of the love of Christ. 


The state of the Church has a profound influence on 
the evangehsation of non-Christian lands. The mis- 
sionary enterprise is the projection abroad of the Church 
at home. It shares in a much larger measure than is 
usually recognised the ideals and spirit of the Home 
Church, and carries their influence into the life of the 
Church which it creates in the non-Christian world. 

This relation between the Church at home and the 
Church abroad has become increasingly close with the 
constant shrinkage of the world during the past few 
decades. As a result of improved means of communica- 
tion the world has within a generation become one-third 
its former size. Nations which were as far apart as if they 
had been on different planets, so far as exerting a practical 
influence upon each other is concerned, have been 
drawn together, and the whole world for the first time 
has become one. By means of the various applications 
of steam and electricity, the world has become one 
neighbourhood. The nations and peoples have been 
drawn into closer touch with each other through 
trade and commerce, through the growing volume of 
travel, through the migration of students from land to 
land, through the influence of international societies 
of various kinds, through the activity of the press, 
through the development of international law, as well as 
through foreign missions. Moreover, some of the 



great nations of the West have acquired foothold, 
not only in Africa but also in the Far East. On 
account of the stupendous economic and social changes 
now taking place in the non-Christian nations, creating 
wants which at present can be supplied only by the West, 
these nations are entering into commercial relations 
with the West as never before. As a result of all this 
intermingling, the nations and races are acting and re- 
acting upon each other with increasing directness, con- 
stancy, and power. No longer does the world exist in 
water-tight compartments. 

It is not strange, therefore, that the state of the Home 
Church and its attitude toward the commercial, social, 
and political practices which obtain in so-called Christian 
lands should affect in a most real and vital way the 
progress and standards of the Church in the non-Christian 
countries. To the question as to what constitutes the 
most crucial problem in connection with the great task 
of carrying the Gospel to all mankind, the larger pro- 
portion of our correspondents in all parts of the world 
agree in repljdng, "The state of the Home Church." 
This fact is highly significant. It demands earnest 

Wherein does the state of the Home Church affect the 
work of making Christ known to the non-Christian 
world ? Manifestly it does so through its influence 
on the missionaries whom it sends forth. It is the home 
in which are enlisted and trained the pioneers, founders, 
and leaders of world - evangelisation. Much depends 
upon the environment or atmosphere in which they 
form their ideals and habits and receive their training. 
The missionaries, it is true, constitute an exceptional 
body of workers. In doctrinal integrity, ethical stand- 
ards, and evangelistic zeal they are on a level which is not 
generally attained by the members of the Home Church. 
This might be expected, since they constitute a very 
carefully selected company, and also from the fact that 
contact with the deep needs of the non-Christian world 
drives them back to fundamental realities. Yet the mission- 


aries, consciously or unconsciously, are deeply influenced 
by the Home Church. If its spiritual life is warm and 
vigorous, this necessarily is a source of strength and 
inspiration to them ; whereas if the Home Church is formal 
and inert, it produces upon them a depressing effect. 
The examples are not few showing that the theological 
unrest of the Church in certain Christian lands is re- 
flected in the substance or spirit of the teaching by the 
missionaries abroad. Moreover, the spiritual power of 
the missionaries and their success in the work are critically 
related to the measure and the fervour of prayer on their 
behalf in the Home Church. 

The state of the Home Church affects the work through 
its influence on many of the native Christian workers and 
members. Besides the influence communicated indirectly 
through the missionaries, an increasing number of native 
leaders study or travel in Christian lands, read the 
periodicals and other literature of the West, and are 
thus more directly exposed to the currents of thought 
in the Home Church. One does not need to look far to 
observe the influence of destructive criticism and of 
the so-called new theology on Christian writers, teachers, 
and preachers in Japan and India. With the increasing 
nearness of Christian and non-Christian lands, and the 
multiplication of channels of intercourse between them, 
the tendency will be for the Church in the lands to which 
the missionaries are sent to adopt the religious standards 
of the lands which send them. 

The state of the Home Church affects the work by the 
measure in which it is able to Christianise the various in- 
fluences through which Christian lands affect non-Christian 
nations. Were the Church true to its high calling not only 
its professed members, but the other people of Christian 
lands, would be more thoroughly leavened by the ideals and 
motives of Christianity, and the political actions of Christian 
nations would be more definitely governed by its prin- 
ciples. Thus the influences which go out from Christian 
lands along other than missionary lines would be rendered 
helpful to the missionary enterprise. Unhappily, the 


nominal Christianity, which in some cases is virtual 
paganism, of some who represent Western nations abroad 
in commercial and other pursuits is an immense hind- 
rance to the cause of Christ. The corrupt lives and 
practices of others from the West who are not even 
nominal Christians are likev/ise a stumbHng-block in 
the v/ay of the missionary propaganda. The un- 
christian attitude of so many European and American 
travellers to the people of the lands which they visit 
still further handicaps the success of mission work. It 
would be difficult also to exaggerate the evil effect pro- 
duced by unrighteous aggressions on the part of Western 
nations upon non - Christian nations and peoples. 
Wrongly or otherwise, all these things are often held 
up as proofs of the powerlessness of the Christian religion. 
Moreover, students and others who go from non- 
Christian lands to study in the West, in many cases, 
on their return to their homes, oppose Christianity 
because of the un-Christian treatment which they have 
experienced, or because of the anomalies and incon- 
sistencies between the creed or ideals and the actual 
conduct of Christians, as observed by them. They are 
impressed by the fact that in nearly every Christian 
land there are so many people outside the Church. 
A Church too weak in faith and too lukewarm in spirit to 
fulfil its mission at home is thereby generating serious 
hindrances to the progress of its work abroad. 

But most of all does the state of the Home Church 
affect the work through the direct and vital connection 
subsisting between the performance of the work and 
the quality and fulness of its own spiritual life. The 
work of making Christ known to the non-Christian 
world is rooted in the deepest motives of the Christian 
life ; its imperative obligation is realised through a 
clear vision of the supreme truths of the Gospel ; it 
demands consecration of lives and of substance in stead- 
fast obedience to the Divine call ; it is a work imposed 
upon the whole membership of the Church, and, as the 
direct effort of the Church to fulfil the great task com- 


mitted to her, it demands the consecration of all the 
available energies and resources of the Church in order 
to its accomplishment. But the Church of to-day is 
very far from such a conception of its relation to the 
work of evangelising the world. The spiritual life 
found in it is limited by want of enlightenment and 
by the imperfection of its communion with God. 
The growing spirit of commercialism and materialism 
which characterises this age has cast its influence 
over the Church. It has promoted habits of luxury, 
softness, and worldliness, and manifests itself also 
in a lack of the sacrificial spirit. The attitude of 
the Church toward great social and national evils and 
sins is not suggestive of earnest purpose or adequate 
power to overcome them. It is a time of doubt and 
hesitation among many Christian ministers and teachers. 
Ultimate authority in religion is a subject of most divers 
opinions. Cardinal doctrines are discussed as open 
questions. The miraculous element is treated with 
suspicion or disdain in many quarters. Whenever religion 
is thus thrown into the melting-pot, as it were, it is 
obviously enfeebled, for the time, in its propagating power. 
The life of the Church suffers from lack of clear con- 
viction and of resolute loyalty to Christ throughout the 
whole sphere of duty. While the missionary obhgation 
of the Church may be formally acknowledged, it is 
viewed with widespread apathy and indifference. 

The consideration of the defects, shortcomings and 
weaknesses of the Home Church has led some to question 
whether we have a Christianity which should be pro- 
pagated all over the world. Were it necessary to pro- 
pagate the blemishes and errors of our Western Chris- 
tianity this question would be most serious. Certainly 
we must exercise all vigilance not to dispense poison 
with the bread of life. We should avoid spreading posi- 
tive or known errors which would neutralise the Gospel 
as it is presented in non-Christian lands. We must not 
press upon other races undesirable and unessential 
features of our Western Church life. Our Western idio- 


syncrasies of thought and practice and our endless 
sectarian subdivisions should be overcome or at least 
be left at home. Without doubt our home divisions 
are a great hindrance to the evangelisation of the world. 
To the Oriental mind, for example, our denominational 
distinctions and varieties of emphasis are bewildering, 
Mozoomdar thus voiced this feeling : " You urge me to 
become a Christian. Which of the numberless forms 
of Christianity shall I accept ? I shall always be a Christ- 
man, but never a Christian." 

Happily the Home Church stUl possesses the essentials 
of primitive Christianity. It sends forth its representa- 
tives to propagate the Christianity of the New Testa- 
ment to bring the non-Christian world face to face 
with the historic and therefore the hving Christ, and 
with the teachings of His inspired Apostles. This is 
the Christianity that not only teaches God truly but 
gives God actually to the world, through His incarnation 
in Jesus Christ ; and gives the world to God through 
its regeneration in Christ, by participation in His Spirit 
and Life. It is on this platform that all the victories 
of the Christian faith have been won. The worth of 
Christianity as a missionary force is measured by what 
it has of Christ. If He be lifted up He draws men of all 
nations, races, and stations. The Church is more fully 
acquainted with Christ than in any preceding age. Thus, 
though certain forms of our Christianity may not be 
worth propagating, our Christ should be proclaimed 
to all men. If we give to the world our best we shall be 
giving something that is infinitely v/orthy to be received 
by the world, and which also may justly claim the alle- 
giance of the world. It is the only Christianity we have, 
and the only Christianity for the world. We cannot 
bring ourselves to consent to the proposition that it should 
not be propagated. In that wonderful letter which Dr. 
Rainy wrote on behalf of the Free Church of Scotland, 
in reply to the greeting of old Madras CoUege students 
to the General Assembly in Edinburgh on the occasion 
of Principal Miller's Moderatorship, the heart of the 


matter is aptly expressed : " We men in the West have 
no better claim to Jesus Christ than you have. We 
possess nothing so precious we value nothing so much 
we have no source of good so full, fruitful, and enduring 
we have nothing to compare with the Lord Jesus Christ. 
To Him we bear witness. And we should gladly consent 
that you should cease to listen to us, if you would be led 
to give your ear and your heart to Him." Where this 
conviction and this spirit dominate the life of the Church, 
it possesses the vital force of missionary effort and 

It thus appears that an essential part of the task of 
evangelising the world is the lifting of the Church at 
home into a fuller spiritual life. As it learns the mind 
and heart of Christ, and is possessed by His Spirit, it will 
become more missionary, and also mightier in aU its 
missionary work. In all planning for forward move- 
ments or for expansion of missions, this truth must be 
kept in the foreground. While it is true that a deepening 
interest in foreign missions invariably strengthens the 
spiritual life of the Church, and promotes its fruitfulness 
in all directions, it is equally true that larger operations 
and greater power abroad are impossible unless the 
life of the Church at home is marked by greater enlighten- 
ment, devotion, and fidelity to its Lord. The two go 
together. They indicate the tremendous responsibility 
resting upon the ministers and office-bearers of the Church, 
who are called to care for its well-being, and the due 
fulfilling of its functions. On ministers more than all 
others devolves the duty of educating the Church to its 
missionary duty, of supplying to the people the vision, 
the motives, the enthusiasm which shall make the Church 
equal in spiritual power to the present world-situation. 
Nothing less than a Church tremendously in earnest can 
evangelise the non-Christian world. 


As we complete the survey of the enormous task involved 
in making Christ known to all the non-Christian world, 
and .realise as never before the inadequacy of human 
agents and agencies as well as of human policy and 
strategy, the first impression made upon us is that the 
Church is totally unable by itself to discharge its over- 
whelming responsibility. The next and dominant impres- 
sion is that Almighty God is able, and that the Church 
must be led to avail itself of His limitless resources to a 
degree hitherto unknown since that vital age the first 
generation of Christianity. Hundreds of correspondents, 
including missionaries, native Christian workers and 
leaders of the missionary activities on the home field, 
while they have differed on nearly all questions pertaining 
to plans, means, and methods, have been absolutely 
united in the expressed conviction that the world's 
evangelisation is a Divine enterprise, that the Spirit 
of God is the great Missioner, and that only as 
He dominates the work and workers can we hope for 
success in the undertaking to carry the knowledge of 
Christ to all people. They believe that He gave the 
missionary impulse to the early Church, and that to-day 
all true mission work must be inaugurated, directed, and 
sustained by Him. 

No lesson of missionary experience has been more 
fully, impressively, and convincingly taught than that 
apart from the Divine working all else is inadequate. 
The hope and guarantee of carrying the Gospel to all the 
non-Christian world do not rest principally on external 



favouring advantages which Christianity may possess in 
certain fields ; nor upon the character and progress of the 
civilisation of Christian countries ; nor upon the number, 
strength, experience, and administrative ability of the 
missionary societies ; nor upon the variety and adapt- 
ability of missionary methods and the efficiency of mis- 
sionary machinery ; nor upon an army of missionary 
evangelists, preachers, teachers, doctors, and translators 
much as these are needed ; nor upon the relation of the 
money power to the plans of the Kingdom ; nor upon 
aggressive and ably led, forward missionary movements 
either in the home Churches or on the foreign field ; but 
upon the Living God dominating, possessing, and using 
all these factors and influences. 


Everything vital to the success of the movement to 
carry the Gospel to all the non-Christian world depends 
upon the power of God Himself. In His hands is the 
Government of the world. He has entrusted enormous 
powers to Christian nations. His providence has opened 
the approach to the non-Christian countries, determined 
the order of their occupation, and developed agencies 
and influences which facilitate the spread of Christianity. 
Careful investigation has furnished countless illustrations 
showing that He has preceded the messengers of the Gospel 
and prepared the people to understand it and to be re- 
sponsive to it. Unquestionably God has been working in 
the world through the centuries before the coming of 
Christ. " My Father worketh hitherto and I work." 
He has been working through the non-Christian religions, 
not alone in using such truth as they may possess for the 
betterment of men, but also in making these religions 
a schoolmaster to lead the peoples to recognise in due 
time their need of Christ. 

It is God who chooses and thrusts forth the workers 
of His own appointment. The pages of missionary history 
teach no lesson with more abundant and satisfying illustra- 


tions. On the authority of Christ it is hopeless to expect 
to secure a sufficient number of missionaries apart from 
His compeUing power, and even were it possible, they 
would prove incompetent for the great work. Experience 
is showing that when chosen and dominated by His Spirit, 
a few men can do more than an army. It is He 
who communicates to the workers, both foreign and 
native, power not naturally their own ; which qualifies 
them to do His work. He it is who guides 
workers as truly to-day as in New Testament times to 
discover the lines along which the Kingdom is to be 
extended and built up. The large, growing, and permanent 
spiritual fruitage is the product of His gracious and life- 
giving work. The secret of the power of those missionaries 
who accomplish the largest and deepest work is not what 
they do and say, but the fact of the presence of Christ 
in them and with them. They see with His eyes, feel 
with His heart, work with His energies. Christ is every- 
thing with them. They move among men as embodiments 
of His superhuman power, under whose vitaUsing'iiouch 
dead souls start into life. The power of God may be seen 
also in the ability given to His servants to go on working 
steadily year in and year out, even with little or no ap- 
parent results, but sustained by a sense of duty and by an 
undying hope that the Lord will surely see of the travail 
of His soul and be satisfied. Moreover, no one but the 
Almighty Spirit can cause the missionaries of the different 
Christian communions, and also the native Christian 
workers, to work with that harmony and unity which 
are essential to universal conquest. 

God alone enables workers to face with calm and 
courageous hearts the stupendous obstacles and difficulties 
which lie across their path and to triumph over them. 
The fearful inertia and conservatism of the non-Christian 
world ; the prevalence of ignorance, superstition, false- 
hood, moral perversity and coarseness, fear, fatalism, 
godlessness, selfishness, and lovelessness ; the racial pre- 
judices and antagonisms ; the corrupt lives and practices 
of representatives of Christendom ; " the principalities, 
COM. I. 23 


the powers, the world rulers of this darkness " all this 
would leave the workers discouraged and dismayed were 
it not for faith in the Living Christ. Only the quickening 
powers of His Gospel can overthrow or transform systems 
of error rooted for thousands of years, and entwined with 
the laws, institutions, customs, and sentiments of peoples 
of ancient civilisations. The vast extent of the work to 
be done and the subtle and baffling obstacles which oppose, 
are such that nothing less than the action of the Living 
God behind the presentation of the truth of Christ will 
enable it to prevail and overcome. 

It is God who overrules occasions and events, human 
movements and powers, for the furtherance of the 
Gospel. Dr. H. H. Lowry of Peking says, " Diplomacy 
has generally been unfortunate ; commerce has selfishly 
opposed the spread of Christianity ; the prejudice and 
conceit of the officials and the people have been opposed 
to the introduction of the Gospel. But all these together, 
with persecutions, wars, and national calamities, have been 
turned to the furtherance of the Gospel." Many have 
called attention to the overruling hand of God in connec- 
tion with the Boxer uprising of China. They recognise 
His power and guidance in the fact that the very action 
which was intended to extirpate Christianity in China has 
had, as one of its results, an unprecedented forward move- 
ment in missionary work in that country, and that since 
the year 1900 the doors have been opened to the Gospel 
far wider than before. Dr. Ford of Syria says, " Rarely 
has the hand of God been more plainly revealed in the 
march of human events than it was in the crises of July 
igo8, and April 1909, in Turkey. These are indications 
of the revelation of the supernatural factor in advancing 
the Kingdom of God in the world." 

Present-day missions constantly confirm the fact so 
prone to be forgotten that it is the Spirit of God who 
alone has power to convict men of sin. It is only when 
He convicts of sin and of dire need that the soul becomes 
willing to hear of Christ as a Saviour. The genuine 
fruits of the Spirit, as shown in repentance, conviction, 


restitution, and the making up of long-standing quarrels, 
have afforded convincing proof that God alone brings 
home the Gospel with power to the hearts and con- 
sciences of men. Even in discouraging fields of China, 
He has shown His ability to overcome the fear of " loss 
of face " and to call forth heart-breaking confessions 
not of ordinary shortcomings and failures, but of sins 
which the Chinese would endure anything to conceal. 
Men have been moved to confession of sin through 
the working of this unseen Agent in their lives, who 
could not be moved by any agency known among 
Chinese Yamens. The Chinese are naturally a stolid 
people, little given to emotion, but workers state that 
such rending of the heart under conviction of sin they 
have never seen in the home lands. There can be 
no more marked and unmistakable proof of a present- 
day working of a superhuman power than the work 
of the Holy Spirit in such conversions as are taking place 
in increasing numbers from year to year in all parts of 
the non-Christian world. The breaking down, for ex- 
ample, of the pride of a Moslem until, conscious of his sin, 
he humbles himself at the Cross and becomes a new man 
in Christ Jesus, is a present-day evidence of the super- 
human character of the Christian faith. The fact that 
men who were living indifferent, callous, degraded, 
sensual, proud, cruel lives have become pure, faithful, 
kind, spiritual, and zealous, and that they are triumph- 
antly resisting their old temptations is satisfying evidence 
that there is a power greater than human in the mis- 
sionary movement. 

The great spiritual awakenings and revivals in different 
parts of the non-Christian world are the result of the work 
of the Spirit of God. Mr. Goforth of China says that 
since February 1908, he has conducted thirty special 
missions in six provinces, and that in every place he has 
seen God's power manifested in greater or less degree. 
He testifies that " the sense of God's presence was over- 
whelming and soon became unbearable. Others, Chinese 
as well as foreigners, who have passed through scenes of 


judgment have afterwards carried the fire to other centres 
where the same Divine results have followed." The 
recent wonderful revivals in other parts of China, in 
Northern and Southern India, in all parts of Korea, and 
the famous Taikyo Dendo in Japan a few years ago, 
not to mention similar awakenings in other decades, 
are traced by the missionaries to the same Divine source. 

Nothing but the Uplifted Christ, drawing men to Him- 
self, will account for the noble and Christlike characters 
raised up on the mission fields from among those whose 
lives were degraded and whose natures were hardened 
and unresponsive. It is in Him they begin to see God, 
for He brings God near to them and reveals to them God's 
loving-kindness and saving power. In Him they see in 
human form and action the holiness, love, and power of 
the unseen God. One after another, men and women 
in middle and advanced life, as well as the young, give 
up their pride and sinful practices and all that has made 
up the essence of their unholy life in the past, and then 
go out and testify by life and word among their neighbours 
that they have passed from darkness into light. Mis- 
sionaries who have observed these radical changes and 
who have had opportunity to talk with such persons, 
to see the way in which the problems of life are faced 
by them from the Christian standpoint, to understand 
their motives and spirit, and to watch their consistent 
Christian lives, have no doubt whatever that God and 
not man is the prime mover in the missionary enterprise, 
and that Christ is the centre and innermost working 
power in these transformations of men. It does not take 
many cases of this kind to create an overwhelming im- 
pression that the Lord Christ is present in this work 
to-day, as really as He was in the villages of Galilee. 
The Rev. J. E. Adams, writing from Korea, voices the 
conviction expressed by scores of missionaries from nearly 
all quarters of the world: " I have experienced, tested, 
and proved the sufficiency of the Holy Spirit in tlie 
work of the conversion of men so constantly and with 
such invariable results tliat any question on tlie 


subject has long ceased to exist. It has become one of 
the assumed working postulates of life. No man living 
in the conditions in which I have lived, even with the 
most rudimentary instincts of scientific observation, 
could arrive at any other conviction than that the Gospel 
is the power of God." It is this ethical and spiritual 
Christianity which will conquer the non-Christian nations. 
A truly spiritual life, proved by its ethical results and 
triumphant pov/er over temptation, can alone satisfy 
their deepest needs. Such conversion is not simply 
a change in name, opinion, or belief, but a new spiritual 
experience, a coming to know personally the Living 

One of the unmistakable evidences of the work of 
the Spirit of God is to be found in the way in which 
Christians endure persecution. For example, the most 
marked characteristic of the Chinese Christians is their 
steadfastness, their willingness to endure hardship and 
even death for the sake of Christ. There has never been 
a time in the history of missions in China when the pro- 
fession of Christianity did not entail risk of persecution. 
Even before the year 1900, the blood of martjnrs had 
been frequently shed in China, and in that year several 
thousands of Christians were slain in the Boxer uprising 
rather than renounce their faith. Many a Boxer formed 
the purpose to join a catechumen class with a view to 
baptism because he had witnessed the victory of faith 
in his victims. 

The transformation of communities as well as of in- 
dividuals is also indicative of the work of Christ as God. 
The testimony of Bishop Tucker as to the complete 
change in the social life and practices of the people in 
Uganda under the influence of the Gospel is a good 
illustration. Another is the marvellous uplifting of 
outcastes and lower castes in Northern and Southern 
India as a result of the power of the Gospel. The manner 
in which these most depressed and degraded of aU the 
peoples in India have improved their social condition, 
rebuked and overcome the forces of vice, erected theij 


own schools and churches, spread the Gospel among their 
neighbours, and suffered for Christ's sake, while leading 
quiet, consistent Christian hves, is truly wonderful. 
Some have based the argument for the superhuman on the 
manifest change in the character and position of these 
outcastes when brought into the fold of Christ. The 
complete transformation of certain of the Pacific islands 
constitutes another striking example. Dr. John Ross, 
of Manchuria, says that while " Education is good, and 
other intellectual and physical aids as well, all these 
combined and at their very best, would never have 
evolved the Church in Manchuria from the mass of 
foreigner-hating idolaters who filled the land." Another 
remarkable example of the influence of the Gospel is seen 
among the Miao tribes of West China. Communities 
that less than a decade ago were ignorant, degraded, and 
very immoral are now moral and Christian. One does not 
find examples of such transformations of communities as 
a result of the teaching of the Baghavat Gita or Ramayana 
or of the entrance of the Koran. It is the working of 
powers that transcend human explanations, accompany- 
ing the proclamation of the story of Christ and His Cross, 
that accomplishes these wonders. 

Another evidence of God's power is seen in the way in 
which He fills the native Christian with a passion for 
helping others, especially those in deepest need. On all 
the mission fields there have been many splendid examples 
of new converts making sacrifices to tell others of the salva- 
tion which they have found. The manner in which many 
hundreds of the ablest young men of the different non- 
Christian nations and races have refused worldly advance- 
ment and devoted their lives on comparatively insignifi- 
cant salaries to the work of evangelising their non- 
Christian countrymen and of carrying the good tidings of 
salvation into regions beyond is a striking manifestation 
of God's working. In fact, there is nothing more en- 
couraging anywhere and nothing which so clearly proves 
the' reality of their Christian experience. i '\ 

There are many other evidences showing that every- 


thing vital to the success and spread of the Kingdom of 
Christ depends upon the Divine Factor. The work of 
God is not confined to the extraordinary events and 
experiences of Christian missions. The presence of God 
cannot be divorced from the usual, from the expected, 
and be associated only with the so-called miraculous. 
His presence and work are to be seen in the commonplaces 
of missionary experience and success. For those Chris- 
tians who are genuine Christians every common bush " is 
afire with God." 


What are the conditions required for the forth-putting 
of Divine power ? A mighty, almost irresistible power is 
conveyed in an ordinary-looking wire cable on the two 
main conditions, proper insulation and perfect contact. If 
those abroad and at home who are seeking to make Christ 
known to all the non-Christian world can be saved from 
selfishness, and at the same time preserve their connection 
with the abounding and never- failing Source of superhuman 
power, they wUl accomplish what He surely wills 
the making of Christ known to all people. Granted a 
sufficient number of workers, with lives dominated by 
Christ, we may expect that He will put forth mightily 
His living power. Unless they surrender themselves to 
Christ and are controlled by His Spirit, unless they work 
in His power, they had better turn from this service ; for 
unyielded lives and unspiritual work wUl only be a hind- 
rance to the enterprise. 

The superhuman must be emphasised as never before 
since the days of the Early Church. Christians need a 
fuller, more constant and more commanding realisation 
of the personals presence of Christ. Conferences -have 
been held, not infrequently, both on the home field and 
on the mission fields, at which the problems, methods, 
and opportunities of the worklof;^world evangelisation 
have received careful consideration, butHhere has been 
alarming neglect to face the great central problem. 


namely, how to translate into actual experience the 
word of Christ, " He that abideth in me, and I in 
him, the same beareth much fruit : for apart from 
me ye can do nothing." WHierever even small groups 
of Christians have faced this question, and have 
been responsive to the truth as God has revealed it to 
them, they have received new accessions of His power, 
and have then gone forth to achieve triumphs in His 
Name. The new visions, the new plans, the new move- 
ments, the new power, will undoubtedly follow when 
Christ is given His rightful place in His united Church. 

Prayer is the method which relates the irresistible might 
of God to the missionary enterprise. According to the 
teaching of Christ and the experience of the Church, both 
in the early centuries and in recent times, the greatest 
manifestation of Divine power is in the pathway of the 
intercession of His true followers. Every marked ad- 
vance in the missionary enterprise has been preceded by 
prayer. Every fresh accession of power which has come 
upon the workers has been associated with prayer for the 
Kingdom. Every visitation of the Spirit of God resulting 
in spiritual awakenings in the Home Church and on the 
mission fields, has been in itself a convincing evidence of 
the reahty of prayer. Every grave crisis in the expansion 
of Christianity which has been successfully met has been 
met by the faithfulness of Christ's disciples in the secret 
place. That there is a necessary connection between 
the prayers of Christians on the one hand, and, on the other 
hand, the revealing of Christ's plan, the raising up of 
workers, and the releasing of the great spiritual forces 
of the Kingdom, is a fact as clearly established as any 
fact can be established. That God has conditioned so 
largely the extension, the progress, and the fruitfulness of 
His Kingdom upon the faithfulness and loyalty of His 
children in prayer, is at the same time one of the deepest 
mysteries and one of the most wonderful realities. 

The Church has not yet discovered, still less begun to 
realise, the limitless possibilities of intercession. How to 
multiply the number of Christians who, with truthful Hves, 


and with clear, unshakable faith in the character and 
abOity of God, will, individually and collectively or 
corporately as a Church, wield this force for the conversion 
and transformation of men, for the inauguration and 
energising of spiritual movements, and for the breaking 
down of all that exalts itself against Christ and His pur- 
poses that is the supreme question of foreign missions. 
From first to last this task, the making of Christ 
known to all men, is a superhuman work. Every other 
consideration and plan and emphasis is secondary to 
that of wielding the forces of prayer. May the call go 
forth from this Conference to the Christian Churches 
throughout the world to give themselves as never before 
to intercession, for this alone will bring to bear upon the 
sublime work of carrying the Gospel to all the non- 
Christian world the all-sufficient forces of the Ever-living 
One to whom all power is given in heaven and on earth 
the Lord Jesus Christ. 



I. Ihe Commission, after studying the facts and 
after taking counsel with the leaders of the missionary 
forces of the Church at home and abroad, expresses its 
conviction that the present is the time of all times for 
the Church to undertake with quickened loyalty and 
sufficient forces to make Christ known to all the non- 
Christian world. 

It is an opportune time. Never before has the whole 
world-field been so open and so accessible. Never before 
has the Christian Church faced such a combination of 
opportunities among both primitive and cultured peoples. 

It is a critical time. The non-Christian nations are 
undergoing great changes. Far-reaching movements 
national, racial, social, economic, religious are shaking 
the non-Christian nations to their foundations. These 
nations are stiU plastic. Shall they set in Christian or 
pagan moulds ? Their ancient faiths, ethical restraints, 
and social orders have been weakened or abandoned. 
Shall our sufficient faith fill the void ? The spirit of 
national independence and racial patriotism is growing. 
Shall this become antagonistic or friendly to Christianity ? 
There have been times when the Church confronted 
crises as great as those before it now on certain fields ; 
but never before has there been such^a synchronising 
of crises in all parts of the world. i'li 

It is a testing time for the Church. If it neglects to 



meet successfully the present world crisis by failing to 
discharge its responsibility to the whole world, it will 
weaken its power both on the home and foreign fields 
and seriously handicap its mission to the coming genera- 
tion. Nothing less than the adequacy of Christianity as 
a world religion is on trial. 

This is a decisive hour for Christian missions. The 
call of Providence to all our Lord's disciples, of whatever 
ecclesiastical connection, is direct and urgent to under- 
take without delay the task of carrying the Gospel to all 
the non-Christian world. It is high time to face this duty 
and with serious purpose to discharge it. The oppor- 
tunity is inspiring ; the responsibility is undeniable. 
The Gospel is all-inclusive in its scope and we are 
convinced that there never was a time more favourable for 
united, courageous, and prayerful action to make the 
universality of the Gospel ideal a practical reality in the 
history of the Church. 

2. The utter inadequacy of the present missionary 
force to discharge effectively the duty of world-wide 
evangelisation is evident. The present mission staff in 
the foreign field is not sufficient even to compass fully 
the work already in hand ; much less is it prepared to 
accomplish any adequate expansion. On almost every 
field the efficiency and hves of the workers are endangered 
because of this effort to accomplish a task altogether too 
great for their numbers. The present status in some 
fields represents practically a deadlock ; in many other 
fields there is no evidence of notable progress. 


I. It is the high duty of the Church promptly to dis- 
charge its responsibility in regard to all the non-Christian 
world. To do this is easily within the power of the 
Church. Not to do it would indicate spiritual atrophy, if 
not treasonable indifference to the command of our Lord. 
Without attempting to estimate the necessary increase 
in income ajid foreign staff, it is the conviction of the 


Commission that the Church of Christ must view the world 
field in its entirety and do it full justice. There should 
be nothing less than a vast enlargement in the number 
of qualified workers, a thorough and courageous 
adaptation of means and methods to meet the situation, 
a wise unification in plans and forces, and a whole- 
hearted fulfilling of the conditions of spiritual power. 

II. The Commission, after a careful study of the 
missionary situation, and of the various considerations 
which should govern such a recommendation, would 
direct attention to the following fields as of special 
urgency in respect of the prosecution of missionary work : 

1. Fields on which the Church as a whole should con- 
centrate attention and effort. 

{a) In China there is at this moment a unique oppor- 
tunity which is fraught with far-reaching issues for the 
future not only of China and of the whole East, but also 
of Christendom. 

{b) The threatening advance of Islam in Equatorial 
Africa presents to the Church of Christ the decisive 
question whether the Dark Continent shall become 
Mohammedan or Christian. 

(c) The national and spiritual movements in India, 
awakening its ancient peoples to a vivid consciousness 
of their needs and possibilities, present a strong challenge 
to Christian missions to enlarge and deepen their work. 

{d) The problems of the Mohammedan World, especially 
in the Near East, which, until recently, received little 
consideration from the Church at large, have been lifted 
unexpectedly into prominence and urgency, as well as 
into new relations, by the marvellous changes which 
have taken place in Turkey and Persia. One of the 
important tasks before the Church at this time is to deal 
adequately with these problems. 

2. Fields which do not claim the attention of the 
Church as a whole, but which demand additional effort 
on the part of the societies already in some measure 
occupying them. 

In Korea an evangelistic movement extending rapidly 


over the land calls for a great strengthening of the mission- 
ary force. In Japan the mission work which has been 
centred in the great towns and among the higher middle 
classes requires to be expanded effectively over the 
country, and among all classes. In IMalaya Christian 
missions must strain every nerve to prevent Islam 
from gaining the heathen tribes, and to win them for 
Christ. Siam and Laos also present an urgent appeal 
for an aggressive advance. In Melanesia a multitude 
of tribes in New Guinea and other islands are 
opening in quick succession to Christian influences. 
In various fields of pagan Africa, the Christian missions 
which have been planted are confronted by immense 
opportunities among those who are waiting for Gospel 
teaching, but who cannot be reached by tlie forces now 
on the field. 

The rapid disintegration of the animistic and fetishistic 
beliefs of primitive peoples in most of the lands in the 
preceding lists presents an important problem. Most 
of these peoples will have lost their ancient faiths within 
a generation, and will accept that culture-religion with 
which they first come in contact. The responsibility of 
the Church is grave to bring the Gospel to them quickly, 
as the only sufficient substitute for their decaying faiths. 

3. The Jewish people have a peculiar claim upon the 
missionary activities of the Christian Church. Christianity 
is theirs pre-eminently by right of inheritance. The 
Church is under special obligation to present Christ to 
the Jew. It is a debt to be repaid, a reparation to be 
fidly and worthily made. The attempts to give the 
Gospel to this widely scattered yet still isolated people 
have been hitherto inadequate. The need is great 
for a change in the attitude of the Church towards 
this essential part of the Great Commission. The call 
is urgent in view of the enormous influence which the Jew 
is wielding in the Vk^orld, especially throughout Christen- 
dom. The winning of this virile race with its genius 
for religion wiU be the strengthening of the Church of 
Christ and the enrichment of the world. 


The enumeration of these fields might seem to suggest 
that the Church is not able to deal adequately and 
simultaneously with the entire non-Christian world. 
But the Commission declines to concede that this is so. 
After facing the facts we share the conviction of the 
large majority of our correspondents that the Church 
of Christ, if it puts forth its strength, is well able 
to carry the Gospel to all these fields immediately. 
While we recognise the greater urgency in the 
case of certain fields, we find it impossible, in the 
light of the needs of men, the command of Christ, 
and the resources of the Church, to delay giving 
to any people the opportunity to learn of Him. The 
point of chief emphasis is, that what the Church expects 
to do anywhere it must do soon. What is needed is a 
regular, sustained advance all along the line, in which all 
agencies shall be utilised and multiplied until they are 
co-extensive with the need of the entire world. 

III. The unoccupied fields of the world have a claim of 
peculiar weight and urgency upon the attention and 
missionary effort of the Church. In this twentieth 
century of Christian history there should be no unoccupied 
fields. The Church is bound to remedy this lamentable 
condition with the least possible delay. Some of these 
unoccupied fields are open to the Gospel, such as Mongolia 
and many regions of Africa. In certain fields there are 
difficulties of access to be overcome. Both in Africa 
and Asia there are large regions belonging to the French 
Empire in which there are no Christian missions. There 
are other fields where political difficulties seem at present 
to prevent occupation, such as Tibet, Nepal, Bhutan, 
and Afghanistan. But the closed doors are few compared 
with the open doors unentered. It is the neglected 
opportunities that are the reproach of the Church. A 
large proportion of the unoccupied fields are to be found 
within the Mohammedan world, not" only in Northern 
Africa and in Western Asia, but also in China. Indeed 
by far the greater part of the Mohammedan world is 
practically unoccupied. The claims of Christ upon the 


love and reverence of Moslem hearts should be faithfully 
and patiently pressed, with a zeal which will not jdeld 
to discouragement, and with passionate intercession 
which God will be pleased to hear and honour. The 
unreceptive and even defiant attitude of Islam towards 
Christianity, and its unwillingness to acknowledge the 
supreme Lordship of Christ, will yield to the Gospel if 
Christians do their duty. Its long dominance and in- 
tolerance are apparently being undermined by remark- 
able events. The present accessibility of Islam, the 
fruitfulness of the efforts already made, and the missionary 
energy of the Moslem propaganda favour direct, earnest, 
and unceasing efforts to convince the Mohammedans that 
Christ alone is worthy of their allegiance and worship. 
Emphasis should be laid on the need of special prepara- 
tion on the part of all who are to devote themselves to 
this great undertaking. 

IV. In view of the world-wide task confronting the 
Church of Christ, the proper disposition of the 
missionary forces in order to an effective advance 
becomes a question of vital importance. (i) With 
regard to the work of individual missionaries or 
missions, this question will be differently decided 
according to the countries and the peoples to be 
evangelised and the type of the evangelising mission, the 
principle being that the sphere should be sufficiently 
restricted to enable the missionary or the mission effec- 
tively to influence the people. (2) With regard to the 
work in large areas weU occupied for decades, such as 
South Africa, some port cities, and other great centres 
in such countries as Japan, China, and India, a new and 
careful survey is necessary, if the undesirable crowding of 
missions and stations in limited areas (due in most cases 
to the unfavourable conditions at the beginning of 
the work) is to be remedied by a proper rearrange- 
ment of the stations and redistribution of the workers. 
(3) With regard to the totally unoccupied or partially 
occupied fields which on all sides invite missionary 
extension, the wise policy is to extend by expanding the 


work already in hand, and when estabhshing new work 
to begin at strong strategic centres. 

V. As the missionary forces are divided into numerous 
independent organisations which are conducting foreign 
missions in different lands and with diverse methods, it 
is of the utmost importance that they should be in 
close touch with each other, that they should be familiar 
with each other's work and methods, and that they 
should profit by each other's failures and successes. 

The Commission recommends that an International 
Committee should be formed for the consideration of 
international missionary questions. This Committee, 
in addition to serving as an agency for dealing with 
questions on which the various missionary societies desire 
to take co-operative action, would act as a council for 
investigation and advice about such matters as the 
unreached portions of the world, the actual occupation 
of different fields, and the success and failure of 
missionary methods. This Committee would naturally 
avail itself of the co-operation of existing councils and 
organisations both on the home and foreign fields. 

VI. The Church on the mission field must be the 
chief evangelistic agency if the Gospel is to be 
preached to all men in our day. The evangelisation 
of the non-Christian world is not alone a European, 
an American, an Australasian enterprise ; it is equally 
an Asiatic and an African enterprise. While the 
number of well - qualified foreign missionaries must 
be greatly increased in order to plant Christianity, 
to establish the native Church, to place at its disposal 
the acquired experience of the Christian Church, and 
to enlist and train effective leaders, nevertheless the 
great volume of work involved in making Christ known 
to the multitudinous inhabitants of the non-Christian 
world must be done by the sons and daughters of the 
soil. It is essential, therefore, on every mission field 
to seek to permeate the whole life of the Church 
from its beginning with the evangelistic spirit, and 
further, in proportion as the Church increases, tq 


develop strongly a native evangelistic staff, working 
in co-operation with the foreign force. For this end 
training-schools and classes must be multiplied and 
developed. In this way leaders may be prepared who 
will conduct a more effective indigenous training of 
catechists, evangelists, and Bible-women, thus providing 
a sufficient force for a greatly enlarged evangelistic 
propaganda. Conferences on evangehstic work should 
be held within large areas admitting of concerted action. 
Moreover, if the Church is to abound with the spirit of 
self-propagation and prove an aggressive force, more 
attention must be given to building up its spiritual 
life and to establishing its members in the cardinal 
doctrines of the Christian faith. 

VII. A crucial factor in the evangelisation of the non- 
Christian world is the state of the Church in Christian 
lands. On this point there is almost unanimous agree- 
ment among missionaries abroad and leaders at home. 
In the initial stages, at least, the Church at home deter- 
mines the quality of the faith, ideals, and practices which 
are being propagated. It chooses and commissions workers 
who are to plant Christianity in the non-Christian fields 
and influences their character and spirit. It hkewise 
does much to determine the nature of the impact of 
Christendom upon the non-Christian world through 
political, commercial, industrial, and social relations and 
activities. UntH there is a more general consecration on 
the part of the members of the Home Church, there can 
be no hope of such an expansion of the missionary enter- 
prise as to result in making the knowledge of Jesus Christ 
readily accessible to every human being. Further, it is 
only through this more complete obedience to Him tha 
the missionary movement can become irresistible an 
triumphant in the fields where it is already at work. To 
ensure such an outflow of the vitalising missionary forces 
of the Church, its own life must be adequately energised. 
Whatever, therefore, can be done to make the Home 
Church conform in spirit and in practice to the New Testa- 
ment teachings and ideals will contribute in the most 
COM. I. 24 


powerful manner to the realisation of the great aim of the 
world's evangelisation. A new and resolute awakening 
of the Church to the richness of its heritage in the Gospel 
and to the duty of an ardent, universal, and untiring 
effort to make disciples of all nations, is the clear message 
of God to the Church of to-day. 

VI 11. Beyond doubt the most fundamental require- 
ment of the missionary enterprise is a greater 
appropriation of the power of the Spirit of God. 
Important as are those aspects of the undertaking which 
deal with the statistics, the machinery and the strategy 
of missions, the leaders of the movement should concern 
themselves far more with the spiritual dynamics of 
missions. The most direct and effective way to promote 
the evangelisation of the world is to influence the workers, 
and indeed the whole membership of the Church at 
home and abroad, to yield themselves completely to 
the sway of Christ as Lord, and to establish and 
preserve at all costs those habits of spiritual culture which 
ensure lives of Christlike witnessing and of spiritual 
power. To this end there should be promoted retreats 
for groups of leaders, Bible institutes, conferences for 
the deepening of the spiritual life of Church members, 
and the ministry of private and united intercession. 

All workers in foreign missions should seek a fresh and 
constant realisation of the truth that they are fellow- 
workers with God. In accordance with the word of our 
Lord, " My Father worketh hitherto and I work," they 
should seek a clearer understanding of the working of 
God in governing the world, creating great opportunities, 
removing grave obstacles, opening effectual doors, and 
developing favourable conditions and influences. And they 
should seek to realise with reverent wonder that through 
them Jesus Christ in His grace is at the present time 
working out the fulfilment of His own word, "I, if I be 
lifted up from the earth, will draw all men unto Me." Our 
Living Lord is the Supreme Worker in all mission work ; 
His alone is the power ; and all true work on our part 
is in reliance on His promise, " Lo, I am with you alway." 






To prevent any misconception, it may be premised that no 
correspondent has any responsibility whatever for any statement 
in the Report, unless he be quoted by name. The list is published 
in order to show the pains taken by the Commission to secure an 
adequate basis of information and opinion on which to base their 
Report, and also by way of grateful acknowledgment of the 
generous kindness and valuable help given by so large a number 
of missionaries and other friends. 


The Rev. Wm. Axling, American Baptist Foreign Mission Society, 

The Rev. A. A. Bennett, D.D. (deceased), American Baptist Foreign 

Mission Society, Yokohama. 
The Bishop of South Tokyo (The Right Rev. Cecil H. Boutfiower, 

D.D.), Tokyo. 
The Rev. William Campbell, F.R.G.S., Presbyterian Church of 

England, Tainan, Formosa. 
The Rev. Otis Cary, D.D., American Board of Commissioners for 

Foreign Missions, Kyoto. 
Prof. E. W. Clement, M.A., American Baptist Foreign Mission 

Society, Tokyo. 
Miss J. N. Crosby, Woman's Union Missionary Society, Yokohama. 
The Rev. J. D. Davis, D.D., American Board of Commissioners 

for Foreign Missions, Kyoto. 
The Rev. J. H. de Forest, D.D., American Board of Commis- 
sioners for Foreign Missions, Sendai. 
The Rev. Danjo Ebina, Kumiai Church, Tokyo. 
The Late Bishop of Kyushu (The Rt. Rev. Henry Evington, D.D.). 
Mr. Galen M. Fisher, M.A., Young Men's Christian Association, 

The Rev. D. C. Greene, D.D., American Board of Commissioners 

for Foreign Missions, Tokyo. 
The Rev. J. B. Hail, D.D., Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A., 

The Rev. J. P. Hauch, Missionary Society of the Evangelical 

Association, Tokyo. 



Mr. C. V. Hibbard, Young Men's Christian Association, Tokyo. 
The Rev. Bishop Y. Honda, D.D., Japan Methodist Church, Tokyo. 
The Rev. Alfred T. Howard, D.D., United Brethren in Christ, 

President K. Ibuka, Church of Christ in Japan, Tokyo. 
The Rev. J. T. Imai, Nihon Seiko Kwai, Tokyo. 
The Rev. WilUam Imbrie, D.D., Presbyterian Church in the 

U.S.A., Tokyo. 
The Rev. Milton Jack, B.A., Presbyterian Church in Canada, 

Tamsui, Formosa. 
The Rev. O. H. Knight, M.A., Church Missionary Society, Matsuye. 
Mr. T. Komatsu, Young Men's Christian Association, Tokyo. 
The Rev. H. M. Landis, D.D., Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A., 

The Bishop in Kyushu (The Rt. Rev. Arthur Lea, D.D.), Fukuoka. 
The Rev. C. A. Logan, Presbyterian Church in the U.S. (South), 

The Rev. Henry Loomis, American Bible Society, Yokohama. 
The Rev. R. E. M'Alpine, Presbyterian Church in the U.S. (South), 

The Rt. Rev. John M'Kim, D.D., Bishop of the Missionary Dis- 
trict of Tokyo. 
J. Laidlaw Maxwell, jun., M.D., B.S., Presbyterian Church of 

England, Tainan, Formosa. 
The Rev. T. Miyagawa, Kumiai Church, Osaka. 
The Rev. J. W. Moore, Presbyterian Church in the U.S. (South), 

Joseph S. Motoda, B.D., Ph.D., Nihon Seiko Kwai, Tokyo. 
The Rev. U. G. Murphy, Methodist Protestant Church, Nagoya. 
The Rev. J. C. C. Newton, D.D., Methodist Episcopal Church, 

South, Kobe. 
The Rt. Rev. Archbishop Nicolai, Russian Ecclesiastical Mission, 

The Rev. Sheldon Painter, Church Missionary Society, Kumamoto. 
Miss K. M. Peacocke, Church Missionary Society, Tokyo. 
The Rev. James H. Pettee, D.D., American Board of Com 

missioners for Foreign Missions, Okayama. 
The Rev. George P. Pierson, Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A., 

Asahigawa, Hokkaido. 
The Rev. Emil Schiller, German Evangelical Mission, Kyoto. 
The Rev. D. B. Schneder, D.D., Reformed Church in the U.S. 

(German), Sendai. 
The Rev. Henry B. Schwartz, D.D., Methodist Episcopal Church, 

Naha, Loo Choo Islands. 
The Rev. H. St. G. Tucker, M.A., Protestant Episcopal Church 

in the U.S.A., Tokyo. 
The Rev. M. Uemura, Nihon Kiristo Kvokwai, Tokyo. 
The Rev. K. Usaki, D.D., Japan Methodist Church, Tokyo. 
The Rev. E. H. Van Dyke, Methodist Protestant Church, Tokyo. 



The Rev. James E. Adams, Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A., 

Taiku, Korea. 
O. R. Avison, M.D., Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A., Seoul. 
Mr. H. O. T. Burkmall, British and Foreign Bible Society, Seoul. 
The Rev. W. R. Foote, Presbyterian Church in Canada. Wonsan. 
W. H. Forsythe, M.D., Presbyterian Church in the U.S. (South), 

The Rev. James S. Gale, D.D., Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A., 

Mr. P. L. Gillett, Young Men's Christian Association, Seoul. 
The Rev. Bishop M. C. Harris, D.D., LL.D., Methodist Episcopal 

Church, Seoul. 
The Rev. George Heber Jones, D.D. 
The Rev. Robert Knox, Presbyterian Church in the U.S. (South), 

The Rev. S. A. Moffett, D.D., Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A., 

Pyeng Yang. 
W. T. Reid, IM.D., Methodist Episcopal Church, South. Songdo. 
The Rev. Alex. F. Robb, Presbyterian Church in Canada, Wonsan. 
The Rev. H. G. Underwood, D.D., Presbyterian Church in the 

U.S.A., Seoul. 
The Hon. T. H. Yun, Methodist Episcopal Church, South, in Korea, 



Mr. J. R. Adam, China Inland Mission, Anshunfu, Kweichow. 

Mr. Edw. Amundsen, F.R.G.S., British and Foreign Bible Societj', 

The Rev. D. L. Anderson, D.D., Methodist Episcopal Church, 
South, Soochow. 

John A. Anderson, M.D., China Inland Mission, Taichowfu, 

Mr. A. Stewart Annand, F.R.G.S., National Bible Society of Scot- 
land, Tientsin. 

Mr. John Archibald, National Bible Society of Scotland, Hankow. 

The Rev. William Ashmore, jun., D.D., American Baptist Foreign 
Mission Society, Swatow. 

The Rev. Bishop James W. Bashford, D.D., LL.D., Methodist 
Episcopal Church, Peking. 

The Rev. W. L. Beard, Young Men's Christian Association, 

Miss E. Benham, London Missionary Society, Tingchowfu. 

Mr. August Berg, Svenska Missionen I Kina, Yuncheng, Shansi. 

The Rev. G. H. Bondfield, British and Foreign Bible Society, 

The Rev. C. Bolwig, Danske Missionsselskab, Takushan, Man- 

The Rev. William Nesbitt Brewster, S.T.B. Methodist Episcopal 
Church, Hinghwa, Fukien. 

Mr. F. S. Brockraan, Young Men's Christian Association, Shanghai. 


The Rev. R. T. Bryan, D.D., Southern Baptist Convention, 

The Rev. Louis Bryde, B.A., Church Missionary Society, Yung- 

chowfu, Hunan. 
The Rev. A. H. Butzbach, Missionary Society of the EvangeUcal 

Association, Shenchowfu, Hunan. 
Prof. W. C. Chen, Peking University, Peking. 
The Rev. Dugald Christie, F.R.C.P., L.R.C.S.; United Free 

Church of Scotland, Moukden, Manchuria. 
The Rev. S. R. Clarke, China Inland Mission, Kweiyang, Kweichow. 
The Rev. Hunter Corbett, D.D., Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A., 

The Rev. Paul L. Corbin, American Board of Commissioners for 

Foreign Missions, Taiku, Shansi. 
Mr. Robert J. Davidson, Friends' Foreign Mission Association, 

Chengtu, Szechwan. 
The Rev. WiUiam Deans, Church of Scotland, Ichang, Hunan. 
Prof. M. U. Ding, Young Men's Christian Association, Foochow. 
Mr. Hans Doring, British and Foreign Bible Society, Shanghai. 
The Rev. E. W. Ellis, American Board of Commissioners for 

Foreign Missions, Lintsingchow, Shantung. 
The Rev. J. Endicott, B.A., Methodist Church, Canada. Chengtu, 

Mr. Olav Espeegren, Norske Lutherske Kinamissionsforbund, 

Nanyangfu, Hon an. 
The Rev. C. E. Ewing, American Board of Commissioners for 

Foreign Missions, Tientsin. 
The Rev. Courtenay H. Fenn, D.D., Presbyterian Church in the 

U.S.A., Peking. 
Mr. W. N. Fergusson, British and Foreign Bible Society, Chengtu, 

The Rev. George F. Fitch, D.D., Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A., 

The Rev. Andr. Fleischer, Norske Missionsselskab, Changsha, 

The Rev. Arnold Foster, B.A., London Missionary Society, 

Mr. S. M. Freden, Svenska Missionsforbundet, Kingchowfu, 

The Rev. A. A. Fulton, D.D., Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A., 

The Rev. J. C. Garritt, D.D., Presbyterian Church in the U.S..\., 

The Rev. G. L. Gelwicks, Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A., 

The Rev. Immanuel Genahr, Rheinsche Missionsgesellschaft, 

The Rev. John Campbell Gibson, M.A., D.D., Presbyterian Church 

of England, Swatow. 
The Rev. F. P. Gilman, Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A.,Hoihow. 
The Rev. Jonathan Goforth, Presbyterian Church in Canada, 
Changlefu, Honan. 


The Rev. John Gowdy, D.D., Methodist Episcopal Church, 

The Rev. J. R. Graham, jun., Presbyterian Church in the U.S. 

(South), Tsing-kiang-pu. 
The Rt. Rev. Frederick R. Graves, D.D., Bishop of the Missionary 

District of Shanghai. 
Mr. Charles H. S. Green, China Inland Mission, Hwailu, Chihli. 
The Rev. A. L. Greig, London Missionary Society, Hangchowfu, 

The Rev. Jacobus Grohmann, Kieler China Mission, Pakhoi, 

Dr. G. W. Guinness, B.A., M.B., B.C., China Inland Mission, 

Kaifeng, Honan. 
The Rev. C. R. Hager, M.D., American Board of Commissioners 

for Foreign. Missions, Hongkong. 
The Rev. Perry Hanson, Methodist Episcopal Church, Taianfu, 

The Rev. John Hedley, United Methodist Free Church, Yung- 

Henry T. Hodgkin, M.A., M.B., Young Men's Christian Associa- 
tion, Chengtu, Szechwan ; now Secretary of the Friends' 

Foreign Mission {Index). 
Mr. W. S. Home, China Inland Mission, Kanchow. 
Mr. D. E. Hoste, China Inland Mission, Shanghai. 
The Rev. Horace W. Houlding, South Chihli Mission, Taimingfu, 

Mr. G. W. Hunter, China Inland Mission, Urumchi, Sinkiang. 
The Bishop of Shantung (The Rt. Rev. Geoffrey D. lUff, D.D.), 

Taianfu, Shantung. 
Mr. August Karlsson, Helgelseforbundet, Sopingfu, Shansi. 
The Rev. William Kelly, M.D., Reformed Church in the U.S. 

(German), Shenchowfu. 
The Rev. A. Kollecker, Berliner Missionsgesellschaft, Canton. 
Mr. A. W. Lagerquist, China Inland Mission, Laohokow, Hupeh. 
Miss C. J. Lambert, Church Missionary Society, Foochow. 
Mr. F. A. Larson, British and Foreign Bible Society, Kalgan, 

Mr. J. Lawson, China Inland Mission, Yuanchow, Kiangsi. 
The Rev. W. W. Lawton, Southern Baptist Convention, Cheng- 
chow, Honan. 
Dr. B. L. L. Learmonth, Presbyterian Church in Ireland, Hsin- 

mintun, Manchuria. 
The Rev. S. H. Littell, Protestant Episcopal Church in the U.S.A., 

The Rev. E. C. Lobenstine, Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A., 

Hwai-yuen, Anhwei. 
The Rev. J. Walter Lowrie, D.D., Presbyterian Church in the 

U.S.A., Paotingfu. 
The'rRev. Hiram H. Lowry, D.D., Methodist Episcopal Church, 

Mr. Albert Lutley, China Inland Mission, Hungtung, Shansi. 
J. A. M'Donald, M.D., Presbyterian Church in Canada, Canton. 


The Rev. D. MacGillivray, M.A., D.D., Presbyterian Church in 

Canada, Shanghai. 
The Rev. Murdoch Mackenzie, D.D., Presbyterian Church in 

Canada, Changtefu, Honan. 
The Rev. M. C. Mackenzie, Presbyterian Church of England, 

Samho, North Hakkaland. 
Mrs. Calvin W. Mateer, Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A., Wei- 

hsien, Shantung. 
The Rev. Lacy I. Mofiett, Presbyterian Church in the U.S. (South), 

Kiangyin, Kiangsu. 
The Venerable Archdeacon Arthur E. Moule, B.D., Church 

Missionary Society, Ningpo. 
Mr. John R. Muir, China Inland Mission, Batang, Szechwan. 
Pastor Johannes Miiller, Berliner Missionsgesellschaft, Hongkong. 
The Rev. James Neave, Methodist Church, Canada, Chengtu, 

The Rev. C. A. Nelson, American Board of Commissioners for 

Foreign Missions, Canton. 
Mr. A. G. NichoUs, China Inland Mission, Wutingchow, Yunnan. 
The Rev. H. V. Noyes, D.D., Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A., 

The Rev. H. W. Oldham, Presbyterian Church of England, 

Changpu, Fukien. 
The Rev. F. W. S. O'Neill, M.A., Presbyterian Church in Ireland, 

Fakumen, Manchuria. 
Mr. Archibald Orr-Ewing, China Inland Mission, Kiukiang, 

John A. Otte, M.D., Vereeniging tot oprichting en Instandhouding 

van Hospitalen in China ten diens te der Medische Zending, 

The Rev. A. P. Parker, D.D., Methodist Episcopal Church, South, 

B. Lewis Paton, B.A., M.D., CM., D.P.H., Presbyterian Church 

of England, Chinchew, Fukien. 
The Rev. B. C. Patterson, Presbyterian Church in the U.S. 

(South), Suchien. 
The Rev. S. Pollard, United Methodist Free Church, Tungchwanfu, 

The Bishop in Fukien (The Rt. Rev. H. M'C. E. Price, M.A.). 

The Rev. P. F. Price, D.D., Presbyterian Church in the U.S. 

(South), Tunghsiang. 
The Rev. James H. Pyke, D.D., Methodist Episcopal Church, 

The Rev. Timothy Richard, D.D., Litt.D., Christian Literature 

Society for China, Shanghai. 
Mr. H. French Ridley, China Inland Mission, Siningfu, Kansu. 
The Rev. J. K. Robb, Synod of the Reformed Presbyterian Church 

in the U.S.A. (Covenanter), Takhing, West River, South China. 
Mr. C. H. Robertson, Young Men's Christian Association, Tientsin. 
The Rev. Henry Robertson, London Missionary Society, Wuchang. 
The Rev. Rudolph Roehn, China Alliance Mission, Chinyuen. 


The Rt. Rev. Logan H. Roots, D.D., Bishop of the Missionary 
District of Hankow. 

The Rev. John Ross, D.D., United Free Church of Scotland, 
Moukden, Manchuria. 

Mr. Arthur Rugh, Young Men's Christian Association, Shanghai. 

The Rev. Alexander R. Saunders, China Inland Mission, Yang- 
chow, Kiangsu. 

Mrs. Anna K. Scott, M.D., American Baptist Foreign Mission 
Society, Swatow. 

The Rev. j. E. Shoemaker, Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A., 

Dr. E. Z. Simmons, Southern Baptist Convention, Canton. 

The Rev. Arthur H. Smith, D.D., American Board of Commis- 
sioners for Foreign Missions, North China Mission. 

The Rev. Erik Sovik, United Norwegian Lutheran Church of 
America, Sinyangchow, Honan. 

The Rev. Jacob Speicher, American Baptist Foreign Mission 
Society, Kityang. 

The Rev. William P. Sprague, American Board of Commissioners 
for Foreign Missions, Kalgan, Chihli. 

Mr. J. W. Stevenson, China Inland Mission, Shanghai. 

The Rev. J. L. Stuart, sen., Presbyterian Church in the U.S. 
(South), Hangchow. 

The Rev. A. Sydenstricker, Presbyterian Church in the U.S. 
(South), Chingkiang, Kiangsu. 

Miss C. M. Usher, Presbyterian Church of England Women's 
Missionary Association, Amoy. 

The Rev. C. J. Voskamp, Berliner Missionsgesellschaft, Tsingtau. 

The Rev. Joseph E. Walker, D.D., American Board of Com- 
missioners for Foreign Missions, Foochow. 

The Rev. A. Livingston Warnshuis, M.A., Reformed Church in 
America (Dutch), South China. 

Mr. W. Westwood, China Inland Mission, Anking. 

The Rev. J. S. WhitewTight, Baptist Missionary Society, Chinanfu, 

Mr. Heinrich Witt, China Inland Mission, Yuanchow, Hunan. 

Prof. H. L. Zia, Young iSIen's Christian Association, Shanghai. 

The Rev. G. Ziegler, Evangelische Missionsgesellschaft zu Basel. 
Lilong, Kwangtung. 


The Rev. Herbert Anderson, Baptist Missionary Society, Cal- 

' cutta. 

Miss Ellen Arnold, Furreedpore Missionary Society, Incorporated, 

Pubna, East Bengal. 
The Rev. V. S. Azariah, Indian Missionary Societ}' of Tinnevelly, 

The Rev. T. Grahame Bailey, B.D., Church of Scotland, Wazira- 

bad, Punjab. 
Miss Esther Baird, American Friends' Board of Foreign Missions, 



The Rev. W. Barry, Baptist Foreign Missionary Society of New 

South Wales, Comilla, East Bengal. 
The Rev. O. Bodding, Norske Lutherske Kinamissionsforbund, 

Ebenezer, Bengal. 
Miss Kheroth M. Bose, Church of England Zenana Missionary 

Society, Asrapur Atari, Punjab. 
The Rev. Dr. Campbell, United Free Church of Scotland, Toondee, 

The Rev. J. Fraser Campbell, D.D., Presbyterian Church in 

Canada, Rutlam. 
The Rev. K. C. Chatterjee, D.D., LL.D., Presbyterian Church in 

India, Hoshvarpur. Punjab. 
The Bishop of Colombo (The Rt. Rev. E. A. Copleston, D.D.). 
Tlie Rev. J. E. Cummings, D.D., American Baptist Foreign 

Mission Society, Hc-nzada, Burma. 
The Rev. George ]. Dann, Baptist Missionary Society, Bankipore, 

North India. 
Miss A. de Sf-lincourt, Zenana Bible and Medical Mission, Alla- 
Miss A. M. R. Dobson, Mus.Bac, Missionary Settlement for 

University Women, Bombay. 
The Rev. H. C. Duncan, M.A., Church of Scotland, Darjeeling. 
Miss S. C. Easton, Woman's Union Missionary Societj' of America, 

Mr. George Sherwood Eddy, Young Men's Christian Association, 

Miss Marion Ewart, Church of England Zenana Missionary Society, 

The Rev. Arthur H. Ewing, Ph.D., Presbyterian Church in the 

U.S.A., Allahabad. 
The Rev. J. C. R. Ewing, D.D.. Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A., 

Mr. J. N. Farquhar, M.A., Young Men's Christian Association, 

The Rev. W. L. Ferguson, D.D., American Baptist Foreign 

Mission Society, Madras. 
The Rev. John N. Forman, B.A., Presbyterian Church in the 

U.S.A., Mainpurie, U.P. 
Mr. A. P. Franklin, Scandinavian Alliance Mission, Mandulwar, 

Taloda, Khandesh. 
Mr. Alek G. Fraser, M.A., Church Missionary Society, Kandy, 

The Rev. Jakob Gass, German Evangelical Sjoiod of North 

America, Raipur, Central Provinces. 
The Bishop of Travancore and Cochin (The Rt. Rev. C. H. Gill, 

D.D.), Kottayam, S. India. 
Mr. Thomas Gracie, British and Foreign Bible Society, Colombo, 

The Rev. H. Gulhford, Weslej-an Methodist Missionary Society, 

Mysore City. 
The Rev. Ferdinand Hahn, Gossnersche Missionsgesellschaft, 

Purulia, Bengal. 


The Rev. William I. Hamilton, Presbyterian Church of England, 

Rajshahi, East Bengal. 
Mr. William H. Hannum, Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A., 

The Re%-. Canon R. S. Hej^wood, M.A., Church Missionary Society, 

Miss Agnes Gale Hill, Young Women's Christian Association, 

The Rev. j. F. Holcomb, D.D., Presbyterian Church in the 

U.S.A., Landour, U.P. 
Henry T. Holland, M.B., Ch.B., F.R.C.S., Church Missionary 

Society, Quetta, Baluchistan. 
The Rev. W. E. S. Holland, M..\., Church Missionarj- Society, 

The Rev. Robert A. Hume, M.A., D.D., American Board of Com- 
missioners for Foreign Missions, Ahmednagar. 
Mr. I. Hutchinson, Church of Scotland, Chamba, Punjab. 
The Rev. P. Ireland Jones, M.A., Church Missionary Society, 

The Rev. John P. Jones, D.D., American Board of Commissioners 

for Foreign Missions, Pasumalai. Madura. 
The Rev. S. V. Kamarkar, B.D., American Board of Commis- 
sioners for Foreign Missions, Bombay. 
The Rev. Francis Kingsburv', American Board of Commissioners 

for Foreign ^Missions, Pasumalai, Madura. 
The Late Bishop of Rangoon (The Right Rev. A. M. Knight, 

Arthur C. Lankester, M.D., Church Missionarv Society. Peshavrar. 
The Bishop of Lahore (The Rt. Rev. G. A. Lefroy, D.D.), Lahore. 
Miss Catharine F. Ling, Church of England Zenana Missionary 

Society. Ootacamund, Nilsiri Hills, S. India. 
The Rev. James J. Lucas, D.D., Presbyterian Church in the 

U.S.A., AJlahabad. 
Jliss Eveline A. Luce, Church Missionary Society, Azamgarh, 

The Bishop of Lucknow (The Rt. Rev. A. Clifford. D.D.), Lucknow. 
Mr. Evan Mackenzie, Church of Scotland, Kalimpong, Bengal. 
The Rev. J. H. Maclean, M.A., B.D., United Free Church of 

Scotland, Bitr Conjeeveram, S. India. 
The Rev. Nicol Macnicol, M.A., United Free Church of Scotland, 

The Rev. James M. Macphail, M.A., M.D., L'nited Free Church of 

Scotland, Bamdah, SantaJia, Bengal. 
The Rev. M. C. Mason, D.D., American Baptist Foreign ilission 

Society, Tura. Assam. 
The Rev. Charles H. Mattison, Presbj-terian Church in the U.S.A., 

Fatehpur, Haswa, U.P. 
Dr. CecU Mead, B.A., Furreedpore ilissionaxy Society, Faridpur, 

East Bengal. 
The Rev. P. C. Nail, Victorian Baptist Foreign Mission, M\-nensing. 
Mr. Arthur Neve, F.R.C.S., Church Missionary Society, Srinagar, 



The Rev. C. A. Nichols, D.D., American Baptist Foreign Mission 

Society, Bassein, Burma. 
Miss Chon'e OUver, M.D., Presbj-terian Church in Canada, Nee- 
much, Central India. 
Mr. Joseph Passmore, Madras Religious Tract and Book Society, 

The Rev. E. G. Phillips, D.D., American Baptist Foreign Mission 

Society, Tura, Assam. 
Pandita Ramabai, Mukti Mission, Kedgaon, Poona District. 
The Rev. H. Risch, EvangeHsche Missionsgesellschaft zn Basel, 

Mangalore, S. Canara. 
The Rev. Bishop J. E. Robinson, D.D., Methodist Episcopal 

Church, Bombav. 
The Rev. Noble L. Rockev, D.D., Methodist Episcopal Church, 

Gonda, Oudh, U.P. 
The Rev. Thomas B. Scott, M.D., American Board of Commis- 
sioners for Foreign Missions, Jafina, Ceylon. 
The Rev. Canon Ed-ward SeU, D.D., Church Missionary Society, 

The Rev. \V. Sherratt, British and Foreign Bible Society, 

Rangoon, Burma. 
Mr. F. W. Steinthal, Young Men's Christian Association, Calcutta. 
The Rev. J. Sinclair Stevenson, M.A., B.D., Presbyterian Church 

in Ireland, Rajkot, Gujerat. 
The Rev. J. Stewart. M.A., United Free Church of Scotland. 

The Rev. Robert Stewart, D.D., LL.D., United Presbyterian 

Church of North .\merica, Sialkot, Punjab. 
The Rev. J. R. Stillwell, B.A., Baptist Convention of Ontario 

and Quebec, Ramachandrapuram, Godaver%- District. 
Prof. Wallace St. John, Ph.D., American Baptist Foreign Mission 

Societv, Rangoon, Burma. 
Mr. W. B. Stover," Church of the Brethren, Aukleshwer. 
The Rev. J. T. Taylor, B.A., Presbyterian Church in Canada, 

Mhow, Central India. 
The Rev. Bishop James :M. Thobum, D.D., LL.D., Methcklist 

Episcopal Church. 
The Rev. J. T. Timmcke, Schleswig-Holsteinsche Evangelisch- 

Lutherische Gesellschaft zu Breklum, Koraput, \^izagapatam. 
The Rev. Sumner R. Vinton, American Baptist Foreign Mission 

Society, Rangoon. Burma. 
The Rev. Thomas Walker, M.A., Church Missionary Society, 

Dohna\-ur, Tinnevell^-, S. India. 
W. J. Wanless. M.D., Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A., iCraj, 

Bombav Presidencv. 
The Rev. Bishop Frank W. Wame, D.D., Methodist Episcopal 

Church. Lucknow. 
The Rev. H. U. Weitbrecht, Ph.D., D.D., Church ^Essionarj- 

Society, Simla. Punjab. 
The Rev. E. M. ^^'he^n.^ D.D., Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A., 

Ludhiana, Punjab. 
The Bishop of Madras (The Rt. Rev. Henry Whitehead. D.D.). 


The Bishop of Tinnevelly and Madura (The Rt. Rev. A. A. 
WiUiams, D.D.), Tinnevelly. 

The Rev. J. G. Williams, B.Sc, Welsh Calvinistic Methodist 
Church, Shellong, Assam. 

Miss Amy Wilson-Carmichael, Church of England Zenana Mis- 
sionary Society, Dohnavur, Tinnevelly. 

The Rev. P. O. Wjmd, Regions Beyond Missionary Union, Chan- 
patia, Bengal. 

The Rev. A. WilUfer Young, British and Foreign Bible Society, 


Dr. N. Adriani, Nederlandsch Bijbelgenootschat, Posso, Central 

Celebes, Dutch East Indies. 
Mr. B. N. Alkema, Nederlandsche Zendingsvereeniging, Buiten- 

zorg, Java. 
The Rev. Joseph Annand, M.A., D.D., Presbyterian Church in 

Canada, Santo, South, New Hebrides. 
The Rev. D. Bakker, Zending van de Gereformeerde Kerken in 

Nederland, Dkocjakarta, Java. 
The Rt. Rev. C. H. Brent, D.D., Bishop of the Missionary District 

of the Philippine Islands, Manila. 
W. A. Briggs, M.D., Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A., Cliieng 

Rai, Laos. 
The Rev. John R. Denyes, D.D., Methodist Episcopal Church, 

Batavia, Java. 
The Rev. W. C. Dodd, Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A., Chieng 

Rai, Laos. 
The Rev. A. A. Forshee, American Baptist Foreign Mission Society, 

Bacolod, PhiUppine Islands. 
The Rev. Ed. Fries, Rheinische Missionsgesellschaft, Sifaoroasi, 

Nias, Indonesia. 
Mr. P. A. Gericke, Neukirchener Missionsanstalt, Tingkir, Java. 
The Rev. M. K. Gilmour, Methodist Missionary Society of Austra- 
lasia, Ubuia, New Guinea. 
James A. Graham, M.D., Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A., 

Tagbilaran, Bohol, Philippine Islands. 
The Rev. Aug. Hanke, Rheinische Missionsgesellschaft, Friedrich 

Wilhelm Hafen, German New Guinea. 
Mr. Adam Hoh, Gesellschaft furinnere und aussere Mission im 

sinn der Lutherischen Kirche, Tami, Kaiserwilhelmsland, 

New Guinea. 
The Rev. J. H. Holmes, London Missionary Society, Urika, 

New Guinea. 
The Rev. J. M. Hoover, Methodist Episcopal Church, Sibu, 

Mr. A. Hueting, Utrechtsche Zendingsvereeniging, Tobelo, Halma- 

heirai, Dutch East Indies. 
Miss Marie Jensz, Seventh - Day Baptist Missionary Society, 

Pangoengsen. Java. 
Mr. Alb. C. Kruyt, Nederlandsch Zendelinggenootschap, Posso, 

Central Celebes, Dutch East Indies. 


The Rev. Paul Landgrebe, Rheinische Missionsgesellschaft, 

Sipoholon, Sumatra. 
The Rev. W. G. M'Clure, Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A., 

Bangkok, Siam. 
The Rev. Daniel M'Gilvary, D.D., Presbyterian Church in the 

U.S.A., Chieng Mai, Laos. 
The Rev. Mr. Matthes, Evangelisch-Lutherische Mission zu Leipzig, 

Penag, Straits Settlements. 
Mr. J. H. Neumann, Nederlandsch Zendehnggenootschap, 

Sibolangit, DeU, Sumatra. 
The Rev. Bishop W. F. Oldham, D.D., LL.D., Methodist Episcopal 

Church, Singapore, Straits Settlements. 
The Rev. James B. Rodgers, D.D., Presbyterian Church in the 

U.S.A., Manila, Phihppine I.slands. 
The Rev. S. B. Rossiter, D.D., Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A., 

Manila, Phihppine Islands. 
Dr. Samuel Schoch, Gereformeerde Kerk in Nederlandsch-Indie, 

Tamohon, Celebes, Dutch East Indies. 
The Rev. A. J. Small, Methodist Missionary Society of Australasia, 

Suva, Fiji Islands. 
The Rev. Hugh Taylor, Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A., Lekawn, 

Lampang, Laos. 
Mr. C. E. G. Tisdall, British and Foreign Bible Society, Singapore, 

Straits Settlements. 
Mr. M. J. van Baarda, Utrechtsche Zendingsvereeniging, Galela, 

Dutch East Indies. 
Dr. C. W. Th. Baron Van Boetzelaer van Dubbcldam, Missionary 

Consul, Batavia, Java. 
Mr. F. J. F. Van Hasselt, Utrechtsche Zendingsvereeniging, Kwawi, 

New Guinea. 
Mr. Geo. A. Wood, Seventh-day Baptist Missionary Society, 

Pangoengsen, Java. 


The Rev. Alpheus N. Andrus, American Board of Commissioners 
for Foreign Missions, Mardin, Turkey-in-Asia. 

The Rev. Henry S. Barnum, D.D., American Board of Commis- 
sioners for Foreign Missions, Constantinople, Turkey. 

President Howard S. BUss, D.D., Syrian Protestant College, Beirut, 

The Rev. James Cantine, D.D., Reformed Church in America 
(Dutch), East Arabia. 

The Rev. Robert Chambers, D.D.. American Board of Com- 
missioners for Foreign Missions, Bardezag, Ismidt, Turkey- 

The Rev. F. G. Coan, D.D., Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A., 
Urumia, Persia. 

The Rev. C. A. Dodds, Reformed Presbyterian Church in the 
U.S.A. (Covenanter), Mersina, Asia Minor. 

The Rev. Lewis F. Esselstyn, D.D., Presbyterian Church in the 
U.S.A., Teheran, Persia. 


The Rev. George A. Ford, D.D., Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A., 

Sidon, Syria. 
President C. F. Gates, Robert College, Constantinople, Turkey. 
The Rev. George F. Herrick, D.D., American Board of Com- 
missioners for Foreign Missions, Constantinople, Turkey. 
The Rev. T. R. Hodgson, British and Foreign Bible Society, 

Constantinople, Turkey. 
Miss G. Y. Holliday, Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A., Tabriz, 

The Rev. F. E. Hoskins, D.D., Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A., 

Beirut, Syria. 
Mr. Th. Irrsich, British and Foreign Bible Society, Persia and 

Turkish Arabia. 
The Rev. H. H. Jessup, D.D., Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A., 

Beirut, Syria. 
The Rev. George M. Mackie, D.D., Church of Scotland, Beirut, 

The Rev. Alex. MacLachlan, American Board of Commissioners 

for Foreign Missions, Smyrna, Turkey-in-Asia. 
The Rev. John E. Merrill, Ph.D., American Board of Commissioners 

for Foreign Missions, Aintab, Turkey-in-Asia. 
The Rev. William S. Nelson, D.D., Presbyterian Church in the 

U.S.A., Tripoli, Syria. 
The Rev. George E. Post, D.D., LL.D., Syrian Protestant College, 

Beirut, Syria. 
Mr. C. Raquette, Svenska, Mis.sionsforbundet, Jarkend, Kaschgar, 

East Turk) Stan. 
The Rev. G. C. Raynolds, M.D., American Board of Commis- 
sioners for Foreign Missions, Van, Turkey-in-Asia. 
The Rev. W. A. Rice, M.A., Church Missionary Society, Julfa, 

The Rev. Henry H. Riggs, American Board of Commissioners 

for Foreign Missions, Harpoot, Turkey' 
The Rev. W. A. Shedd, D.D., Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A., 

Urumia, Persia. 
The Rev. Henry Sykes, M.A., Church Missionary Society, Jeru- 
salem, Palestine. 
The Rev. John Van Ess, The Reformed Church in America (Dutch), 

Busrah, Arabia. 
Pastor D. von Oertzen, Deutsche Orient Mission, Kurdistan, 

The Rev. John C. Young, M.A., M.B., CM., United Free Church 

of Scotland, Sheikh Olhman, Arabia. 


The Rev. J. R. Alexander, D.D., United Presbyterian Church of 

North America, Assiut, Egypt. 
Pasteur E. Allegret, Soci.^te des Missions Evangeliques, French 

Congo, Africa. 
Mr. T. E. Alvarez, M.A., Church Missionary Society, Lokoja, 

Northern Nigeria, West Africa. 


The Rt. Rev. Bishop N. Astrup, Norskc Kirkes Missions Ved 

Schreuder, Untunjambili, Natal, South Africa. 
The Rev. William M. Beck, General Synod of the Evangelical 

Lutheran Church in U.S.A., Monrovia, Liberia. 
M. le Pasteur P. A. Bjelde, United Norwegian Lutheran Church of 

America, Ft. Daulphin, Madagascar. 
Dr. Chr. Borchgrevink, Norske Lutherske Kinamissionsforbund, 

Antananarivo, Madagascar. 
The Rev. John Bruce, United Free Church of Scotland, Pieter- 

maritzburg. Natal. 
Pasteur Th. Burnier, Societe des Missions EvangeUques, Lukona, 

Barotseland, Rhodesia. 
The Coadjutor- Bishop of Cape Tovm (The Rt. Rev. W. M. Cameron, 

D.D.), Cape Colony. 
The Rev. Karl Cederquist, Evangeliska Forterlands Stiftelsens, 

Adis Abeba, Abyssinia. 
The Rev. William Christie, Primitive Methodist Missionary 

Society, Ikot-ekpene, Calabar, S. Nigeria. 
Mr. J. P. Cook, Mission Protestante Francaise en Kabylie, Algeria. 
The Rev. Joseph J. Cooksey, N. Africa Mission, Susa, Tunis. 
The Rev. G. Daeuble, Norddeutsche Missionsgesellschaft, Lome, 

Togo, West Africa. 
The Rev. F. W. Dennis, London Missionary Society, Amboln- 

dratrimo, Madagascar. 
Mr. Ernest W. Doulton, Church Missionary Society, Kongwa, 

Mpapua, German East Africa. 
The Rev. J. du Plessis, B.D., General Mission Secretary, Dutch 

Reformed Church in South Africa, Cape Town. 
The Bishop of Sierra Leone (The Rt. Rev. E. H. Elwin, D.D.) 

Miss Maria Erics.=5on, Kvinliga Missions-arbetare (Sweden), Bizerte, 

The Rev. D. L. Erskine, United Free Church of Scotland, Somer- 

\dlle, Tsolo, Griqualand, East, Cape Colony. 
Mr. Edgar C. FaithfuU, B.A., South Africa General Mission, Lulwe, 

Port Herald, Nyasaland. 
The Rev, R. Fassmann, Evangelisch-Lutherische Mission zu 

Leipzig, Jogga Kilimanjaro, German East Africa. 
The Rev. Donald Eraser, United Free Church of Scotland, Loudon, 

The Rev. William H. T. Gairdner, B.A., Church Missionary- 
Society, Cairo, Egypt. 
The Rev. J. K. Griffen, D.D., United Presbyterian Church oi 

North America, Sudan. 
Mr. J. Hammar Svenska, Missionsforbundet, Maziya, Mbamu, 

French Congo. 
The Rev. E. Hartwig, Rheinische Missionsgesellschaft, Saroa, 

Cape Colony. 
Mr. John E. Hatch, South Africa General Mission, Gazaland, 

Portuguese East Africa. 
Principal James Henderson, M. A., United Free Church of Scotland, 


COM. L 25 


The Hon. and Rev. Alex. Hetherwick, M.A., D.D.. F.R.G.S., 

Church of Scotland, Blantyre, Nyasaland. 
The Rev. J. Hofmann, Evangelisch-Lutherische Mission zu Leipzig, 

British East Africa. 
Mr. C. T. Hooper, British and Foreign Bible Society, Alexandria, 

The Rev. E. Johannssen, Evangehsche Missionsgesellschaft fiir 

Deutsch-Ostafrika, Kirinda, Ruanda, German East Africa. 
The Rev. John R. King, D.D., United Brethren in Christ, Free- 
town, Sierra Leone. 
The Rev. O. Krause, Superintendent, BerUner Missionsgesellschaft, 

Pietersburg, Transvaal. 
Mr. K. E. Lamen, Svenska Missionsforbundet, Mukimbungu, 

Tumba, Belgian Congo. 
The Rev. Robert Laws, M.A., M.D., D.D., F.R.G.S., United Free 

Church of Scotland, Livingstonia, Nyasaland. 
The Rev. Fred Ljungquist, Svenska Kyrkans Missionstyrelse, 

Appelsbosch, Noodsberg, Natal. 
The Rev Elbert L. M'Creery, United Presbyterian Church of 

North America, Doleib Hill, Sudan. 
Mr. W. R. S. Miller, M.R.C.S.. L.R.C.P., Church Missionary 

Society, Laria, Northern Nigeria, West Africa. 
TheRev. W. M. Morrison, D.D., Presbyterian Church in the U.S. 

(South), Luebo, Belgian Congo. 
Mr. Cuthbert Nairn, Southern Morocco Mission, Marrakesh, 

Southern Morocco. 
The Bishop of Mombasa (The Rt. Rev. Wm. G. Peel, D.D.), 

British East Africa. 
The Rev. H. Chr. Prigge, Mission der Hannoverschen Evangelisch- 

Lutherischen Freikirche, Transvaal. 
Dr. R. de Prosch (deceased), Societe des Missions Evangeliques, 

Upper Zambesi. 
The Rev. J. H. Colpais Purdon, Methodist Episcopal Church 

(North), Tunis, North Africa. 
The Rev. Martin Rautanen, Finska Jlissionssallskapet, Ondonga, 

German S.-W. Africa. 
The Rev. William Govan Robertson, London Missionary Society, 

Kawmbe, N.-E. Rhodesia. 
Mr. Karl Gustaf Roden, Evangeliska Fosterlands Stiftelsens, 

Gheleb Cheren, Eritrea. 
The Rev. G. Ruccius, Evangehsche Missionsgesellschaft fiir 

Deutsch-Ostafrika, Bumbuli, Usambara, German East Africa. 
The Rev. A. E. Ruskin, Regions Beyond Missionary Union, Bon- 

gandanga, Upper Congo. 
The Rev. WilUam H. Sanders, American Board of Commissioners 

for Foreign Missions, Kamundongo, West Central Africa 
The Rev. Henry E. Scott. M.A., L.R.C.P.&S., Church of Scot- 
land, Kikuyu, British East Africa. 
The Rev. C. Schumann, BerUner Missionsgesellschaft, Lupembe, 

German East Africa. 
The Rev. A. Shaw, M.A., Church Missionary Society, Malek, 

Southern Sudan, Egypt. 


Mr. John Sims, Friends' Foreign Mission Association, Antananarivo, 


Miss Mary M. Slessor, United Free Church of Scotland, Use.Calabar, 
West Africa. 

The Rev. Percy Smith, North Africa Mission, Constantine, 

The Bishop of Lebombo (The Rt. Rev. William E. Smyth, M.A., 
M.B.), Lourenco Marques, Portuguese East Africa. 

The Rev. Wesley M. Stover, D.D., American Board of Com- 
missioners for Foreign Missions, Bailundu, Angola, West 

C^PTi It"?! I A fri c^ri 

The Bishop of Uganda (The Rt. Rev. A. R. Tucker, D.D., LL.D.), 

Namirembe, Kampala, Uganda. 
The Rev. G. P. van der Merwe, British and Foreign Bible Society, 

Cape Town, Cape Colony. 
The Rev. Heinrich Vedder, Rheinische Missionsgesellschaft, 

Swakopmund, German South-west Africa. 
The Rev. Adolf Viethauer, EvangeUsche Missionsgesellschaft zu 

Basel, Bali, Cameroons. 
The Bishop of Zululand (The Rt. Rev. L. Vyvyan, D.D.), Isandhl- 

wana, Zululand. 
The Venerable Archdeacon R. H. Walker, M.A., Church Missionary 

Society, Mengo, Uganda. 
The Rev. George A. Wilder, D.D., American Board of Com- 
missioners for Foreign Missions, Chikore, Rhodesia. 
The Rev. Arthur W. Wilkie, M.A., B.D., United Free Church ol 

Scotland, Duke Town, Calabar, Southern Nigeria. 
The Rev. Clinton T. Wood, M.A., Chairman, Student Volunteer 

Missionary Union of South Africa, Wellington, Cape Colony. 


The Rev. W. B. AlUson, Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A. 

Guatemala City, Central America. 
The Rev. G. F. Arms, Methodist Episcopal Church, Concepcion, 

The Rev. Frederik Balle, Chaplain to Greenland. 
The Rev. R. H. Bender, Central American Mission, Salvador, San 

The Rev. J. W. Butler, Methodist Episcopal Church, Mexico City, 

The Bishop of Carpentaria, Thursday Island, Queensland, Australia. 
The Rev. J. G. Cassel, Central American Mission, San Marcos, 

Miss Esther D. Clark, Free Methodist Church of North America, 

San Francisco De Macoris, Dominican Republic, West Indies. 
Mr. W. Davidson, British and Foreign Bible Society, Ekaterm- 

burg, Russia. 
The Rev. A. B. de Roos, Central American Mission, Managua, 

The Rev. Robert Elder, Regions Beyond Missionary Union, 

Buenos Ayres, Argentina. 


The Rev. R. C. Elliot, Methodist Episcopal Church, South, 

Guadalajara, Mexico. 
The Rev. H. Fellman, Methodist Missionary Society of Australasia, 

Raluana, Neu Pommem, Bismarck Archipelago. 
The Rev. W. G. Fletcher, Methodist Episcopal Church, South, 

Matanzas, Cuba. 
The Rev. J. E. Garvin, Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A., 

Copiapo, Chili. 
Mr. Frederick C. Glass, South American Evangelical Mission, 

Goyaz, Estado de Goyaz, Brazil. 
The Rev. Alva Hardie, Presbyterian Church in the U.S. (Soutli), 

Descalvado, Estado de Sao Paulo, Brazil. 
The Rev. G. E. Hcnderlite, Presbyterian Church in the U.S. 

(South), Garanhuns, Estado de Pernambuco, Brazil. 
Mr. S. G. Inman, Christian Women's Board of Missions, C. P. D.iiz, 

Coah., Mexico. 
The Rev. E. Donald Jones, Wesleyan Methodist Missionary 

Society, Georgetown, British Guiana. 
The Rev. Joseph King, London Missionary Society, Melbourne, 

Mr. E. John Larson, Svenska Missionsforbundet, Tifiis, Caucasus, 

Mrs. George C. Levering, American Friends' Board of Foreign 

Missions, Victoria, Mexico. 
The Rev. James W. Lord, Wesleyan Alissionary Society, Belize, 

British Honduras. 
The Rev. W. W. M'Connell, Central American Mission, San Jose, 

Costa Rica. 
The Rev. A. Stuart M'Nairn, Regions Beyond Missionary Union, 

Cuzco, Peru. 
The Rev. John Morton, D.D., Presbyterian Church in Canada, 

Princestown, Trinidad, British West Indies. 
Pastor A. E. Bishop, Central American Mission, Guatemala City, 

Mr. Will Payne, Christian Missions in Many Lands, Cordoba, 

The Bishop of Perth, Western Australia. 
The Rev. T. S. Pond, Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A., Caracas, 

The Rev. J. W. Price, Methodist Episcopal Church, South, 

Uruguayana, Brazil. 
Mr. Bryce W. Ranken, South American Evangelical Mission, Sao 

Paulo, Brazil. 
The Rev. A. B. Reekie, Baptist Convention of Ontario and Quebec, 

La Paz, Bolivia. 
The Rev, J. O. Shelby, Presbyterian Church in the U.S., C. 

Victoria, Tamaulipas, Mexico. 
The Rev. J. R. Smith, Presbyterian Church in the U.S., Campinas, 

Sao Paulo, Brazil. 
Mr. A. R. Stark, British and Foreign Bible Society, Callao, Peru. 
The Rev. F. G. Toms, Central American Mission, Huehuetenango, 



The Rev. H. C. Tucker, American Bible Society, Rio de Janeiro, 

The Rev. F. Uttley, British and Foreign Bible Society, Rio de 

Janeiro, Brazil. 
The Rev, W. A. Waddell, D.D., Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A., 

Lencoes, Bahia, Brazil. 
The Rev. I. H. Wenberg, American Bible Society, La Paz, 

The Rev. R. L. Wharton, Presbyterian Church in the U.S. (South), 

Cardenas, Cuba. 
The Rev. J. S. Wilson, M.A., United Free Church of Scotland, 

San Fernando, Trinidad. 


The Rev. J. D. Adam, East Orange, N.J., U.S.A. 

The Rev. George Alexander, D.D., New York City, U.S.A. 

The Rev. F. Ashcroft, M.A., United Free Church of Scotland, 

Edinburgh, Scotland. 
Professor James Ballantyne, Toronto, Canada. 
The Rev. Thomas Barclay, M. A., Presbyterian Church of England, 

London, England. 
The Rev. Fred J. Barny, Reformed Church of America (Dutch), 

New York City, U.S.A. 
The Rev. James L.Barton, D.D., American Board of Commissioners 

for Foreign Missions, Boston, U.S.A. 
Hon. S. H. Blake, K.C., Toronto, Canada. 
Prof. Borden P. Bowne (deceased), Boston, U.S.A. 
Bishop S. C. Breyfogel, Missionary Society of the Evangelical 

Association, Reading, Pa., U.S.A. 
The Rev. J. P. Brodhead, Free Methodist Church of North 

America, Franklin, Pa., U.S.A. 
The Rev. W. E. Bromilow, Methodist Missionary Society of 

Australasia, Gordon, New South Wales, Australia. 
The Rev. Arthur J. Brown, D.D., Presbyterian Church in the 

U.S.A., New York, U.S.A. 
The Rev. G. W. Brown, Foreign Christian Missionary Society 

(Disciples), Baltimore, Md., U.S.A. 
Prof. Ernest D. Burton, Chicago, U.S.A. 
Edward Warren Capen, Ph.D., Boston, U.S.A. 
W. O. Carver, M.A., Th.D., Louisville, Ky., U.S.A. 
The Rev. WilUam I. Chamberlain, Ph.D., New Brunswick, N.J., 

The Rev. S. H. Chester, D.D., Presbyterian Church in the U.S. 

(South), Nashville, Tenn., U.S.A. 
The Rev. Francis E. Clark, D.D., LL.D., Boston, Mass., U.S.A. 
The Rev. Theodore F. Clark, Methodist Episcopal Church, Union 

Course. New York, U.S.A. 
Pasteur Daniel Couve, Societe des Missions Evangeliques, Paris, 

The Rev. L. Dahle, Norske Missionsselskab, Stavanger, Norway. 


The Rev. B. Danks, Methodist Missionary Society of Australasia, 

Sydney, New South Wales, Austraha. 
The Rev. John L. Dearing, Cambridge, Mass., U.S.A. 
The Rev. Paul de Schweinitz, D.D., Moravian Church in America, 

Bethlehem, Pa., U.S.A. 
Prof. W. P. Du Bose, D.D., Sewanee, Tenn., U.S.A. 
The Rt. Rev. the Lord Bishop of Durham, Auckland Castle, 

Bishop Auckland, England. 
Pastor K. M. Eckhoii, Christiania, Norway. 
The Rev. M. D. Eubank, M.D., American Baptist Foreign Mission 

Society, Kansas City, Mo., U.S.A. 
The Rev. Wm. Ewing. M.A., United Free Church of Scotland, 

Jewish Committee, Edinburgh, Scotland. 
The Rev, John Alfred Faulkner, D.D., Madison, N.J., U.S.A. 
The Rev. L. H. Field, Baptist Foreign Missionary Society of New 

South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales, Austraha. 
The Rev. WilUam H. Findlay, M.A., Wesleyan Methodist Mission- 
ary Society, London, England. 
Mr. Johann Fliert, Gesellschaft fiir innere und aussere Mission 

im Sinn der Lutherischen Kirche, Neuendettelsau, Bavaria, 

The Rev. Henry M. Ford, Hillsdale, Mich., U.S.A. 
Principal P. T. Forsyth, M.A., D.D., London, England. 
Dr. Karl Fries, Stockholm, Sweden. 
The Rev. W. T. FuUerton, Baptist Missionary Society, Leicester, 

Principal Alfred Gandier, Toronto, Canada. 
The Rev. S. W. Gentle-Cackett, Bible Lands Missions' Aid Society, 

London, England. 
Miss Georgina A. GoUock, Church Missionary Society, London, 

The Rt. Rev. the Lord Bishop of Birmingham, Birmingham, 

The Rev. John F. Goucher, D.D., Baltimore, Md., U.S.A. 
The Rev. R, J. Grant, D.D., Presbyterian Church in Canada, 

Halifax, N.S., Canada. 
Mr. J. W. Gunning, JHz., Delft, Holland. 
The Rev. H. Hackmann, Lit. th., Allgemeiner evangelisch- 

protestantischer Missionsverein, London, England. 
The Rev. F. E. Hagin, Foreign Christian Missionary Society 

(Disciples), Glendova, Calif., U.S.A. 
The Rev. J. W. Haley, Free Methodist Church of North America, 

Chicago, U.S.A. 
Dean Chr. Hall, Norges Kristelige Ungdoms Forbunds Missions- 

komite, Kristiania, Norway. 
The Rev. R, C. Hastings, D.D., Rohrersville, Md. 
Mr. Louis Hieb, Burlington, Vt., U.S.A. 
The Rev. J. Z. Hodge, Regions Beyond Missionary Union, London, 

Mrs. Edgar Hole, American Friends' Board of Foreign Missions, 

Cleveland, Ohio, U.S.A. 
The Rev. Robert F. Horton, D.D., London, England. 


The Rev. Henry W. Hulbert, D.D., Portland, Maine, U.S.A. 
The Rev. William James Hutchins, Oberlin, Ohio, U.S.A. 
The Venerable Archdeacon Charles L. Ingles, Toronto, Canada. 
The Rev. J. L. Jarrett, Regions Beyond Missionary Union, 

London, England. 
The Rev. Herbert B. Johnson, D.D., San Francisco, Calif., U.S.A. 
Professor Dr. Martin Kahler, D.D., Halle. 
The Rev. A. L. Kennan, Free Baptist Foreign Missionary Society, 

Hillsdale, Michigan, U.S.A. 
Professor Kolmodin, Uppsala, Sweden. 

The Rev. K. G. Kurtze, Bornshaim, Sachsen Altenburg, Germany. 
The Rev. Bishop W. R. Lambuth, D.D., Methodist Episcopal 

Church, South, Nashville, Tenn., U.S.A. 
The Rev. W. E. Lampe, Reformed Church in the U.S. (German), 

Washington, D.C., U.S.A. 
The Rev. T. Lindhagen, Foreningen for Israelsmission, Stockholm, 

President C. J. Little, D.D., Evanston, Illinois, U.S.A. 
The Rt. Rev. A. S. Lloyd, D.D., Alexandria, Virginia, U.S.A. 
The Rev. J. R. M'Clurkin, D.D., Pittsburgh, Pa., U.S.A. 
Mr. David M'Conaughy, Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A., New 

York City, U.S.A. 
The Rev. R. P. Mackay, D.D., Presbyterian Church in Canada, 

Toronto, Canada. 
Admiral A. T. Mahan, Lawrence, L.I., U.S.A. 
The Rev. G. T. Manley, M.A., Church Missionary Society, London, 

The Rev. F. B. Meyer, D.D., London, England. 
The Rev. Louis Meyer, Presbyterian Board of Home Missions, 

New York, U.S.A. 
The Rev. Thomas C. Moffatt, D.D., Board of Presbyterian Home 

Missions, New York City. 
The Rev. H. Montgomery, M.A., Belfast, Ireland. 
Prof. Edward C. Moore, Ph.D., D.D., Cambridge, Mass., U.S.A. 
President Wilham G. Moorehead, D.D., Xenia, Ohio, U.S.A. 
Mr. James Murray, National Bible Society of Scotland, Edinburgh, 

The Rev. Canon J. R. O'Meara, Toronto, Canada. 
Mr. F. W. Howard Piper, Kurku and Central Indian Hill Mission, 

London, England. 
The Rev. E. Pohl, Schleswig-Holsteinische Evangalisch-lutherische 

Gesellschaft zu Breklum, Breklum, Germany. 
Dr. C. W. Pruitt, Southern Baptist Convention, Macon, Georgia, 

Prof. WilUam North Rice, Middletown, Conn., U.S.A. 
The Rev. Henry Richards, American Baptist Foreign Mission 

Society, Washington, D.C., U.S.A. 
The Rev. G. A. Johnston Ross, Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania, U.S.A. 
The Rev. C. I. Scofield, D.D., Central American Missionary 

Society, Dallas, Texas, U.S.A. 
The Rev. T. E. Egerton Shore, M.A., B.D., Methodist Church, 

Canada, Toronto, Canada. 


Sir Alexander R. Simpson, Edinburgh, Scotland. 

Mr. Walter B. Sloan, China Inland Mission, London, England. 

The Rev. Arthur Warren Smith, A.B.. American Baptist Foreign 

3*Iission Society, Boston, Mass., U.S.A. 
The Rev. Edward H. Smith, American Board of Commissioners 

for Foreign Missions, Norwich Town, Connecticut, U.S.A. 
Miss Esther Smith, American Friends' Board of Foreign Missions, 

Long Beach, Cahf., U.S.A. 
Robert E. Speer, D.D., Presbjrterian Chtirch in the U.S..\., 

New York City, U.S.A. 
Bishop S. P. Spreng, Missionary Society of the Evangelical 

Association, Cleveland. Ohio, U.S.A. 
The Rev. J. M. Springer, Methodist Episcooal Church, Chicago, 

The Rev. F. A. Steven. China Inland iCssion, Germantown, 

Pennsylvania, U.S.A. 
The Rev. Homer C. Stuntz, D.D., Methodist Episcopal Chnrch, 

New York City, U.S.A. 
The Rev. James Dexter Taylor, American Board of Commissioners 

for Foreign Missions, Oberlin, Ohio, U.S.A. 
Mrs. J. Livingstone Taylor, Cleveland, Ohio, U.S.A. 
President Charles F. Thwing, Cleveland, Ohio, U.S.A. 
The Right Rev. the Bishop of Toronto, Toronto, Canada. 
The Rev. Canon L. Norman Tucker. M.A., D.C.L., Toronto, 

Pastor Henry Ussrog, Copenhagf^n, Denmark. 
M. Vernier, Societe des Missions E%^angeliqnes, Crest, Drome. 

The Rev. S. H. Wainwright. D.D., St. Louis, Mo., U.S.A. 
Mr. F. W. Walker, Badu, Queensland, Austraha. 
Mr. Chengting T. Wang, New Haven, Conn., U.S.A. 
Lie. Joh. Wameck, Rheinische MissionsgeseHschaft, Barmen, 

The Rev. George Washburn, D.D., Boston, U.S.A. 
Mr. G. Harold Watson, Christian Missions in Many Lands, London, 

The Rev. James Wells, D.D., Glasgow, Scotland. 
The Rev. H. P. Williams, Foreign Christian Missionary Society 

(Disciples), Lnmberton, New Mexico, U.S.A. 
Mr. O. R. Wold, Hauge's Norwegian Evanselical Lutheran Synod 

pf .America, Twin Valley. Mina-'sota, U.S.A. 



As explained in the chapter " Unoccupied Sections of the World " 
(see page 283), the effort was made to survey the entire world 
for the discovery of all areas unoccupied by missionary agencies, 
the larger areas lying wholly outside fields into which missions 
have entered, and also the smaller areas within mission fields but 
not yet actually occupied. It was not found possible, however, 
in the limited time available for these investigations to carry this 
survey to the point where a detailed exhibit could be made which 
would be both accurate and comprehensive. While considerable 
information was secured, it became manifest, as the situation was 
studied, that a whole science of missionary investigation requires 
to be developed, if a full and trustworthy portrayal is to be made 
of the extent of the occupation of the world field. 

One of the first problems to be solved is that of discovering 
guiding principles by which a mission's sphere of influence may 
be defined. The extent of a mission's sphere of influence neces- 
sarily determines the existence or extent of an adjoining unoccupied 
field. In attempting to define the Umits of a mission's legitimate 
field, such questions as these arise : Should the mission's own 
statement of its field be accepted ? In many cases missions have 
not fixed the limits of their fields ; in other cases, nominal claims 
to occupation extend to fields which have not been so much as 
visited. Or, should some ratio of population to each foreign mis- 
sionary be adopted ? A leading authority in India suggested 
50,000 to each foreign missionary and 5000 to every native 
worker. Or, should some ratio of geographical area to each 
mission station be accepted as a rule ? A missionary in Africa 
suggested an area with a radius of about fifty miles. Furthermore, 
how will the literacy of the people, the presence of native Chris- 
tians, and the activities of native workers affect the scope of a 
mission's influence ? Moreover, should a distinction not be made 
between 'workers, whether foreign or native, who are engaged in 
work of an extremely local character, or in semi-secular forms of 
work, and those whose labours relate them broadly and directly 
to an entire field, and whose work is more specifically evangelistic ? 

Even after answers have been found to these questions, and 
guiding principles have been discovered for determining the 



legitimate fields of a given mission, the difficult task remains of 
gathering the facts so that accurate and detailed information 
will be available concerning missionary operations in all non- 
Christian lands. This task is rendered more difficult by the 
fact that a comprehensive and detailed survey of the world with 
a view to locating the occupied territories and discovering the 
unoccupied fields has never been undertaken before. In India 
and South Africa several painstaking survej'^s of individual 
districts have been made, but these lack uniformity in their 
method of deaUng with the question. For the rest of the world, 
there is nothing of a detailed or comprehensive character. Much 
valuable information was secured through papers received in 
reply to questionnaires which had been sent out, but even this 
information could not be regarded as adequate for a complete 
survey of the world. For some fields there were no replies ; for 
other fields the information received was incomplete ; in still 
other cases there were conflicting reports. 

The conclusion was finally reached, that for a thorough in- 
vestigation of unoccupied fields, a Central Board or Committee 
should be organised representing the missionary agencies of 
Great Britain, the Continent, and America. This central organisa- 
tion should map out the great missionary areas of the world and 
define the outstanding principles to be followed in all investiga- 
tions. To secure the best results, small sub-committees of mis- 
sionary experts should then take up the detailed survey of the 
several missionary areas mapped out. 

Into these investigations the more remote and complex question 
of what missionary agency should enter in to occupy a given 
territory should not be allowed to intrude itself. That question 
is one for separate and subsequent consideration. Its early 
consideration is only too likely to vitiate the investigation by 
preventing an impartial consideration of the facts. A smaller 
or larger area may be entirely unoccupied so far as existing 
missionary agencies are concerned, and yet it may belong, by 
every law of comity and every consideration of strategy, to some 
adjoining society or mission which could occupy it by the exten- 
sion of its work. Statements relating to areas unoccupied by 
missionary agencies should never be taken, therefore, in any 
sense as a general advertisement of these areas for occupation 
by societies without due regard to principles of comity and 

The following tables are submitted as a suggestive method of 
approximating the actual conditions of the mi ;sion fields with 
reference to missionary occupation. The following facts are 
given : 

(i) Name of district; (2) its area; (3) its population ; (4) the 
missionary force subdivided under the headings of men, wives, 
other women; (5) population for each missionary (not including 
w-ives) ; (6) main mission stations, their number and names ; (7) 
total number of Christians. It is suggested that additional 
columns might be added, giving the following items of information 
of value in judging of the need of a given area : (8) Native 


workers; (9) Hindrances; (10) Bible translations; (11) Strategic 
centres for occupation ; (12) Nearest missions and their location. 

The tables presented below deal with sections of the world 
frequently regarded as fully occupied, yet the paucity of mis- 
sionaries and the hopelessly large population which would fall, 
on an average, to each missionary, prove the inadequacy of the 
present missionary occupation. Such conditions warrant the 
statement made elsewhere that the needs of these smaller un- 
occupied areas constitute, in the aggregate, the most extensive, 
the most pressing, and the most pathetic need of the missionary 

In the preparation of these tables every care has been taken to 
ensure accuracy. Nevertheless an occasional absence of details, 
both in mission reports and in maps, makes possible omission 
or faulty groupings of stations. These tables are therefore sub- 
mitted to kindly consideration and criticism in all such cases. 
It is important, however, to observe the authorities which have 
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Gifu . 

Miye . 

Aichi . 






At the Meeting of the Conference, 
on Wednesday, 15th June 1910 


Considerations of space have made it necessary to abbrevi- 
ate the speeches made in the Discussion. In doing this, the 
attempt has been made to preserve everything that sheds 
fresh hght on the subjects considered in the Report. In 
some instances the speeches have not been well reported, and 
this has necessitated the omissiorl of certain sentences. It 
has not been found possible to send the report of the speeches 
to those who delivered them for their revision. 



Morning Session 

Mr. John R. Mott, LL.D., New York City, in the Chair. 

The Couference was opened by the singing of the hymn, " Jesus 
shall reign," and prayer was offered by the Rev. P. Macadam 
MuiR, D.D., Moderator of the Church of Scotland. 

Mr Mott The order of the day is the Report of Commission 
No. I., and I would call upon Sir Andrew Fraser to take the Chair 
while the preliminary statement is made up by the Chairman of 
the Commission. 

Sir Andrew Fraser then took the Chair. 

Mr Mott, Chairman of the Commission At the outset I wish 
to express the deep appreciation which the members of the Com- 
mission feel toward the nearly six hundred missionaries and leaders 
of the native Christian Churches and leaders of the missionary 
forces of the Christian countries for the absolutely indispensable 
part which they have had in furnishing information and in guiding 
as to the policy set forth in this Report. Their names will be 
printed in the final edition of the Report of our Commission. We 
have deferred the printing of the names m order to make the list 
as accurate as possible. Let me also express my appreciation of 
the valuable services rendered by many of the members of this 
Conference in submitting already various suggestions and correct 
tions on the Report as it now stands, and to express our hope 
that any others who may detect inaccuracies or wrong placing of 
emphasis, or anything whicK, in the judgment of any member of 
the Conference, might mar the influence of the Report, would 
kindly report to the Business Committee of the Conference such 
inaccuracies or suggested changes. 

A part of the Report of this Commission is the Statistical Atias 
of Christian Missions, a copy of which I hold in niyTiand. This 
Statistical Atlas has four principal divisions. In the first place, 
a complete directory of the Missionary Societies of the world ; iu 
the second place, complete and reliable statistics on all phases 
of the missionary movement. These statistics are in advance of 
COM. I. 26 


those issued ten years ago. We have profited by the helpful 
criticisms which came, especially from the Continent of Europe, 
and have constructed the new tables in the light of the most 
scientific suggestions made by experts on these questions. In 
the third place, the volume contains a complete set of maps 
showing the distribution of the missionary forces tliroughout the 
world. In the fourth place, there is at the end a complete index 
of mission stations occupied by foreign missionaries. The parts 
pertaining to statistics and the directory of societies were prepared 
under the Chairmanship of the Rev. James S. Dennis, D.D., of New 
York, and with the efficient collaboration of the secretary of his 
sub-committee, Mr. Charles H. Fahs. The parts pertaining to 
the maps and the station index were prepared under the editorship 
of Professor Harlan P. Beach of Yale University, America. I need 
only mention these names to lend a complete sense of confidence 
in the Report. It should be added that the volume contains a 
statistical statement of the progress and present position of the 
missionary work of the Roman Catholic Church, and of the Russian 
Orthodox Church, and also a map of the world showing the dis- 
tribution of the Roman and Greek Catholic Missions tliroughout 
the non-Christian world. 

Our Commission desire to place on record at the threshold 
of this Conference a few outstanding convictions and impressions 
which have laid strong hold upon us during the nearly two years 
in which we have been engaged in the preparation of our Report. ; 
The first of these is that of the vastness of the task of evangelising-"' 
the world. The International Committee assigned to us the study 
of the problem of how to make Christ known to the entire non- 
Christian world. We came to this task, some of us confining our- 
selves entirely to one country or part of one country, most of us 
limiting our activities to one Cloristian communion. The work of 
studying how to make Christ known to all mankind has related us 
to the whole world problem. We have been obliged to consider aU 
the non-Christian nations and fields, the work of all the Christian 
communions, and every phase of their activities, and the process 
has been one that has simply overwhelmed us with a sense of the 
vastness, the variety, and the infiriite difficulty of the task of carrying 
the Gospel to literaUy aU the non-Christian world. I fancy that 
many of the delegates came up to this Conference with the same 
limitations which characterised the approach of the members 
of our Commission to their task, and because these Umitations are 
so widespread we fancy that in this the explanation is found of the 
failure of the Church to discover points of co-ordination and co- 
relation, points of strateg}^ points of possible unity, and points of 
mutual helpfulness, and has prevented our realising our corporate 
responsibility. We see great advantages therefore in a Conference I 
like this which compels us to school ourselves in looking at the world ' 
as a unit, as Christ did and does, and as all His true disciples 


should. There is something strangely incongruous in having dele-/ 
gates in a World Missionary Conference^-Wtro in any sense arJ 
provincial or denominational or racial. 

The second outstanding impression and conviction of the 
members of the Commission is that the time is really at hand- 
not commg when the Christian Church should bestir itself as 
never before m the countries of the non-Christian world in which 
It is already at work. In our judgment the present is the time 
of all times with reference to the evangelisation of the non- 
Christian world. It is so because of the awalcening of these 
nations and the desu-ability of brmging Christianity in its full 
strength to bear upon these nations while they are plastic 
it 13 so because ot the critical movements and tendencies which \ 
are manifesting themselves in almost all the non-Christian nations 
lor example, the spread of the corrupt influences of our Western 
civihsation, the expansion of great systems of secular education / 
the growing racial pride and antagonism, the increasing activity / 
and enterprise and aggressiveness of some of the non-Christiar 
religions. It is so because of the rising spiritual tide in almost 
all parts of the non-Christian world and the desu-ability of the 
Church takmg advantage of a rising tide, when it is possible to do 
more m a short time than the Church can do in long periods if 
she misses such an advantage. We believe that while it is 
certamly true that there have been times when m certain non- 
Chnstian countries the situation confronting the Church was 
as critical as it is at present, there never has been a time when in 
all the non-Christian countries the conditions confrontui" Christian 
ity were so favourable for a great and well-considered advance" 
as at the present time. It would be difficult to overstate what 
the Christian Church might do m these years if she gives herself 
with promptness and with thorouglmess to the task I say 
"thoroughness" because our Commission does not stand for 
superficiahty. We beUeve that there could be no greater danger 
than the spread of an imperfect type of Christianity due to ill- 
considered plans and to a hasty or superficial work of proclaiming 
making plam and enforcmg the truth. We therefore lay emphasis 
on thoroughness as well as promptness. p. 

The third outstandhag conviction of the Commission'^'is that 
the tune is also at hand when the Church should enter the so- 
called unoccupied fields of the world. Here we have in mind 
those practically or vurtually unoccupied fields. Has not the 
time come if not, when is it coming ? when the Church should 
take mto its plan hteraUy the whole non-Christian world ? We 
beheve that time has come, and that it is possible for the Church 
to meet this need. There is something startling in the fact that a 
Conference of Christians convened in the year rgio should be 
obliged to face the fact that there are some unoccupied fields 
some fields in which the living Christ is not known and cannot be 


known. It is the belief of the Commission that many, if not all 
of these unoccupied regions might be entered by the Church as a 
result of wise, concerted, prayerful effort. What is needed is a 
large and comprehensive view on the part of present-day leaders 
and an agreement among them on some plan which actually 
embraces the whole non-Christian world. Let our high resolve 
be that before another World Conference is held, these unoccupied 
fields shall be entered. The experience of other decades in which 
fields as inaccessible have been entered by much weaker forces 
than those of the Church to-day, shows how unwise and un-Christian 
it is to regulate or Umit our plans by what is now regarded as 
immediately possible. 

The fourth impression which seizes us with great conviction is 
that if this world situation is to be met there must be united 
planning and concerted effort on the part of the missionary forces 
of the Church. We fall back frankly in front of this task if it 
must be faced by a divi3ed Christendom. We approach it with 
calmness and confidence if the true disciples of Jesus Christ stand 
together as members of a common family. It is our deep con- 
viction that a weU-considered plan of co-operation in the mission- 
ary work of the Societies represented in this hall, entered into 
and carried out with a sense of our oneness in Christ, would be 
more than equivalent to doubling the'present missionarj'- staff. 
We venture to look forward with great confidence to the Report 
of Comrnission VIII., and to place ourselves behind them in the 
expression of the hope that this gathering will not separate until 
practical measures have been adopted leading to the formation of 
some simple representative International Committee which will 
grapple with the problem of entering the unoccupied fields, which 
will complete the investigations of problems involved in reaching 
the whole world in our day with the knowledge of Christ. 

The fifth impression is that the great task of making Christ 
known to all mankind will not be achieved without a great en- 
largement of the evangelistic forces of the Churches on the mission 
fields themselves. The evangehsation of the world as we have 
come to see it increasingly, is not chiefly a European and American 
enterprise, but an Asiatic and African enterprise. Therefore our 
hearts have been fiUed with hopefulness and confidence as we 
have studied the reports from all over the world showing the 
growing evangeUstic and missionary spirit in the Church in the 
mission field. Whatever can be done should be done which wiU 
result in still further developing the power of initiative, of aggres- 
sive evangelism, and of self-denying missionary outreach on the 
part of the Christians of Asia and Africa, and in raising up an army 
of well qualified native evangelists and leaders. 

The last impression that we shall mention at this time'^is 
that made upon us by the unanimity and emphasis with which 
the missionaries and native leaders aU over the world express 


their conviction that the most crucial problem in relation to ^0 
evangelising the world is the state of the Church in the Christian * 
countries. The missionary enterprise after all is the projection 
abroad of the Church at home. At this time of the shrinkage of 
the world, the closeness of that relationship is startling ly close. 
We are frank to concede that it is futile to talk about niakmg 
Christ known to the world in this generation or any generation 
unless there be a great expansion of vitality in the members of 
the Churches' of Christendom. If this conflict is to be waged with 
triumphant success there must be this expansion. We look 
forward therefore with great eagerness to the deliberations of the 
Conference upon the Report of Commission VI., which is to deal 
with the home base. Our task is hopeless unless their task is well 
done. With convictions like these we bring forward our Report, 
expressing the hope that these convictions may come to dominate 
or govern the attitude of the members of this Conference. The 
power is in this room under God to influence the hosts of Christen- 
dom to enter into the realisation of the sublime hope expressed by 
the speakers last evening that before the eyes of some of us shall 
close in death the opportunity at least may be given to all people 
throughout the non-Christian world to know and to accept, if 
they will, the living Christ. 

Mr. MoTT According to the agenda which has been adopted 
for the discussion to-day the greater part of the forenoon session 
will be devoted to a consideration of the situation in different parts 
of the non-Christian world with reference to tfieir evangelisation. 


Rev. George Robson, D.D. (United Free Church of Scot- 
land, Vice-Chairman of the Commission, Edinburgh), dealt with 
the evangelistic situation in the great Continent of Africa. There 
are three Africas. If you draw a line from the most western 
point of Africa to the most eastern point, then north of that you 
have, speaking roughly, Mohammedan Africa, and south of that 
you have pagan Africa, until you reach the'southern tip'which is 
predominantly Christian. In the whole oflMohammedan Africa 
there is only a small sprinkling of Christian Missions in Morocco, 
the same in Algeria, Tunis, and Tripoli,'"and a few?more in Egypt. 
There are less than a hundred ordained Protestant missionaries 
and less'^than four hundred Roman Catholic priests over a country 
as large as all Europe. In^ pagan Africa, on the west coast you 
have several missions with';a coastal basis struggling slowly up 
into the interior. On the east coast you have painfully few 
missions, and in the'centre you have from Rhodesia up to Uganda 
a thin line of active, and for the most part successful, missions. 
The instant need is the trebling of the missionary' forces, I do not 


say to occupy the field very far from that, but to meet those 
urgent needs of exisfiiig missions which are at this moment sorely 
burdening the hearts of the too few labourers. It is most of all 
/ by medical missions that the Gospel is to be carried into Moham- 
' medan Africa. It is most of all by the Christian school that the 
Gospel is to Christianise pagan Africa. A difficulty besetting 
the evangelisation of Africa is the large area over which the 
population extends. For example, you might pack the whole 
eighteen provinces of China into the lands bordering on the Nile, 
but in all Africa the population is only one-half of the population 
of China. Hence there are stations where the missionary staff 
is inadequate, not so much on account of the size of the population 
to be reached, but on account of the large area over which the 
work necessarily extends. Another great difficulty is the multi- 
plicity of languages. There are over 500 different languages 
in Africa with some 300 additional dialects so diverse from these 
as almost to constitute additional languages. In one Mission you 
pass through four distinct languages within 100 mUes, and there 
are not a few stations where two languages are required in order 
to reach the people. Politically Africa has become an appanage 
of Europe. One-twelfth ~oT Africa is under French rule, and no 
part of Africa is so painfully destitute of missions as the part 
that is under French rule, unless it is the small part that is under 
Spanish rule, while the Portuguese is also far too largely a blank 
ill the missionary map. With regard to the territory under the 
i'.ritish Flag, where the British administration touches both the 
Mohammedan and pagan population I say with shame that the 
British administration gives every encouragement to pagans 
becoming Moslems and hinders Christian missionaries from appeal- 
ing to Moslems. Pagan Africa is becommg Mohammedan more 
rapidly than it is becoming Christian. Along all the inland routes 
of trade, Mohammedan traders are steadily advancing south- 
wards, and every Mohammedan trader is a Mohammedan mission- 
ary. The very first thing which requires to be done if Africa is 
'tblDe'won for Christ is to throw a strong missionary force right 
across the centre of Africa to bar the advance of the Moslem and 
to carry the Gospel northwards into the Sudan. 

Dr. H. Karl Kumm (Sudan United Mission, London) said : It 
was my privilege last year to follow the border line from West 
Africa to East Africa at least as far as the Nile, and therefore to see 
something of this remarkable advance of Islam in the heart of the 
Dark Continent. Whilst travelling it was my privilege to visit 
pagan tribes on this border line that had never been reached, 
and I cannot do better than give you a list of the tribes which 
are not yet evangelised by Protestant Missions : Fulani, Hausa, 
Yoruba, Nupe, Guari, Bassama, Muntchi, Rago, Afo, Kibyen, 
Panyam, Dimmock, Miriam, KwoUa, Ankoi, Angass, Pirpum, 



Moiitoil, Yergum, Gurkawa, Burmawa, Jukum, Djen, Dengele, 
Mbula, Beri-Beii, tribes numbering from five thousand to two 
million each along the border line of Central Africa. Paganism, 
driven out by the crescent faith from the fruitful plains of the 
northern half of the Sudan, took refuge in the mountains of the 
Murchison range, the Bautchi Hill country, in Adamawa, the 
Mandara mountains, the Sudd region, and the more inaccessible 
parts of the Shari Valley. The barrier which nature had built 
against the advance of the religion of Mohammed in the Central 
Africa, was made the best use of by the warlike pagan tribes 
of those lands, and successfully they maintained their independence, 
and their fetish worship. Now through the conquest by the 
European Powers both of the Mohammedans in the northern 
parts of the Sudan, and the pagans in the south, through the 
establishment of peace, the. eiicoxuragement of cornmerce, and the 
opening of these regions by a network of new highways, railways, 
and river communications, the better education of the Moslem 
and the prestige connected with his creed are enabling hirQ. to 
spread the faith of Mohammed fn an almost unprecedented way 
aniongsT^the independent pagan tribes. The Central Sudan is 
at present in a state of religious solution and should a fanatical 
rising take place there after the tribes have been won for the 
crescent faith, such a rising may have very serious consequences. 
As already stated by Dr. Robson, European administrators 
are directly advancing and assisting Mohammedanism. These 
tribes living in the mountains of the CentraV Sudan are the most 
warlike in Africa. They are worth the winning, and it will be an 
eternal shame on our generation if we let those tribes go over 
to Islam. 

Rev. A. Grandjean (Mission Romande, Lausanne, Switzer- 
land) spoke about Portuguese East Africa, which was for the most 
part an imoccupied field. From the border of Zululand in the south 
to and inclusive of the Limpopo Valley in the north was practically 
occupied by their Mission, and by the Anglican and Wesleyan 
Missions who came after them. But the ground so occupied 
was only a very small part of Portuguese East Africa, perhaps 
two himdred miles long. There remained twelve hundred miles 
of land from the northern border of the Limpopo Valley up to 
German East Africa, very sparsely occupied south of the Zambesi, 
and wholly unoccupied north of the Zambesi. There had been a 
beginning of work at Tuhambane by the American Free Methodists 
and by the Methodist Episcopal Church, and another beginning 
at Mount Silinda in the interior of Tuhambane, by the American 
Board (this last is not mentioned in the Report). Could not 
those two missions enlarge their work and occupy the whole 
field south of the Zambesi, and could not another Society come 
and speedily occupy the northern part of the country from the 




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decree making the English laxiguage the language for all technical 
instruction tlnroughout the country. Our religious opportunity 
is before us in the Empire. There is no great wide-spread revival 
of religion in China at this time, but it does seem to these who 
are most spiritually minded that there are the opportunities for 
a great wide-spread forward movement throughout the Empire. 
Only a few days before coming here I had the privilege of attending 
revival meetings in Peking, and services -were conducted in four 
of the colleges and schools, and in these services five hundred and 
one young people signed their names pledging their allegiance to 
the evangelisation of China. 

Professor T. Y. Chang (Presbyterian Church in the United 
States of America) said that he had come up to speak a few 
words simply as one of the thousands who deeply feel the need 
of Clirist. China with its eight hundred million not four hundred 
million needed Christ as badlj' as any other people he was 
sure more and this was the most promising opportunity that 
the ClTristian community of western nations could take hold of 
for the purpose of bringing that nation to Christ. The new 
education that was rapidly being introduced into China had a 
great effect in loosening the hold of the old superstitions and 
religions, and the people were now giving away the old, but they 
had not yet grasped hold of the new. If some claimed that they 
j had grasped hold of the new, it was simply materialism and not 
t; Christ. _ The minds of the Chinese were now empty and this was 
the time for the Christ to step in. If they waited four or five 
, years, or even three years, they would find such a change. in^Chiiia, 
//that the minds of their people _would be. blocked. -On behalf of 
^ the Chinese, those who have accepted Christ or even those who 
have not heard about Christ, he besought them to take immediate 
steps. Some would suggest that, instead of sending missionaries 
from home, it would be advantageous to train up a large number 
of native preachers, and he heartily endorsed this idea ; but is this 
apphcable to-day ? How long is it to take to train large corps of 
Chinese evangelists ? It was the fact that they had not got enougTi 
ChiiTese men to work in a single province, and if they began to-day 
to prepare men they would not succeed in less than five years, and 
in five years' time they would find a marvellous change in China, 
and it would b e too lat e. 


Hon. T. H. YuN (Songdo, Korea) spoke of Korea as a micro- 
scopic mission field. For the last twenty-five years noble men 
and women from Europe and America had been preaching the 
Gospel of Jesus Christ in^ Korea, and now the day of the harvest 
had come. It was a matter of fact that to-day more converts 
were being gathered in in Korea than in any other mission field. 


Twenty-five years ago there was not a single missionary and not 
a siiigle Christian ; to-day there were nearly two hundred thousand 
Christians in Korea. Different from the missionary worlr in 
Japan, the work in Korea had been started among the common 
people, and as in the days of the Lord the common people of 
Korea had received the word gladly. Upon the shoulders of the 
common people rests the future of any country. To-day the 
Bible was the most well read, the most widely read book in that 

land. He took this opportunity to thank the British Bible 

Society for the great work they had been doing in that country. 
There were, however, great dangers. One was the revivification 
of Buddhism and Confucianism, and there was also the introduc- 
tion of the philosophies of the West which have been made in 
some lecture rooms of Europe which needed more fresh air rather 
than philosophy. The rapid conversion of the people was another 
danger. If they had a sufiicient number of missionaries to take 
Hold of the situation the rapid increase of the converts would not 
mean so much danger, but when they had so few missionaries 
and so few trained native missionaries, there was a danger that 
the converts might not be taught so thoroughly as was necessary 
in order to lay wide and deep the foundation of the Church of 
the future. He pled for an adequate number of men and women 
to teach and train up that little country in the Christian religion. 


Mr. George Sherwood Eddy (Young Men's Christian Associa- 
tion) presented the appeal of India. It was not only an appeal 
of vast"Tiumbers, more than one hundred million or a third of its 
population being beyond the reach of existing missionary agencies 
without a missionary worker or native Christian, but an appeal 
intensive as well as extensive, an appeal of its deep religious 
consciousness. The opportunity was presented to-day. Within 
the next few decades the Church of Christ would be presented 
with an opportunity unparalleled in history, for men moved in 
masses in that country. Speaking of the students, he said that 
if they could have a few of the right men rightly placed among 
those who are the brain of India they v/ould largely mould the 
future T3f~thotfght,' but it was increasingly difficult to find such 
rneir either in Britain or America. Not only was there the op- 
portunity among its students, but among its ojitcaste,,classes, ,,v,, 
These mas? movements, providential movemej3.i^Qf_God^^ would 
mea'n much for the salvation of" tTiat country. There were fifty 
millions of outcastes at the door of the Church, if it would enter 
into this present opportunity and gather them in. 

Rev. V. S. AzARJAH (Tinnevelly Missionary. Society) : It seems 
to me that the name " neglected Continent " ought to be applied 



to India more than any other land. In proportion to the popula- 
tion I find that South America, and perhaps even the Con- 

j. tinent of Africa, has more missionaries than India has. There 
^ are vast regions in North India where there are districts with two 
or three million of a population without a single missionary or 
Christian worker. I hold in my hand a list of the states and 
districts which I took from the census reports a few years ago 
with absolutely no Christian or Christian missionary. As Mr. 
Eddy has just hinted, there are a hundred milhon of a population 
beyond the reach of the existing Missionary Societies to-day, and 

J; not only are there these yast numbers of people, but there are 
fifty millions of the masses of the people of India who are ready 
to hear the Gospel and join the Church. In the north-west 
provinces of Western India whole tribes are to-day placing them- 
selves under Christian Churches, and the Missionary Societies 
working in those portions are unable to take them over, because 
of want of money and want of Indian fellow-workers. The need 
seems to be very sore and great ia the portions occupied by the 
lower classes of the people. It seems to me to be criminal, when 
there are these vast tracts of country clamouring for the Gospel 

^ message, for new Missionary Societies to be started and to be 
planted right in the centre of districts already fairly well occupied. 
That is going on to-day in India. The Indian Church, largely 
drawn from these lower classes, has done its utmost for the evan- 
geUsation of India during the last decade. Five or six districts 
are to-day being taken over for the evangehsation of the country 
by Indian forces. Indian missionaries supported by Indian 
money under Indian management are doing what they can to 
bring the Gospel to these millions, but these are few, and we want 
immediately a large increase in the foreign workers, not only for 
the unevangelised portions of India, but also to strengthen the 
Church in the already evangelised portions so that the Church 
strengthened may go forth to do as never before for the evan- 
gelisation of the count^3^ Theological colleges, training schools, 
and greater scope for the Indian leaders to 'do their work, are 
needed at the present day, and I do hope that not only the Church 
in India, but the masses in India, will have an opportunity of 
hearing the Gospel and of becoming followers of our Master. '^'^\ 

Dr. Robert Stewart (United Presbyterian Church, Punjab) : 
, I wish to speak about the ideal occupation of India as a mission 
:*' field. In India we have three hundred millions of people, one half 
of them Hindus, one half of the remainder Mohammedans, and 
the rest low caste. How many missionaries are necessary in this 
field to evangehse the country in our generation ? The answer 
has been given to this question by the Madras : Decennial' Con- 
ference which met in 1902. The question was considered care- 
fully, scientifically, and mathematically. We made our calcula- 


tion on the number of people, on the extent of the country, and 
on the success that had been secured during the last fifty years, 
and, granting that the conditions would remain as they had been 
and that'^ttre^ord's Spirit would be poured out as it had been, we 
calculated T:hat one missionary for every twenty-five thousand 
people would be necessary in order to secure the evangelisation of 
the country in our generation, that is, secure such a preaching of 
the Gospel that every individual in the land would have an oppor- 
tunity of knowing the Gospel, and would have such information 
brought to bear upon him that he would be responsible for accept- 
ing or rejecting Christ. This calculation was not a merely ^ 
mechanical thing, it was done with prayer, it was done earnestly, ' 
and the Conference made an appeal for nine, thousand more mis- 
sionaries in order to secure this ideal. Perhaps one thousand 
missionaries have been added since that time. If so, eight thous- 
and more evangelistic missionaries would be necessary, and these 
too besides all the native forces that could be brought to bear upon 
the people, and besides those missionaries that would be employed 
in the educational and industrial work. The Church at home 
then may see what a great work there is to be done. Let us keep 
the ideal before us. It was agreed to unanimously in the Madras 
Decennial Congress. It was the decision of not only the Americans 
but of the British missionaries and of the Continental missionaries. 
The men who assembled in that Conference were men sent there 
on account of their experience and their judgment, and it was not 
a mere impulse, it was not a mere appeal to the imagination,^ an 
appeal to sympathy, but it was a decided and calculated appeal, 
and I hope that people will not forget that. 


Rev. G. H. BoNDFiELD (British and Foreign Bible Society, 
Shanghai) said that Mongolia had an area of 1,300,000 square 
miles. It contains a remnant of a mighty people that swept in 
conquest over the half of Europe. It contains a people that still 
has the elements of a great future if only it can be saved from the 
blighting influence of the form of Buddhism that has come over 
from Tibet. Seventy-five per cent, of the men are practically 
celibates, and the women do not Uve in the proper relation with 
the other portion of men and the famihes are woefully small, and 
a great people is passing away. The Report states that there 
are ten missionaries, but the Report does not say that all these 
missions are on the border practically of Chinese territory. Three 
weeks ago we spent forty odd days on a caravan, and one morning, 
three days out of the capital of Mongolia, about half-past four 
in the morning, we got off our ponies and stopped our caravans, 
and there was a representative of the Bible Society of Mongolia, 
himself not a Christian, by the roadside, with Mongolians looking 


on. We had prayer, and that man went off westwards amongst 
the tents, and we passed on to our destmation in the north, but 
that unconverted Mongohan was the only worker and is the only 
worker this day moving among that pastoral people, and there 
are two million six hundred thousand of them. I would appeal for 
that long forgotten country. The distances are enormous and the 
people are scattered, but in thinking of the greater peoples do not 
forget the country for which Gilmour laboured and prayed, and 
practically laid down his life. 


Rev. L. E. HoGBERG (Svenska Missionsforbundet, East 
Turkestan) said that when he looked at the list of delegates, he 
found that he was the only one coming from Central Asia. It is 
the question here about the unoccupied field, and the Report says : 
" This extensive territory with an area of nearly 2,700,000 square 
miles, thirteen times the size of France, and over twice as m.uch as 
all of the United States east of the Mississippi River, has within 
its actual bounds only three mission stations." Another mission 
station was now being planted, and tliey had now twenty mission- 
aries. Mr. Hogberg went on to speak of work in the Russian 
dominions, and mentioned that there were sixty millions in these 
dominions not belonging to the Russian Church, a good many 
of them being Mohammedans, Jews, and pagans. They had a 
large field in Central Asia itself, Chinese Turkestan, Eastern 
Turkestan, the Trans-Caspian dominions. What was done there 
was very little. Their own Society only occupied the most western 
part of the Chinese Turkestan. Let the people of Christ know 
the needs of this vast country and do what they can that these 
people also may be won for Christianity. 


Rev. H. C. Tucker (American Bible Society, Brazil) ; As I 
have been working as the agent for the American Bible Society in 
South America, seeking to extend the work into the far interior, 
my attention has been constantly called to the large number of 
Indians occupying the very interior of South America. We 
have projected our work far enough into that region to know that 
there are hundreds of thousands of Indians in their native state, 
and that is one of the problems that must come before the Christian 
Church in this world-wide evangelisation. 


Rev. J. Nettleton (Methodist Missionary Society of Aus- 
tralasia, Fiji) said he had the honour probably of being the 


only missionary who had had practical experience in the Fijian 
group of islands, and he was thankful to be able to say that 
there were no native heathens to be reached in that country 
to-day. In 1888, with the British Governor in the Chair, the Fijis 
were declared to be a Christian country, ruled over by a Christian 
Go\'ernor. What he wanted to refer to now was the orientalism 
of practically the whole population. In the Sandwich Islands 
the Japanese and the Chinese are outnumbering the natives by 
three to one. In Fiji to-day there are more than twenty-five 
thousand Indian coolies, chiefly the sweepings of the Calcutta 
jails. There is a danger there that they may spread their heathen- 
ism and that they may demoralise the Fijians. Sixty per cent, of 
the crime in Fiji to-day is committed by the Indian coolies. They 
had two missionaries and three lady missionaries who were doing 
splendid work, and the coolies, or many of them, were being led 
to Christ. Beyond that they are trying at any rate to reach the 
non-Christian population of the Solomon Islands. 

Rev. W. L. Blamires (Methodist Missionary Society of Aus- 
tralasia), in speaking of Polynesia, said that he used that word in 
the larger sense of the Islands of the Pacific. Polynesia was small 
amid the thousand of our Christian Israel, but the work done there 
and its fruits might well be regarded with pride and joy. The in- 
habitants of the islands for the most part he might say altogether 
were at one time savage and cruel, while vices the most detest- 
able and degrading, and practices the most abominable, incident 
to idolatry, were rife among them ; but to-day they would find 
in the majority of those islands that the Sabbath Day was better 
observed than in Christian Scotland, and family prayer better 
attended to than in the British Isles, and that the Christian 
virtues have as fair illustrations in the daily life of these people 
as amongst the nations of Christendom. After referring to 
individual instances of Christian zeal and influence among the 
natives of Polynesia, Mr. Blamires pointed in closing to the 
Solomon Islands as still in the darkness of paganism, tribe against 
tribe seeking each other's blood, but a Christian missionary 
had gone there, hoping from his outpost to win them steadily for 


Rev. William Ewing (United Free Church of Scotland Jew- 
ish Mission, Edinburgh) said that the Jewish branch of missionary 
enterprise was hardly more than a century old : and very small 
for its age. The field was one of many fragments, scattered 
over practically the whole inhabited earth. The people differed 
in the conditions of life, in mental outlook, ethical practice, and 
religious faith. But in spite of what might be called communal 
idiosyncrasies, they had preserved in a remarkable degree the 


sentiment of racial unity. It was significant of the changes the 
years are bringing, that in the. modern Zionist movement the 
sympathy and co-operation of- Christian Jews are welcomed. 
Common blood, not ancestral reUgion, was the bond of unity. The 
eighteen thousand Jews in India, the sixty-three thousand in 
Persia, and the twenty thousand in Arabia were quite uncared for. 
The groups in North Africa and along the southern shore of the 
Mediterranean were only feebly touched here and there. The two 
millions of Austria-Hungary and the nearly six millions of South 
Russia were almost entirely ignorant of the meaning of evangelical 
Christianity, and very many did not even know the Saviour's 
name. This state of things could be tolerated by evangelical 
Christianity only because the fact was not realised. The only 
Christianity known to them is a gross travesty of the religion 
of Jesus. Instead of His love and gentleness, its spirit is one of 
bitter hatred for the Jew. And the memory of many a dark 
day of persecution, of nameless indignity and oppression inflicted 
by the so-called followers of the Saviour has made the name 
of Christian to stink in Jewish nostrils. And yet men wonder 
,.- " why it is so hard to convert the Jew." The Jew after all is 

^/ human. One who easily deserts the faith for which his fathers 
tled^hccs few admirers. It is the man who is " hard to convert," 
the man of deep loyalty and constancy, who will be the most 
worthy convert; ~And'"TE1s worth remembering that no fewer 
than two hundred and fifty thousand Jews were baptized into the 

<-- various branches of the Christian Church during the last century. " 
This was a record full of encouragement. Mr. Ewing pled that 
work should not be confined to the great centres of Jewish popula- 
tion, but that they should specially seek out the scattered com- 
munities of from twenty to a hundred families in the villages. 
Conversations and distribution of Uterature to be useful must 
be wisely and patiently followed up. Would that the Christian 
peoples among whom they dwell were thoroughly penetrated by 
the spirit of the Master ; because the Jews are very sensitive 
to their moral and spiritual environment. The Jews of the 
great Hungarian plain are of a nobler type than those of the 
Roman Catholic North. This fact they themselves openly 
attribute to the higher influence of their Calvinistic neighbours. 
He knew a missionary who, by his brave and wholesome manhood, 
and his loyalty to the Christian ideal, had so won the confidence 
of the Jews that he had been invited to explain the New Testament 
in the Synagogue itself. There was also an open door for work 
in the prosperous colonies in Palestine, which were increasing 
so rapidly that in a few years the soil of the Holy Land might be 
wholly in the hands of the Jews. His last point was that the Church 
required the Jew for the accomplishment of her task. He was 
fitted hy his unique history and training to render incalculable 
service to the Christian cause. A youth named Lederer was 


converted in Budapest. Glowing with fresh enthusiasm, he 
went to New York. There he met a young, able, and accom- 
plished student, Schereschewszky by name, and led him to Christ. 
Schereschewszky went to China, acquired the language, and 
translated for the first time the Old Testament into Chinese, 
direct from the original Hebrew, of which he was absolute master. 
His translation is the standard Chinese version to-day the 
instrument used by every missionary in the land. By the blessing 
of God the conversion of a Jewish youth in Budapest was the 
means of giving the Bible to the vast Empire of China. This 
one fact surely sheds a vivid light upon that word of the great 
Jewish Christian missionary " If the casting away of them be the 
reconciling of the world, what shall the receiving of them be but 
life from the dead ? " 

Rev. Louis Meyer (Board of Foreign Missions, Reformed 
Presbyterian Synod, U.S.A., New York) said that the Jews 
scattered throughout the world, multiplying in number and 
increasing in power and influence in every part of the world, 
formed a mass of people which would either be a danger to the 
Cluristian Church or would be an influx and an impetus for all 
activity in the wide missionary field. A few years ago the greatest 
Rabbi of the City of New York reported sorrowfully that two- 
thirds of all the Jewish children resident in that great city were -^-' 
without any religious instruction whatever. He brought the actual 
figures and they showed that there were seventy thousand Jewish 
boys and girls from five to twelve years in that one city without 
any religious instruction. And what was true of New York was 
true of every city where the Jews live. In Germany they were 
walking into infidelity,~nrTEary"an3~T'rance and even in Britain 
there was a breaking off from the religion of their fathers. They 
were coming into the United States at the rate of a hundred 
thousand a year, the parents still clinging to Judaism to a certain 
extent, but the next generation going down to infidelity. We 
often hear it said that we have much in common with the Jew. 
We stand with him in the first article of the Creed, but we have 
a different interpretation from his, and when it comes to the 
second article he denies the Deitj' of our Lord and Saviour. The 
battle word with the Jew is the Deity of the Lord Jesus Christ, -'-^ 


Mr. F. S. Brockman (Y.M.C.A., Shanghai) directed attention 
to a field comparatively minute, but important in its relation to 
the vast oriental field. Japan with its accustomed insight led 
the way in deciding that if it was to adopt western education and 
western civilisation, the most economical and rapid way of doing 
it would be to send her leaders abroad for investigation of that 
COM. I. 27 

418 titp: gospkl 

cJvili^ati/n), an'J )</rr fiJ< " '- -'''- in tiwi hape af Jjcr tu/Jcntii to 
f.h'; (Jniv'rriU'rJ> ami t: '// tfw; W'rt, I^'rt' the wivJom 

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.iv'tVwuivjn frjlti*r on fixitsnAt-A nisiyn a Cornmimifm':rn tit a 
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'now'r, 'yf J)-r ' f fy'niv'-r- 

f 'yr hr:-. '/ th'; I.,' '< 'yf th/; 

W':st, and not 'miy thw, hut most of tl<e m'--n who ar'; the hea/l 
of 1", - ' - - ' - ')y all the men who are at ^' ' ' ! 

'yf , the G'/vernment. ^'.hina < :', 

h',-r youn;/ m'm n'yw, not i/y tiie ';ore hut l/y \tnn')T'A>. an/J '^v;.') 
Jyy i\i-'mv,xiuU. *' ' /"/ j>art of tJi/; v/'yrJ/J, and thi;-, is th/: f)';H, 
th':*e c/)\\':Vf. and th/r*f; <'>/mmi.i//n'rr wfi/? are ri</ht 

irj (^/Tjr ' ! your alW)ti';n, 

Wfio ca, , //; men have )a/J 

uf/'/n Jaj/ar. th-ry may n'Jver have jK.frn it, who v> >nflnenof-d 

.' '' 
;t of weist/rrn ', t>e st/x/'J tjj> in tti* irtjjbt 

'/! i;.- . .^. - - - .< .1. I. ' ', --h he was, 

^r>A m'-^ . ry fo th/; 

jaj/an ;" if':7e i/, a U'-.i/i wA limfjint hut at our 
'..,,, . .,. ., .. ,. , ; that i-i r'ja/ly > < - ''! that j>, nrAiuiUy easy, 
a fieM njx/n milliz/ns Mlin'/, ujyyn ';r;jf. AJJ that is tu-^A'A 

ii not n'rv/ '/.- not m/>;<; iii</w:y, n//t more met/ 

only th/; i\hy'A: .. ..r own hvr' jj.'i'I in o<ir ov/r, l/on/'/'. '/f 

th outg;oing k>ve of J'::f!tJS (Ihrht. 

KvnuHoow ^zmion 

The aft/rrno^v a f/petied by the tinging of th- ir/ii,, 

" ^Murrn of i^.i 

'/heCHA ,'/ 

of many oi ... ^ .., ... ,, ,.. ,. .. , , . ,,r.t 

afternoon att/,-nti//n wiH L ':d to o;rt^) al ffroHf^nfi. 

We bfiall '! ;;. 7 he 
f.r^.t of Ifj' 


"Should thr Church sflr/t to rnlrmt once thfi l'fit<liiiiU\> utt<>iiul>tpil 
ftclil:,, or (ii:.t citliin;r its ,i< tivitir:, uihrtr it i: nltfuilv til wurh /' " 

Wfv. !i. VV. /vvi.Mru (Kcldi iiifl ( Ikiu li In Aiii'ili.ii, Niw 
York): II lln- <|iii"tlii)ii Im (nir .JintuMtiioii vvin oih' ol Iwitiiilfi- 
llulivOM 1 am mil" iiol u r.iiiKir' (Mlo il yon im .r.KiiiiulnM woiiM 
for a .'tiiiKld iilMliiiil plcui lui llic o( ( iipiilioii III (JiliH iiK mill iilli ily 
lIIIocr'iipKil 111 1. 1 I over iiKillllht llw I >ri Id III inf.; Iiiif^n u| i|iiil< a 
iiiiiiilxr ol laiuJM, liU(< |a|iitti iiiul ( lnn.i iiml IimIiu uml (.ril.iin 
p.iitnol Allien vvIhtc tlin wtiil ri iilicinly nl luiml. lliil | |iiiiii ii 
IIiIm ulliriioiiii Hull Ihti in mil, u i|iii-ftli()ii nl Ivvo iill'iiiiilivn, 
hill lluil (ioi| lliin.i II Ih I .ill III I.', Id n-i to duy no I only lor inn Inn i 
iiinils ill i-vi-ty oiciipiril niimioii Inlil Iml Im lite iinim dliilo 
o( cilpHlioii ol (In- liillu'tlo iinloiH Iml ;iii<l mylii li i| ini;i>iioii IhIiIh, 
WIklI. Iiiii'Ii i!1 nil lu il.iy n I he niiloiK I nil lioli. In All u n w liiivn 
Vponialiliiml, IWilili, lUiliiin, I'lnuli; wn luivf IIh' y,irtU Su<luii, 
wt! Iiavo tliH L'otluKiirna jioNntLMloiii, w<? Iniv<' llm wlioln ol tjir (^mil 
'i.ilhiiii ii'Kioa wliirli arn iiol oicnpicil ihhI vvk liav' lln^ Coii^.o. 
Sinn mini; nji, ii jiopiilalion !; ^;iviti m Aim n ol no li nn llian ntyfiily 
million pfopir, wiio arti onl ol iciitli ol llir- Imllirhl [loliiln ol 
iMriiioii ShilioiiH. In I ilx I nml Alj.;lianirilan, vanl tlicli lird ol 
Mon(.;olia, inaily llir vvlioli- I'.oMi.iia, llii* wliol<i ol ( lilncrm 
I, onn i nlnn piuvinrc ol Kii.c.M, ami llin wlioln ol Soiilli 
I'ciMia, Willi lli! cM.iplioii ol llir ImikII'iIi < Imiili Mi-viioii llnir 
III vi' w ol tliiti mari'i ol popnlalioii, lof;i llicr avia^mf; lilw<icn 
om- Immlri-il anil l.wi-lv<' iiiiIIimii iiml onn linmliiil innl lontlirn 
million, 1 wiiili lo lairti' llir ipnriliun wIhHiii liuiKt unoi.iiipiril 
iiK'oin lo occilpii'l or nol now Im |<nim Cliilut, 'ilin f/riu-Kil 
nariomi for iluii oi (:ii|ial ion ;iii' p.idiil In iii all, 'I In' f-;ti^al<'!il 
p|i-a for mirifionri i;i nol ojipoi liiiiil y Iml ili-ililiilion, lot (ioil rm 
lovi'il 1 1 in worlil, not I lie woilil ol oppm liiniliiti, |>iil Ilic wm M iIkiI 
ll<;Kavi' Ilin own Ix lovnd Son loi llinn. I In y ai<- ilylni; iiinI wi 
ai<; 'lyiiif^, and we iiiii.'il h<ivi' Hum iii<ialioti, I Im wiomi fji m tn\ 
icanon in lliul (lliiinl'.-t <oiiimaiid m iiiilvt-irtid. Jriam (linril, did 
nol (/ivn iir) a ('oniimiiid lo f.;o lo i > riain H'^lonn lail lo ^;o into nil 
lilt; world. TIk- Apinllr- {'aiil liiiiiMi-li liiiiicd lii't lia< k lo (Imilcad 
iip'' liarvi-^)! ()( Idt and naid il Wii: lli^t amiiilion lo pi'inli jimiim 
' liirtl m llm ri f;ioii;i Ix yoiid, I Im' Hind (/< ii.iimi i:i Hiat 

I Idlirvi- (-liiiil'ii >-;loiy irt ul wlaltr- in Dm imo< < iipitd lirldn oJ tlio 
wmld. I'in;illy, (Inn- an' in Hii n' li>li|-i llir ^;lm y ol f.;irii( poi;-,!- 
lalilKH, I limit ol (ilnrt liKn Mii i:a nml I'loliliaia, llimic ol ia.ii;4 
liUi; llm i'alliaiifi in Alf.',lianihlan, m ol Hie ]iny,iu\ and Moliamiiadan 
\ -t' i:i ill Aliica, and J Hiiy in Hu' imoi ciiplid In Id ymi liiiv liolli 
1 .1' ' '-. iiiid I laM'ii '^i II 1. 1 1 ate ol I In' 1 1 if; III nl iiiipm lam <-. I mpn .;iil/ilil y 

I I nol a wold llial loiicfinn ||iir< woih I liavn a pordal caul li<i< 
Hull (.ainr lioin iiolHiaia lioiti a lady, llir only inhnfoiKiiy woiliiiif^; 
Hmii*, and hIh nay.i: "(iivo my urcftiitf/n u, Um |',i|inlm(/li (on 
irrcncti. I liuve olli-tiid my piiiyiin loi II. i'aiHi lan)/lin at iin- 


possibilities, and love will find a way or make it to the unoccupied 
fields of the world." 

Rev. W. H. T. Gairdner (Church Missionary Society, Egypt) : 
We know that the wind bloweth where it hsteth, and so does the 
Holy Spirit, and the Holy Spirit may well break away from all the 
rules of strategy and lead out into some very different field. May 
we not say that where Islam is not advancing, there decidedly 
concentration should be the rule ? Where, however, Islam is 
spreading, such decided concentration or reinforcement of existing 
stations may not be possible. I am sure that no one who heard 
that list of tribes read out by Dr. Karl Kumm this morning but 
wished that those different territories should be invaded by the 
Church of God. There is a great difference between diffusion and 
diffuseness, and it seems to me that if we could only develop 
co-operation in large local centres, such as West Africa or East 
Africa, we should be able to diffuse without diffuseness, but that, 
on the other hand, concentration or the reinforcement of existing 
centres does not negate diffusion. I received a letter from Dr. 
Walter R. Miller, a man who knows West Africa very well, and 
a man who is working in Northern Nigeria, that key or strategic 
centre. He says, " Can the Church tackle Egypt and the Central 
Sudan together ? If not, concentrate on one. Do you believe 
that with a great reinforcement of men and money you could 
start, say, twenty new stations in Upper Egypt and beyond 
Khartoum, with the definite prospect, by God's grace and power, 
of getting converts of the type who will leave then: homes and go 
into all Africa to evangehse ? If so, then Egypt is the first duty 
of the Church as regards Islam. If you feel you cannot hope for 
these results, then go on gradually developing Egypt as you know 
best, and then concentrate on this country, which, for reasons I 
have not time here to give, but which you know, namely, homo- 
geneity, language, ability of people, travelling instincts, etc., 
mark them out as a great and evangelising people. Get the 
Government on our side : this must be first. Make them start 
education, and then give us permission to start a school and 
mission in every big Mohammedan town in Northern Nigeria, 
Bornu, and Darfur. Get us the men to do this, at least forty' 
the money to support them, a fair proportion of trained school- 
masters among them, and we can definitely look forward to evan- 
gelising the West and Middle Sudan, with the help of the French 
Protestant Societies, and from there all the countries menaced 
in Central and East Central Africa. With this, and alongside 
you must have a school started at once in London with a three 
years' course in which men coming out later must learn Arabic, 
the Koran, and traditions, and Islam controversy thoroughly. 
Do this in conjunction with the Government. Education com- 
bined with the spirit of Jesus Christ is the only deadly foe to 


Islam." I think you will see from that, that the strengthening 
of existing forces by no means negates the diffusion, and a very 
wide diffusion, of the existing forces in Africa and other parts. 

Rev. Dr. W. St. Clair Tisdall (Church Missionary Society, 
Persia) said that the question as to whether we should occupy 
new stations or fully occupy and man those already in our hands, 
is not altogether two questions, but one, for the simple reason that, 
speaking of the Mohammedan world at large, we have not occupied 
any Mohammedan country properly, and during the last few 
years the duty of evangelising the Mohammedan world is one at 
least of the greatest tasks that Christ has committed to this 
generation. Now, in Persia, where recently it has been my 
privilege to work, we are not in occupation. We have, of course, 
our American brethren in the North, and our Church Missionary 
Society in the centre and a little bit towards the East, but the 
greater part of the country is almost absolutely unoccupied ; so 
that if we decided to fully occupy such a land as Persia, or again 
such a land as Arabia, which we have only touched upon, the 
question of advancing to new places or fully occupying those 
already taken in hand is one and the same question. Then again, 
while we should most undoubtedly largely augment our forces in 
those stations of Mohammedan lands where we have begun work, 
we should do so with the intention, God helping us and opening 
the way, to advance by training workers there to occupy such 
lands as Afghanistan, and Beluchistan, and Arabia, when the 
way is fully opened. We cannot force the door, but Ave may, 
perhaps, imagine that almost any of these lands may be as open 
to us as China is to-day, and we may be as unprepared to enter in. 
Therefore I think we must be most careful not to say that at 
present we shall not extend to those parts that are unoccupied, 
but rather say that while fully manning those stations that we 
have barely occupied, we shall be prepared to accept God's guid- 
ance when it comes to us, and we shall have the men and the 
women ready, and the money and trained workers, to advance 
for the conquest of these unoccupied lands, Afghanistan, Turke- 
stan, and Arabia. 

The next question taken up was " In establishing the Church on 
the Mission Field, what should be the relative emphasis on the Con- 
version of Individuals and on the bringing of Communities under 
Christian Influence." ^ 

MissiONSiNSPEKTOR AxENFELD (Berlin Missionary Society, 
Berlin) : I think \there is no difference between us, that we are not 
contented with merely spreading Christian civilisation, to give 
to the foreign nations a superficial Christian-like tinge. We wish 
to bring single hearts into a real and everlasting personal com- 


munion with the everlasting God. But if we wish to do so, the 
problem is whether we must only make efforts to convert in- 
tlividuals to find their way to their Saviour by removing the 
obstacles of their environments. In remembering our on'n way 
to God, as a rule we cannot say that a certain effort of a certain 
person brought us to Him. Christian songs and Christian stories. 
Christian pictures and Christian festivals, Christian family life 
and Christian instruction accompanied our childhood. The 
sentiment prevalent in our race is perpetuated by a Christian 
education of a thousand years. The history of our countries has 
been marked by great Christian movements. Political and 
social hfe is to a certain degree ruled by Christian principles, the 
public opinion judges according to Christian rules. A golden 
bridge was built for every one of us before we opened our eyes, 
and when we resolved to be Christians ourselves we only followed 
the tendencies of our situation. Now, the non-Christian on the 
mission field is, to speak exactly, no single person. Every one is 
a member of a community, and the community of the non-Christian 
people is non-Christian or an ti -Christian. He is not able to under- 
stand the depth of the riches both of the wisdom and knowledge 
of God, while his language is not yet Christianised to be a suitable 
organ of the Holy Spirit. He wishes to be, and he should be, a 
good member of his tribe or his state, but it is impiossible while 
this tribe or state is ruled by anti-Christian rules and tendencies. 
As a Christian in a non-Clxristian country lie cannot, as a rule, be 
even a good member of his family. Conversion is only a beginning. 
The sequel is the transformation by the renewing of the mind, 
that we may prove what is that good and acceptable and perfect 
wiU of God. If it is difficult for every one of us to find in every 
case that will of God, it is much more difficult for a Christian who 
brings with him from a non-Christian life non-Christian feeling, 
non-Christian thoughts, remembrances, and rules of life, non- 
Christian habits, and who stays within a non-Christian environ- 
ment. I fear that a European Christian would hardly understand 
what it means for him to bring with him into a Christian life 
former imaginations and dreams of a heathen life. If we com- 
plain that many of our native Christians do not reach the measure 
of the stature of the fulness of Christ let us be indulgent ami 
patient. There is wanting the golden bridge we had before us from 
our first day. To build this golden bridge is not a work for a single 
missionary or society. The unity of paganism asks unity of 
Christianity. May every missionary help every heathen he meets 
to find his Saviour ! May every society do its best to build native 
churches I But to build the golden bridge of Christian feeling 
and thinking, Christian literature and education. Christianised art 
and Christianised science. Christianised law and Christianised 
public opinion in the witle world, is our common work. In the 
thick and murky atmosphere only a few individuals may grow 


strong and healthy. The thicker this atmosphere is, the higher 
and more robust the civilisation of a non-Christian country (India, 
China, Japan), the more important and urgent it is to clear, if 
possible, this atmosphere. But also in non-civilised nations it 
may not be neglected. To create a Christian literature, a Christian 
press, to bring representatives of Christianity, if possible, into 
the parliaments, the courts, the offices, the Government schools, 
to gather the youth in mission schools of all kinds, to illustrate 
Christ's love before all by medical missions and other works of 
Christian charity ; all these things and others help to clear the 
atmosphere of paganism and to build the golden bridge, that an 
increasing number of individuals may find their way. The 
bringing of communities under Christian influence is a means to 
convert individuals, not the goal itself. Every converted person 
of a non-Christian nation will understand best how important it 
is to get such an influence, and he will help to get it. 

Bishop J. E. Robinson (Methodist Episcopal Church, U.S.A., 
Bombay) said that many in that room, and also in India, would 
absolutely agree with him that one of the most urgent needs in 
India at this time was an indisputable proof to the educated 
people and the higher castes of the superiority of Christianity 
as a spiritual force. That proof Vv'as being furnished in connection 
with the mass movements which had been taking place in recent 
years in that country. These movements were not confined to 
any one section or province, but were taking place in many parts 
of the country at the same time. That fact ought to be of weight 
in eliciting our sympathy and our confidence in these movements 
of the present time. He would call attention also to the men 
whom God has given for leaders in connection with these great 
movements. He need only mention the names of Bishop Caldwell 
and Bishop Thoburn and Bishop Parker, and Jewitt and Clough 
and Goudie and Burke and Stewart, men most devout among the 
missionaries of India, men of clear vision, men of large purposes 
and insight into the things of God, who had given the very best 
that was in them to forward these movements, believing them to 
have been of God and to be of large advantage to the Kingdom 
of God amongst the people of India. He was prepared to say, 
after contact for several years with these movements, that by 
them God was accomplishing a wonderful transformation among 
these lowly and despised people of India, and he had never known 
a single missionary of any Church or denomination who has been 
engaged in this work who did not believe that God Himself was 
making known to the people of India that a spiritual force was at 
work in India by which those who were not a people were being 
made the people of God. In connection with these movements 
lie had himself seen wonderful transformation of spiritual character 
in the lives of these people, and as he knew that in contact with 


these movements at every point were strong Missionary Societies 
who were able to supply the organisation of the Home Churches so far 
as they were suitable to the needs of India in building up the 
Christian Church, they might go to these people with perfect 
confidence that they were capable of assimilating the truth that 
was brought to them, and having avowed themselves the disciples 
of Jesus Christ, and having put themselves at the disposal of the 
missionaries to be trained in character, truth, and Christian practice, 
might be welcomed into all the privileges of Church membership. 
In connection with these movements, also, we have the children 
at our disposal. \Vhen these people become disciples of Christ 
and put themselves under our training, we have access to their 
households ; we have the training and the care of their children, and 
the children of these people, even the poorest, are capable of 
receiving everything of truth, both that which is spiritual and 
that which pertains, perhaps, more to the secular. He believed 
God was going to demonstrate to those fifty millions the power 
of Jesus Christ to take the most unworthy life and lift it up in 
the development of the Christian Church in India. 

Mrs. Ashley Carus-Wilson (Church Missionary Society, 
London) emphasised the fact that the missionary's task is not only 
to turn heathens unto Christ, but to turn heathendom into Christen- 
dom, and that therefore we have as our aim not merely the expansion 
of Christianity, but the expansion of Christendom. The individual- 
istic method has led to two results, first of all that the world looks 
at the results of missionary enterprise only by counting up actual 
converts, and that the Church too often has expected n-othing 
greater from its missionary enterprises than simply the gathering 
out of the individual here and there with all the consequent risk 
of the denationalisation of that individual. We want to remember 
that while the immediate aim of the missionary must always and 
everywhere be the winning of the individual soul to Christ, beyond 
that immediate aim there is the ultimate aim of winning the nations 
as nations to Christ, and that there is such a thing in history as the 
gradual sanctification of nations. We must try to realise the 
whole meaning of that other grand phrase which has been given us 
in the Reports of the Commission, the Christianisation of the 
Asiatic consciousness. We know how difficult it was for the first 
generation of Christians to imagine a Christendom that was not 
a Hebrew Christendom. To that first generation of Christians, 
with the single exception of St. Paul himself, a European Christen- 
dom was inconceivable, and surely we in our generation are too 
much in the habit of imagining that Christendom will never mean 
more than Europe and America. Surely we have yet to imagine 
something that should be more than a European Christendom. 
We know, and we rejoice to know it, that there are now multitudes 
of Indian Christians, two millions of them, three millions of them. 


We know, and we rejoice to know, that there are something like 
two millions Chinese Christians ; but we want to look beyond 
that, we want to look beyond the thought of Indian Christians and 
Chinese Christians to the great thought of a Christian India and a 
Christian China. We must expect nothing less from God than 
such an expansion of Christianity as shall result in an expansion 
of Christendom which will mean that Christendom will be nothing 
less than the whole world. 

Dr. Robert E. Speer (Presbyterian Missions, U.S.A., New 
York) : While there are two things both of which must be done, 
and the doing of which conditions the doing of the other, it must 
be possible, it surely is desirable, to state these double duties without 
the appearance of any conflict between them. We all of us 
recognise that the missionary enterprise exists in the world for 
the saving of men. We are going out to become acquainted with 
individuals, to make known to those individuals the love of God 
in Christ, and to persuade them to accept that love and become 
followers of Christ for themselves, but also we are going out to 
reach the world. Society is something more than the individuals 
who compose it. The Kingdom of God is something more than the 
subjects of that Kingdom. There is a corporate personality, a 
community life, and racial national identity which is as real 
as any personal individuality is, and every man has been taken into 
some such racial and corporate relationship as this, and our business 
is to deal with the immortal hfe of man as truly as with the 
individual characters with whom we come in contact. The doing 
of each of these things is essential to the doing of the other. The 
child's life is fashioned for it long before it has come to do any 
thinking for itself. We do not do our duty towards the evangelisa- 
tion of that child until we have evangelised the atmosphere in 
which that child is to do its work. We are bound to make the 
entrance to the Kingdom of God free from all necessary difficulties, 
to break down fanaticism and bigotry, to secure for all mankind 
the rights of religious thought and conviction, and we have got 
to reach each individual man if we will do these other things. 
But how can society be built except by men ? It is as strong as 
convictions of individual men are strong. We cannot build a 
better world than we can make out of the goodness of the men 
who compose that world, and in the end our efforts to mould 
society resolve themselves into the effort to mould and fashion 
the individual men who compose that society. These two things 
we must combine, and yet having said that, might I say one word 
on the truly evangelical view that in this missionary enterprise as 
we constitute it we are bound to set in the foreground the primary 
purpose of making Jesus Christ known to His sheep, whom He 
knows one by one by name. First of all, because that is the only 
way that we can attain this larger result that we contemplate, only 


by striking straight at the centre of personal character and personal 
faith. Secondly, because of those of us who stand at the back 
of this missionary enterprise, and support it, because this is our 
primary purpose. Jesus Christ is all in all to us. V/c want Him 
to be all in all for man. The great bulk of those who mauguratcd the 
missionary enterprise, and who maintain it to-day, and who give 
that prayer and life which are its real resources, thek great purpose 
is to reach by the Gospel the multitudes of men and women and 
children throughout the world for whom the Lord died. And 
we believe in this as the primary aim, because our enterprise is a 
religious enterprise, with all these social and philanthropic conse- 
quences in which we rejoice, and which we claim as the consequences 
of this enterprise alone in its purest and richest form. Whatever 
else religion may be, primarily it is an affair of God and the soul, 
of the soul and God, and we are boimd to bring every man through- 
out the world who stands alone in all the completeness th.e 
relationship, to be sure, but yet the independence of his own 
personality, we are bound to bring him face to face with God 
through liim who is the only way, and the truth and the life. 
And last of all this must be our primary purpose, that all our 
agencies must be held in subjection to it. We follow those who 
have learned in His school, who did overturn the world, who did 
pour the new principles throughout all the organised life of man, 
but who got their grip on the individual men and women with 
whom they dealt, and who were at least able to reconstitute 
society because they were created by the power of God the 
individuals on whom society rests. 

The next question considered was " Should the Missionary 
devote chief attention to raising up and helping to develop a Native 
Evangelistic Agency, or to doing direct Evangelistic Work himself ? " 

The Rt. Rev. L. H. Roots, Bishop of Hankow (Protestant 
Episcopal Church, U.S.A.), said that in pursuing the object of 
evangelising the whole world we must set our hearts and our 
minds to the task of increasing the evangelistic forces on the 
mission field. In the first place the native agency was the most 
effective evangelistic agency. The native preacher or pastor 
has the advantage at every point over the foreign missionary. 
He knows the language of the poeple, he knows their customs ; 
and even more important than this, they know him and trust 
him, they know about his family life, they know about what he 
does from morning till night, and they knov/ what is the effect 
of Christianity upon one of their ov>-n brethren, and that more 
than anything else is the power which leads those who listen to 
him to accept his message. Then in the second place, the greatest 
lack in the mission field at the present time is the lack of native 
leaders. The bitterest complaint wliich he ever heard against 


the missionary cause was that of a young Chinaman who said, 
" The Missionaries don't want the Chinese to acquire the ability 
which would enable them to lead the Cliinese Church." Now we 
know that not only is that charge untrue in our own hearts, but 
it is not true in the policy and administration of our mission. We 
so conduct our work by mstitutions and by individual effort that 
it is patent to every one that we seek first of all to develop these 
young men and young women who come into intimate intercourse 
with us to the very highest pitch of efficiency in the work of ad- 
ministration and preaching the Gospel to their ov/n countrymen. 
In the Colleges of Central China the thing to-day which most 
encourages the missionaries is that their years of planting in the 
Colleges is yielding fruit in young men and young women who are 
trained to efficiency by constant contact with the missionary 
forces of all kinds. Finally, brethren, the greatest danger in 
which we stand is not that there shall not be a great ingathering 
of the Chinese, but that when [this ingathering comes we shall 
not have the native pastors and^teachcrs to care for them, so that 
as wise stewards of our blessed ministry we do well to look well 
into the future and make our plans, and see that we train up men 
and women of the native soil who shall have the very best educa- 
tion, and who are capable of receiving the best education which 
shall make them indeed the leaders of their own people, while the 
missionaries gradually are able to retire into the background. 

Rev. P. F. Price (Foreign Missions, Presbyterian Church in 
U.S.A., Tunghsiang, China) : The problem of the missionary field 
naturall}' falls into two parts. The first part is the planting and 
the nurture of the native Church, the second is the training up of 
efficient and faithful leaders and guides for the native Church. 
Now, as to which of these we should emphasise, it does not appear 
to me that we can lay down any hard-and-fast rules that would 
suit all fields or would suit any one field all the time. Should we 
not rather in the consideration of this subject emphasise another 
principle, and that principle is this, that every eva,ngelist should 
look to it that he is all the while saving those who will take the 
work over from him, and that every educator should have the 
evangelistic touch. The students in their mission schools and 
colleges would be most influenced by those, other things bemg 
equal, who themselves have the soul-winning and evangelistic 
spirit ; and, on the other hand, the evangelist himself must also be 
a trainer of those who shall follow after him. He must seek them 
out, and when he has them, either those whom others have edu- 
cated or those whom he trains himself, he must advise with them. 
First he becomes a leader, by and by hefoUows them as they lead, 
his ideal being always the words of John the Baptist with reference 
to his Master, " He must increase, but I must decrease." 

Mr. D. E. HosTE (China Inland Mission, London) directed 


attention to one or two practical points connected with the select- 
ing of men as preachers and leaders. Do we not need before we 
venture to select men and in any way set them apart in a special 
way for this work of the ministry, to have satisfactory evidence 
that they are divinely called to that work ? My impression is 
that not a little harm has been done in the past with the best 
intentions through a little lack of prayerful, thoughtful attention 
to this very fundamental point. And then another thing with 
regard to the training of these men ! Bishop Roots pointed out 
the need of our giving them as far as we can a high standard of 
training. True. But there again you want to bear in mind the 
kind of people amongst whom you desire them to work. Now 
take this question of intellectual training. Of course we all 
believe and value intellectual training and education, but it is 
possible to educate men in such a way that they get intellectually 
right into a different atmosphere altogether from the people 
amongst whom they work. Now this specially applies at the 
present time in China, because whilst it is true that at the coast 
and in certain parts of the interior a certain measure of Western 
culture and so on is in progress, and has made verj' substantial 
progress, and therefore a corresponding degree of training along 
those lines is needed on the part of the Chinese ministry, it is 
equally true there are vast portions of the country, and even in 
these coast districts, there are large quantities of people who are 
very little affected by these Western movements of education. 
We need to be careful not to work by a formula one way or another, 
but to seek to give each man the training that is most effective 
for the kind of people among whom he is to work. Once more, a 
truly godly man who is a farmer or a man of business, and who is 
seeking to bring the people around him to Christ, is often in many 
respects more valuable than if you go and take him and give him 
a special training. 

The discussion on the next subject " 7s it advisable to have a 
large Native Agency for Evangelistic Work among non-Christians 
dependent upon Foreign Support ? " was opened by the Rev. C. H. 
MoNAHAN (Wesleyan Methodist Missionary Society, South India), 
who said that whether it is desirable or not, in India it is necessary. 
It is necessary in view of the situation before us. How are we 
going to take Christ to the people of India ? Confining my 
attention just for the moment to India, I am profoundly convinced 
that we need every European missionary that the Church can 
send, and we need every native worker that all the money in 
Christendom can provide. 

Dr. Eugene Stock (Church Missionary Society, London) said 
that this was a question especially for missionaries and adminis- 
trators of missions, and he earnestly requested all who were 


concerned in this matter to study most carefully what was said 
regarding it in the Report of this Commission I. There is at 
present a cry for more native agents, but the question is : are 
these to be paid with foreign money ? I quite agree with Mr. 
Monahan that you cannot help it, but you have got to do it. We 
cannot expect, I am sorry to say, other countries to be like Uganda, 
where not a single penny of EngUsh) money has ever gone to 
support the work of the hundreds of native agents. That is a 
pecuhar case that we cannot expect to be imitated everywhere. If 
we have got to pay them, how is it to be done ? And it is that I wish 
to speak upon. It is of the last importance that the native agents 
should not be the agents and emissaries and employees of a foreign 
society as distinct from the native Church. What has been done 
in practice has come to that in some missions. There are many 
exceptions and qualifications to aU things that I say in these few 
moments, but as a matter of historic fact in many cases you have 
taken the best of the native converts, you have made them the 
employees of the mission, at the same time you have built up a 
small and weak native Church separate from those native agents, they 
regarding themselves as the missionaries' men and others regarding 
themselves as the native men, and you cut off the native Church 
from the large interests of native work round about. There is 
another way. There is no reason why the rich churches of England 
and America and Germany should not subsidise the local native 
Church. It is important that the native agents should feel them- 
selves the emissaries of their own Church, they should feel that 
they are part of it, and the native Church should regard them as its 
emissaries, and should support them as far as possible. The native 
Churches cannot support them, but our money should not be given 
to support this man and that man, but pay the native churches 
sufficient subsidy to enable them to do it so that the man becomes 
the employee of the Church ; and when I say the Church, I do not 
mean a Uttle weak native Church without any connection with 
the Mission I mean that which includes the Mission. I wish 
to combine the Mission and the Church as one great representative 
of Christianity in the country. 

The Rev. Dr. John Ross (United Free Church of Scotland, 
Manchuria) : In the year 1872 I landed on the muddy shores of 
Manchuria. I discovered that there was no baptized Christian, 
at all events no baptized Protestant in Manchuria. The Chinese 
inhabitants of Manchuria beUeved at that time that Jesus was the 
King of foreigndom, that His armies having been driven out of 
Pekin, He being a wise King endeavoured to create a foreign 
faction in China by sending men out there to steal the hearts of 
the Chinese. This was my mission. I was sent there. I was sent 
there to steal the hearts of the Chinese. The next year there were 
three men baptized in Manchuria, and these three men were taught 


that if it was necessary for them to believe in order to be saved, 
it was equally necessary [for them, and obUgatory on them, that 
they should give forth the teachings which they had received. 
" Free!}'' ye have received, freely give." That was the motto 
of the first three Christian men baptized in Manchuria. Up to 
the present moment there have been baptized in Manchuria 
something like thirty thousand men and women and children. 
There are hundreds of thousands who have a deep interest in Chris- 
tianity. There are twelve pastors supported by the native 
Church and several evangelists supported also by the natives. 
Last year the native pastor in Moukden, along with the agents 
under his supervision, brought into the Church so large a number 
that he baptized over three hundred persons, and there was 
also another pastor who baptized over three hundred, and there 
are at least double that number in another place. Idolatry is 
dead in Manchuria. The temples are all crumbling into ruin, or 
are being transformed into Government schools to teach Western 
education. Buddhism has not a particle of influence. These 
arc the results largely of the preaching of the Gospel in Manchuria. 
By whom ? I make bold to say that of those forty thousand 
baptized people who entered into the Church, not more than a 
hundred came into the Church directly and solely by means of the 
foreign missionar}^. AU that vast number of Christians already 
in the Church, and the hundreds of thousands who are now in- 
terested in Christianity, have been instructed entirely by the 
native converts. Wc look out among these native converts who 
are the best soul-winners : we pick these out and we set them apart 
as evangelists, and we pay them with foreign mone5^ We teach 
them. We have four years of theological instruction for these 
" juniors " as we call them. When they pass through that 
curriculum they are introduced into the theological hall, which 
has already provided some forty licencees, some of whom, as I 
'have already stated, are pastors, and more in the way of being 
called now. To me the question here is not the question of 
whence the money comes ; to me that is a most unimportant 
matter. The question is Get all the best agents you can, native 
or foreign, and get them introduced into the work of the field. 
If the native Church is unable to do all that is necessary, send by 
all means the money that you have to give. Is it foreign 
after you have given it to Christ for His work ? Use it in the 
best way and to the best possible purpose. That brings me 
again to what to me is a very important matter, and that is the 
evangelisation of the world in a very brief period of time. If you 
undertake the instruction of Christian natives throughout the 
world, and allocate to them their work, throw upon them their 
responsibility of teaching their families, and their neighbours, 
and their countrymen, you can overtake the whole world ; but 
without this it seems to mc a physical impossibihty. 


Rev. Dr. S. A. Moffett (Presbyterian Church, U.S.A., Korea) : 
I am not here to say that the evangeUsation of India, or, of 
China, or Manchuria, is not to be accomphshcd by the pouring in 
of foreign money. If it can be more speedily done and most 
effectually done by the furnishing of foreign money, well and good, 
pour it in by the millions. But certainly we in Korea do not feel 
that the foreign money should be poured in for the support of 
native agents in order to accomplish the evangelisation of Korea, 
and we stand there because we have already seen the possibiUty 
of placing upon the native Church the necessity of supporting 
its own native evangehsts, and it is starting them and is sending 
them forth into every village of that twelve millions of people. 
And not only so, but when the question now comes before the 
Korean Church, it is the Korean leaders, who, a few years ago, 
urged upon us the securing of more money to pay more paid 
agents for the evangelisation, who now stand as a man with us 
in saying that the burden of the support of that work should be 
placed upon the little Church gathered there by the first mission- 
ary. The point is not the question of raising the money. The 
question is one of character, the question of the development of 
strength of character in the native Church, and in Korea, perhaps, 
it was necessary to do something to develop strength of character. 
It may have been necessary to take that measure. Certainly 
we have seen it work to satisfaction, and the Koreans themselves 
now come to us and with grateful hearts say, " We thank j'ou 
that you put the burden upon us, and did not respond to our 
request for more money in the early days." This we do know, 
that in order to develop strength of character and that is what 
we need in the initial members of the Church in any land we 
dare not pauperise them, we dare not go beyond the point in 
assistance where they are able to bear their own burdens. Be- 
yond that, certainly judicious assistance should be given. But 
I trust, in Korea at least, our Boards will not pour the money in 
to the support of the native agents. 

Rev. Dr. J. Campbell Gibson (English Presbyterian Church, 
Swatow, China) said that the question was one which could not 
be answered categorically. We want a large native agency, but 
we do not want them dependent on foreign support. He was 
afraid that what they spoke of as the native Church was generally 
so weak that it could not maintain its own preachers. But he 
beheved, with the last speaker, that a Church which seems to be 
a poor Church will, if it is wisely led, find the means to support 
as many of its members as are really called to special work of 
this kind. The Mission of the Presbyterian Church in South 
China depended very largely upon native support. It paid 
eighty per cent, of the salaries of all ordained pastors, of all 
congregational schools, of all preachers throughout the whole 


of the district, and the Home Church only supphed tw^enty per 
cent, of the whole sum. Their difficulty was not so much to 
find the means of supporting the men, as to find the men whom 
it is thought well to set apart for the purpose of evangelisation. 
It sent them out to certain parts which were marked out as their 
own special fields of operation, and they had gathered together 
by the grace of God strong congregations which supported entirely 
the ministers who preach to them. He hoped that the native 
Church in different lands would have this lodged in its heart as 
an inspiration, that it is its work to evangelise the whole district 
in which it is, and that the missionaries were there temporarily 
as leaders and helpers. Foreign and native support the two 
sources might be wisely drawn upon. I think that the native 
Church should come into its own in its rights of guidance and 
decisions on all matters in proportion as it meets its burden of 
supporting the workers. That, I think, is a perfectly fair stipula- 
tion which commends itself to the brethren. Foreign support is a 
contribution by brethren who stand side by side with them who 
have one object and one work as they have only one Lord. 

The next subject considered was " The Desirability of Arrange- 
ments for promoting Co-operation in connection with the Work of 
making Christ known to the Non-Christian World," and this was 
spoken to by 

Herr Pastor Julius Richter, D.D. (Berlin Missionary Society), 
who called attention to the paragraph in the Report recom- 
mending the formation of an International Committee. He said 
it was not the province of Commission I. to treat this subject 
as a whole. That, he hoped, would be done in considering the 
Report of Commission VIII., but it was his object to draw atten- 
tion to those aspects of this question which specially pertain to 
the great object of carrying the Gospel into all the non-Christian 
world. It was impossible for the man who had read either those 
400 or 500 papers which have come to us from our correspondents 
all over the world, or our Report which has been drawn up on the 
basis of these Reports, or who had been in close connection with 
the missionary organisation either on the Continent, or in the 
United States, or here in England, during these last two years not 
to know how near it is to the hearts of those concerned. One 
point which presses on us very heavily is that there must be some 
central Commission, some Committee, entrusted with the task 
to review carefully unoccupied fields. It is quite clear that the 
Missionary Societies themselves are, in the first place, putting the 
emphasis on those fields which they have occupied, but there is 
the wider outlook. There are great fields which are waiting for 
missionary occupation, and now this is one of the surprises which 
has been brought upon us, to find how great these unoccupied 
fields are. Hardly more than two hundred millions of one thousand 


millions of the non-Christian world are reached at present, so that 
you now see how small the area is. We had at first hoped to bring 
before the Conference a comprehensive report on the unoccupied 
field. It has been impossible to prepare it within the last eighteen 
months, but it would be a pity, it would be a shame, if this Com- 
mittee should not be able to bring this investigation to an end. 
There seems to be a general conviction, and the study of mis- 
sionary problems during the last eighteen months has impressed 
on us how important it is, that the missionary method should 
be studied comprehensively, comparing experience and the 
failures and successes of all the different Missionary Societies, 
and that is too difficult a task for the agents or men of one Mis- 
sionary Society. It will be better if that is done by some Interna- 
tional Committee. 

The afternoon session of the Conference was then closed with 
prayer by the Rt. Rev. Bishop Montgomery. 

COM. I. 28 


Letter to Mr. Mottfrom Dr. Gustav Warneck, Ex-Professor 
OF Missions in the University of Halle 

My Dear Mr. Mott, It is a great grief to me to be prevented 
by the growing infirmity of old age from being present at the 
Edinburgh Missionary Conference. You will understand how 
vital is my interest in the proceedings of this Conference, which 
has been so carefully _planiied and which is of such critical im^ 
portance for the future of missions, and how it has been to me 
the subject of continued and most earnest prayer that God may 
crowTi it ^vith his richest blessing and make it fruitful for the 
expansion and development of His Kingdom in the non-Christian 
world. God has given me the privilege of making it the principal 
work and the principal joy of my life to co-operate in founding 
the science of missions and to take an active part in awakening 
and cultivating the missionary spirit at home. As one of the 
veterans of missions, therefore, I ask you to convey to the Con- 
ference my most hearty greetings and good wishes, and to allow 
me to express some of the thoughts which are uppermost in my 
mind with regard to certain tasks of special importance in the 
missionary movement of the present time. I shall confine my 
remarks to three. 

First. The extension of the evangelistic campaigns must not 
be allowed to seT in the background the nurturing and training 
SJ^of the native congregations. The great lesson which the foreign 
missionary enterprise of our time has to learn from the history 
of the expansion of Christianity during the first three centuries 
is, that the principal strength of missions lies in the native con-.^ 
gregations, provided that they represent a Christianity which 
is a manifest fact, and provided that there rests upon them, in 
spite of all that is crude and immature, the Spirit of Glory, which 
makes the simplest testimony by word or by daily living without 
word a recruiting force for the Gospel. Not in complicated 
machinery but in this visible presentation of the Christian life on 
the part of persons who were once heathen, lies the power of 
./^ Christianity to propagate itself. We are at present in that stage 
' of modern missions when the watchword must be the self-pro- 
pagation of Christianity. Therefore, we must be very cjureful to 
spiritually nurture the congregations in two directions ; first, to 
establish them thoroughly m the knowledge and understanding 



and personal possession of the evangelical faith, and secondly, '~'^ 
really ^o~nataTalise thenriiT'CTiiTsffan morality, according to the 
instructioffofjesffs, " Teaching them to observe all things what- 
soever I have commanded you." Only such congregations will 
develop foreign missions into self-propagating Churches and will 
enable them to become a bulwark against the onrush of pagan ^y 
and Mohammedan propagandir' X3iily such congregations ripen 
into healthy indepen3"etIT;ie;'o tTiat self-administration can be put 
into their hands without the fear that their Christianity will lose 
its soul. Nothing is achieved by mere doctrinaire watchwords ; ** 
indeed, they may do much harm ; we must have congregations 
that are spiritually and morally matured, and, moreover, native 
pastors who are spiritually and morally matured ; then only do 
you have sound foundations for self-administration. ^ 

Second. In the distribution of the missionary forces the 
paramount question is not, Where is there still aniunoccupied 
field, but Where at the present moment is the strengthening of .<^ 
tfiF missionary force most, urgently, required, ? It is upon tHi'S 
principle that every strategist disposes his forces. Where the 
greatest battle is to be fought, there the greatest force must be ,'* 
cortcGntTated, and that point, at present, is fn the Far East. I 
Where Christianity is in the gravesLdan^er from the non-Christian 
propaganda, their reinforcement is imperative, and this is the case 
in Central Africa. We have no . superfluity of workers. If we 
scatter them because of a predilection for the watchword, " oc- 
cupation of the whole world in this present generation," and push 
on into countries wliich are at present _^either difficult of access or 
not yet ripe for missions, we can easily miss the most hopeful .^'' 
opportunities, or we may lose hundreds of thousands to Moham- 
medanlsm,"whilst perhaps winning some few Christians in a 
country like Tibet. With regard to the Far East there is appar- 
ently unanimity of opinion. Neither is there any fundamental 
difference of opinion that the Christian missions dare not halt on 
the borders of the Mohammedan world. Yet the crucial question 
at present is. Where are Christian Missions most seriously threatened 
by Islam ? There can be no doubt about the answer : in Central fe' 
Africa ; perhaps also in the Dutch East Indies. If we do not 
counteract the advance of Islam with all our energy and along 
the whole line, we shall lose not only large parts of the now pagan 
Africa but even territories already Christianised. The main 
battle against Mohammedanism in the immediate future will be 
fought on East African soil. Here the enemy is already before ^ 
our doors. ' - 

Third. The New Testament contains no regulative prescriptions 
concerning missionary methods, but it does contain a regulative 
definition of the content of the Gospel wliich it is our commission J,- 
to bring to the~non^hristian world. The manner in which 
we are to bring this Gospel to the adherents of tfie different non- 
Christian rehgions belonging to different races and to different 
stages of culture, in such a way as to make it intelligible to them 
and to win their hearts, forms one of the most important problems 
of missionary methods, and this in two directions ; first, with 


regard to the missionary attitude towards the non-Christian 
religions ; and secondly, with regard to the missionary shaping 
of the Christian message. We are endeavouring at present with 
great earnestness really to understand the modes of thought 
pecuUar to foreign peoples, to find_points of contact which help 
us to build spiritual bridges from us to them, and to bring Into 
*" action those vital forces of the Gospel in which its world-conquering 
power lies. Yet by this endeavour to draAv_close to the hearts of 
the non-Christian peoples and to lead them into the centre 61 "the 
Gospel, we dare not allow ourselves to be betrayed into 'the Mistake 
I of aueriTig:lB.e,Cphteiit oftlie Gospel message as it was pfoclaimed 
\ by the apostles. It is universally acknowledged how great at 
^home to-day is the danger of undermining the trustworthiness of 
ii the Biblical Gospel by a destructiye criticism^ as well as of rational- 
^jising and thereby attenti&tmg its content" By modernism. But 
we should be dcei^ng~owyyI'^s'TT"we ' reifused to pe^rceive that 
this danger is beginning to threaten us also'upon the mission field. 
And upon this rationaUstic depletion of the content of the apostolic 
Gospel there certainly follows, as is already at this moment the 
case in Japan, the second, perhaps almost graver danger of 
.L syncretism. This of course is not merely a questTon of missiona3-y 
metha^lr'^iit a crucial question of missionary Ufe. For in the 
Gospel of Christ, as it was proclaimed by the apostles and proved 
by them to be the power of God unto salvation to every one that 
believeth, there lies not only the living force to inspire the mission- 
ary life at home but also the power of regeneration for the non- 
^^ Christian world. The main source of our strength is not in the 
nifethod but in the message of tliis Gospel, in the messengers 
proclaiming it in the fulness of faith, and in the Christians who 
have become new creatures thereby. And^^jwer will go forth 
from this great assembly if it confesses this Gospel in a unanimous 
testimony. Yours sincerely, Gustav Warneck. 


Abyssinia, 205, 206, 207, 212, 

214, 269. 
Afghanistan, 26, 193, 198, 199, 

201, 268, 280, 366. 

Africa : 

Abyssinia, 205, 206, 207, 212, 
214, 269. 

Accessibility, 209-11. 

Algeria, 216, 269, 281, 405. 

Angola. See Congo, Portu- 

Animism, 207-8. 

Basutoland, 227, 337. 

Bechuanaland, 230. 

British East Africa, 236-8, 
281. See also Uganda. 

British Government, attitude 
to Mohammedanism, 209, 
213, 214, 221, 406 [iii. 419- 
20 ; vii. 51-7, 59-60, 76-7, 


Church, the native, 220, 221, 
229, 238 ; Coptic, 206, 213 ; 
Abyssinian, 206, 214 ; in- 
crease of native workers 
needed, 241 ; training of 
native workers, 229. 

Congo, 21, 40, 223-6, 242, 281. 

Co-operation, successful, 232, 
237 ; need for, 219, 220, 
228-9, 230, 232, 240, 241. 

Difficulties. See Hindrances. 

East Africa, 233-8, 242, 281, 
407-8. See also Uganda. 

Education, 213, 214, 216, 238, 
309, 310, 420. 

Egypt, 29, 32, 205, 206, 209, 
211, 213, 215. 

Ethiopianism, 229. 

Evangelism, direct, 309-10, 


French Government, 216, 239. 

Geographical features, 203. 

German East Africa, 234-6, 

German South -West Africa, 

Governments, attitude of, to 
missions in general, 208-9, 
245 ; Belgian, 225 ; British, 
213-4, 221 ; French, 216, 
220, 239, 285 ; German, 
219 ; Portuguese, 220, 226. 

Guinea, 218, 281. 

Hausas, 205, 219, 221, 222. 

Hindrances to progress of 
Christianity, 205, 206, 207, 
209, 214, 221, 222, 225, 226, 
229, 233, 244. 

Industrial missions, 214, 310. 

Kamerun, 222-3. 

Languages, 205, 406. 

Liberia, 219. 220, 281. 

Literature, Christian, 214. 

Madagascar, 40, 239-41. 

Medical Missions, 213, 214, 
217, 310. 

Missionaries, increase needed, 
214, 216, 220, 221, 224, 236, 
237, 238, 241. 

Missionary policy, 214, 215, 
216, 290. 


Extent and rapid spread of, 
20, 21, 207, 212, 215, 243-4, 
406; Advance in Abyssinia, 
212 ; British East Africa, 
238 ; Cape Colony, 229 ; 
Congo, 223, 224 ; German 
East Africa, 234, 236 ; 
Nigeria, 221 ; Nyasaland, 
233 ; Portuguese East 




Africa : 

Africa, 408 ; West Africa, 
218; -Attitude of British 
Government to, 209, 221, 
406-7 ; Responsibility of 
Church in face of, 364 ; 
importance of education in 
relation to, 420. 

Morocco, 216, 268, 281. 

Nigeria, 21, 220-2, 281. 

North-East Africa, 21 1-4. 
See also Egypt, Sudan. 

North-West Africa, 215-7, 
405. See also Algeria, 
Morocco, Tunis, Tripoli. 

Nyasaland, 232. See also 

Obstacles. See Hindrances. 

Partition of Africa, 208-9. 

Population, 204. 

Portuguese EastAfrica, 233-4, 
242, 281, 407-8. 

Races, 204. 

Religions of Africa, 206-8. 

Rhodesia, 230-2. 

Roman Catholic Missions, 218, 
234. 236. 

Scriptures, need for transla- 
tion of, 309. 

Slavery, 206, 209. 

Social conditions, 205-6. 

Somaliland, 21 1-2, 282. 

South Africa, 21, 32, 227-30, 
244, 269, 337. 

South-East Africa, 21. 

South-West Africa, 222-7. 
See also Congo. 

SouthernCentralAfrica, 230-3. 

Sudan, 21, 212, 217, 219, 220, 

'^' 242, 282, 407. 

Swaziland, 227. 

Togo, 219, 220. 

Tripoli, 215, 281. 

Tunis, 216, 269, 281, 405. 

Unoccupied territories, 242, 
281, 366. 

West Africa, 217-22, 281. 

Western civilisation, influence 
of, 206, 208-10, 226, 244. 

Agnosticism. See wwdef Ration- 

Algeria, 216, 269, 281, 405. 

Ancestor-worship, 12, 89. 

Angola. See Congo, Portuguese. 

Animism in Africa, 207 - 8 ; 
Dutch East Indies, 11 S.- 
India, 149 ; Philippine Islands, 
1 2 1-2 ; responsibility of the 
Church towards, 365. 

Apologetic value of missions, 

Arabia, 168, 169, 170, 173, 180, 
181, 187, 188, 268, 282, 284. 

Argentina, 247. 

Armenia, 169, 172, 177-8. 

Assam, 40, 138, 139, 159. 

Atlas. See Statistical Atlas. 

Australasia, 125-7. 

Awakening of the East. See 
Opportunity and. Nationalism. 

Babism, 144. 
Bahais, 172, 174. 
Basutoland, 227, 337. 
Bechuanaland, 230. 
Behais. See Bahais. 
Bhutan, 280, 285, 366. 
Bible-classes and instruction 

value of in Korea, 75 ; need for 

development of in Japan, 301. 
Bible translation and circulation, 

importance of, 56, 75, 161, 178, 

183, 303-4. 310, 313. 
Bokhara, 280. 
Bolivia, 246, 248, 250. 
Borneo, 41, 113, 115, 117, 284. 

See also Dutch East Indies. 
Brazil, 246, 248, 250. 
British East Africa, 236-8, 281. 

See also Uganda. 
British Malaya. See Malay 

Buddhism in Burma, 11, 14, 

153; Ceylon, 11, 14, 164; 

China, 1 1, 87-8, 97 ; Japan, 11, 

14, 52, 54; Korea, 11, 73; 

Siam, II, 108 ; Tibet, 195, 197 ; 

weakening influence of, 11-12; 

revival of, 14-15, 164 ; imita- 
tion of Christian methods, 14, 

Burma, 11, 14, 40, 109, 138. 139, 

153, 160. 



Caste, problems of , 138, 142, 150, 
151, 314, 315. 

Celebes, 41, 115. See also Dutch 
East Indies. 

Centenary Missionary Confer- 
ence, Shanghai (1907), 42, 103, 

Central America, 252. 
Central Asia, 6, 191-202, 284, 

289, 414. 
Ceylon, 7, 11, 14, 40, 164-7. 
Chile, 247, 248, 250. 

China : 

Aboriginal tribes, 94, 1 01, 358. 

Accessibility of people, grow- 
ing. 7- 

Ancestor worship, 12, 89. 

Buddhism, 11-12, 87-8, 97 
[cf. iv. 38-72 passim]. 

Character of Chinese, 85. 

Chinese in Australia, 126 ; 
Borneo, 113; Canada, 
262-4 ; Dutch East Indies, 
1 1 5-6 ; Formosa, 68 ; 
Hawaii, 127; Malay Penin- 
sula, 1 1 1-2; Philippine 
Islands, 122 ; Siam, 109 ; 
South America, 246 ; 
United States, 256-8, 418. 

Church, the Chinese 

Evangelistic zeal of, 332-4 ; 
readiness to endure perse- 
cution, 357 ; relation of 
foreign missionary to, 105, 
328, 331 ; increase of 
Chinese workers needed, 
104, 303 ; training of Chin- 
ese workers, 93, 104-5. 

Classes reached most largely, 

Climate, 83. 
Communications, 83-4. 
Concentration and diffusion 

in missionary work, 103, 

290, 293. 

Weakening influence of, 12 ; 

attempts to revive 15, 16, 

97 ; value of, 87, 89 ; 

inadequacy of, 87, 89 [cf. 

iv. 38-72 passim]. 


Co-operation and federation, 
105, 107 [cf. viii. Index 
" China "]. 
Co-ordination of work needed, 

Difficulties. See Hindrances. 

Abandonment of ancient 
system, 30 ; Demand for 
Western Education, 304 ; 
Extraordinary opportun- 
ity for Christian educa- 
tion, 30, 304-5 ; Evan- 
gelistic value of Christian 
schools, 93 ; Disabilities 
of Christian students, 95 ; 
Importance of training 
teachers, 30 [cf. iii. Index 
" China "]. 
Evangehstic missionaries, 

special need for, 103, 305. 
Evangehstic work, 92-4, 303, 


Evangelists, training of Chin- 
ese, 93, 104. 

Geographical features, 82, 83. 

Government, attitude of the 
Chinese, 16, 33-4, 95, 98 ; 
relation of missionaries 
to, 106 [cf. vii. Index 
" China "]. 

Hindrances to progress of 
Christianity, 33, 89, 95-8. 

Industrial training, 303 [cf. iii. 


Japanese influence, 6y, 97. 

Language, 86-7. 

Literature, provision of Chris- 
tian, 93, 95, 106, 303-4. 315 
[cf. iii. 355-8, 451]. 

Medical Missions, 305. 

Missionaries, number required, 
102-3 ; relations of, with 
Chinese, 105. 

Mohammedanism, 19, 82, 88, 
101-2, 304. 

National spirit, growth of, 
30, 32-4, 96 [cf. iii. 66, 

Natural resources, 82-3. 

Neglected areas, 98-100, 



China : 

ISicglectQd classes, loo-i, io6. 

Obstacles. See Hindrances. 

Opportunity, urgency- 
present, 107, 354, 409-10 
[cf. iii. 65, 82-3, III, 1 13-4, 
426-7, iv. 221-9]. 

Population, number and dis- 
tribution of, 84-5. 

Progress of Christianity, 90-5. 

Provinces, comparative occu- 
pation of dif&cult, 90-1. 

Religious movements, 97-8. 

Revival, spiritual, 37. 

Roman Catholic Missions, 91. 

Taoism, 87, 97. 

Understanding the Chinese, 
necessit}^ of, 96. 

Women, work among, 91-2, 

94, SOS- 
Work to be done, 98-102. 

Christian literature. See ' 

Literature. j 

Church, the Home its re- 
sponsibility for work of evan- 
gelisation, 10, 13, 45, 49, 297, 
362-4, 403 ; its resources ade- 
quate, 10, II, 366 [cf. vi. 269, 
284, 295] ; its intimate relation 
to the Church in the mission 
field, 344-5, 405 ; ways in 
which its state influences work 
of evangelisation, 345-7, 369 ; 
present unsatisfactory con- 
dition of, 348-9 ; reflex 
influence of missions on, 
44-8, 350 [ 258-68, 296]; 
danger if it neglects present 
opportunity, 44-5, 363. 

Church in the mission field 
its development a funda- 
mental missionary duty, 312- 
3. 434-5 [cf- ix. 214-5]; pro- 
gress towards self-government 
and self-support in particular 
fields, 55, 65, 75-7, 167, 330, 
332 [cf ii. 198-206] ; the im- 
portance of training native 
leaders, 66, 79, 93, 104-5, 166, 
229,295, 301, 302-3, 308, 313, 
369. 426-8; importance as 

a factor in evangelisation, 
161, 295,308, 318-27, 332-4, 
368-9, 404 [cf. ix. 182-4]; 
its advantages in comparison 
with the foreign missionary, 
322-5, 426 ; the measure of 
its evangelistic spirit, 65, 
75-6, 161-2, 167, 220, 302-3 
330-6; organised missionary 
efforts, 161, 167, 336-8 ; 
methods of developing the 
missionary spirit, 326-7, 
331-2, 338-9, 369; the 
question of a foreign paid 
native agency, ^27-7,0. 334, 
428-32 ; the Church unable 
to undertake task of evan- 
gelisation without foreign 
help, 325-6, 340-3, 368. 

Civilisation, Western. See 

Classes of population demanding 
special consideration, 55-7, 
94-5, loo-i, 106. 

Climate, relation of, to mission- 
ary policy, 291. 

Colombia, 246. 

Comity. See Co-operation. 

Commercial expansion in re- 
lation to missions, 22-3, 25, 


Commission, Report of the. 
See Report. 

Community, efforts to influ- 
ence the whole. See Leaven- 
ing Influence, 

Concentration and diffusion, as 
missionary policies, 54, 61-2, 
103, 290-4, 365, 419-21. 435- 
See also under Disposition of 

Concerted effort. See Co- 

Confucianism. See under China. 

Congo, 21, 40, 223-6, 242. 

Congo, Belgian, 224, 225, 281. 

Congo, French, 223, 224, 281. 

Congo, Portuguese, 225, 281. 

Congo, Spanish, 223. 

Consul, appointment of mis- 
sionary, in Batavia, 120. 

Conversion of individuals com- 



pared with leavening in- 
fluence. See Leavening In- 
Co-operation, successful in- 
stances of, 74, 105, 120, 
232, 237 ; need for further, 
in Japan, 63 ; China, 105-7; 
Formosa, 69 ; Turkey in Asia, 
179, 187 ; West Africa, 219-20, 
241 ; South Africa, 228-9, 
241 ; Bechuanaland, 230 ; 
Nyasaland, 232 ; Madagasccir, 
240 ; among Orientals in 
United States, 259; Federa- 
tion of Japanese Church, 
contemplated, 63-4 ; sug- 
gested formation of an Inter- 
national Committee, 297, 368, 

394, 404> 43--3- 
Coptic Church, the, 206, 207, 

213, 213. 
Crisis. See Opportunity. 

Dahomey, 21S, 281. 

Decennial Missionary Confer- 
ence, Madras (1902), 158. 

Delimitation of iield. See under 
Disposition of Forces. 

Diffusion. See Concentration 
and Diffusion. 

Disposition of mission an,- 
forces to be determined in 
\-ie-w of necessity of making 
Christ kno'WTi to all men, 28S, 
295-6 ; affected by density 
of population, 285^91; by 
chmatic conditions, 291-2 ; 
bycharacterof the people, 292; 
in relation to number and 
qualifications of mission- 
aries, 293-4 ; in relation to 
the co-operation of native 
workers, 295 ; governing 
principle that force in each 
district strong enough to 
be effective, 292, 367 ; at 
present largelv determined 
by historical development, 
292-3 ; instances and dis- 
advantages of overlapping, 
64, 15S. 165, 179, 22S, 230, 
231, 232, 293, 296 ; need for 

fresh study and for ro-con- 
stmction, 107. 157, 2S3-4, 
2S7. 293, 296, 367, 393-7 ; 
arbitrarj-^ numerical standard 
unpracticable, 204; suggested 
appointment of Committee 
in each field. 297 ; of central 
International Committee, 297, 
368, 394; distribution of forces 
in Japan, 61-2. See also Un- 
occupied sections. Concentra- 
Druses, the, 171, 184. 
Dutch East Indies : 

Aboriginal population not 
yet Islamised, 115 ; Chin- 
ese immigrants, 11 5-6; 
Consul, appointment of mis- 
sionary, 120, 297 ; Co- 
operation, 120 ; Govern- 
ment, attitude of Dutch, 
1 1 6-7; Missionary agen- 
cies at work, 116-20; 
Missionary problem, the, 
1 14-6; Mohammedan in- 
fluence and propaganda, 
20, 1 14-5, 117; population, 

East Africa, 233-8, 242, 281, 
407-8. See also Uganda. 

Eastern Churches. See Ori- 
ental Churches. 

Ecuador, 247, 248, 249, 250. 

Education Dangers of mod- 
ern secular, 29-31, 67 ; as a 
missionary method, 313 ; im- 
portance of co-operation and 
co-ordination, 64, 69, 241 ; 
education in Formosa, 69 ; 
in Siam, 30. 108-9 ." among 
Indians in North America, 
2545, 2612. See also under 
Africa, China. India, Japan. 
Korea, Levant, Jews and 
Industrial Training [cf. iii. 
Index " Education "]. 

Eg>-pt, 29, 32, 205, 206, 209, 
211, 213, 215. 

Eskimos, 264-7. 

Ethiopianism, 229. 

Evangelistic work its primary 



place in missionary effort, 
312 [cf. ix. 176-9]; value as 
a missionary method, 93, no, 
305, 306 ; importance of train- 
ing competent native evan- 
gelists, 93, 301, 303 ; street 
preaching, 300, 306 ; itinera- 
tion, 109, 306-7 ; special evan- 
gelistic campaigns, 56, 93-4, 

Fernando Po, 222. 

Fiji, 133- 

Forces, disposition of mis- 
sionary. See Disposition. 
Formosa, 6, 65, 68-70. 

Gambia, 219. 

German East Africa, 234-6, 

German South -West Africa, 

Gold Coast, 219, 220. 

Governments attitude of, 
prevents occupation of 
certain fields, 285 ; restric- 
tions on missionary work 
imposed by European 

Governments, no, 133, 209, 
213-4, 216, 219, 220, 221, 
225, 239, 245 ; attitude of 
Chinese Government, 16, 
33-34. 95. 98; relations of 
missionaries ^\ith Chinese 
Government, 106 [cf. vii. 

Greek Orthodox Church, 3, 172, 

Guiana, 246. 

Guiana, British, 248, 249, 250. 

Guinea, French, 218, 281. 

Guinea, Portuguese, 218, 281. 

Hausas, 205, 219, 221, 222. 
Hawaiian Islands, 127. 
Hinduism. See under India. 
Holy Spirit, the, 351, 353, 355, 

356-7. 370- 
Home Church. See Church, 

the Home. 

Hostels, need for in India, 

154. 155- 

Humanitarian aspects of 
missions. See Philanthropy. 

India : 

Brahmans, 150. 

Britain's responsibility, 1 36. 

Burma, 138, 153. 

Caste, 138, 142, 150, 151, 


Church, the Christian Its 
growth, 163 ; its import- 
ance in work of evangelisa- 
tion, 161, 308 ; increase of 
missionary and evangelistic 
spirit, 161-2, 334, 412 ; 
lack of independent leader- 
ship, 332 ; training of 
Indian workers, 308 ; pay- 
ment of Indian workers, 
328-9, 334. 

Classes requiring separate 
consideration, 147-57. 

Depressed classes, 8, 38, 147- 
50, 357.411. 

Difficulties. See Hindrances. 

Educated classes, 8, 31, 39, 


Education Influence of Eng- 
lish education, 141 ; growth 
of women's education, 151 ; 
results of Christian educa- 
tion, 39, 155; Increase 
of Christian institutions 
needed, 31, 154, 307; 
Hostels, urgent need of, 1 54, 
\5S ; methods of influencing 
students in non-missionary 
institutions, 31, 155-6. 

Ethnography, 136-8. 

Evangelistic preaching, value 
of, 306. 

Hindrances to progress of 
Christianity, 1 38, 139,143-4. 

Hinduism Solidarity and 
power as social system, 
1 50-1 ; weakening in- 
fluence of, 12, 143, 151 ; 
revival of, 16-17, 144-S, 
153 ; new movements 
within, 17-18 ; imitation 
of Christian methods, 16, 
17, 145 ; propaganda 




among depressed classes, 

1 6, i8 ; necessity for 

apologetic work in relation 

to, 153. 
Importance as a mission field, 

Indian immigrants In 

Canada, 262, 264; Fiji, 133 ; 

Malay, 11 1-2 ; Mauritius, 

240 ; South America, 246-7, 

249 ; United States, 257, 

259 ; West Indies, 251. 
Industrial training, 160, 

Languages, 139. 
Literature, importance of 

Christian, 139-40, 156, 161, 

Mass movements, 8, 38-9, 

148-50, 357. 423-4- 
Medical Missions, 160-1, 307. 
Middle classes, 150-2. 
Missionaries, increase needed, 

157-60,411-3. - - 
Missionary policy, 140, 149, 

153, 154-6, 290. j 
Mohammedanism, 8, 19, 138, 

144, 148, 152. 
National Missionary Society, 

161, 334, 337. 
National spirit, growth of, 32, 

34, 142-4, 364. 
Native States, 8, 160. 
Obstacles. See Hindrances. 
Occupation of the field, extent 

of, 157-60, 412-3. 
Opportunity, urgency of the 

present, 38-9, 141-2, 149, 

163, 364, 411. 
Population, 136. 
Present situation, leading 

features of, 140-7. 
Progress of Christianity, 163. 
Rationalism, spread of, 145. 
Religions, revival of Indian, 

Religious nature of the 

people, 135. 
Revival, spiritual, 146-7. 
Social conditions, 138. 
Theosophy, influence of, 146, 

India : 
^Western culture, influence of, 
Women, position of, 8, 15 1-2. 
Women, work among, 152, 

Young Men's Christian Associ- 
ation, 155, 156. 

Indians, American, 289. 

Indians, American Canada, 
260-2, 289 ; Central America, 
252 ; South America, 246, 250, 
414 ; United States, 253-5, 

Indo-China, French, 108, 109, 
no, 281. 

Industrial training as a 
missionary method, 314; in 
Africa, 214, 310 ; China, 303 ; 
India, 160, 308-9 ; Japan, 54, 
301 ; Levant, 311 ; Korea, 79, 
303 [cf. iii. Index]. 

Intercession. See Prayer. 

International Committee, pro- 
posal to create, 297, 368, 

Islam. See Mohammedanism. 
Itineration. See Evangelistic 

Ivory Coast, 218, 281. 

Jamaica, 251, 336, 337. 
Japan : 

AccessibiUty of people, 6. 

Bible teaching, need for 
developing, 301. 

Character of the people, 51-2. 

Church, the Japanese Its 
growth, 55 ; self-govern- 
ment and self-support, 55, 
65, 330 ; evangelistic and 
missionary efforts, 65, 333, 
337 ; increase of candidates 
for ministry, 65 ; relation of 
missionaries to, 66. 

Climate, 51. 

Concentration and diffusion 
in missionary work, 54, 
61-2, 290, 365. 

Co-operation and co-ordina- 
tion, need for, 6^. 




Disposition of forces, 61-3. 

Education Government edu j 
cational system, 29, 300 ; I 
results of Christian edu- 
cation, 55, 56 ; need of 
strengthening Christian 

education, 60, 301 ; Chris-; 
tian University, demand 1 
for, 60, 301 ; necessity for 
co-operation, 64; lack of 
Christian teachers, 58 [cf. iii. 
Index " Japan "]. 

Evangelistic work, 56, 300-1. 

Federation of Japanese 
Churches, contemplated, 1 

63-4- I 

Forces and equipment re- 
quired, 58-61. 

Geographical features, 50-1. 

Industrial training, 54, 301. 

Influence in the Far East, 24, 
5 1 , 66-7. 

Influences favourable to 
Christianity, 53. ! 

Influences unfavourable to' 
Christianity, 53. 

Japanese In Australia, 126 ; 
Canada, 262-4 ; Formosa, 
68, 70 ; Hawaiian Islands, 
127; United States, 256- 
60, 418. 

Language, 51, 

Leaders, importance of train- 
ing Japanese, 66, 300-1. 

Literature, need of Christian, 
60-1, 300. 

Medical Missions, 54, 301. 

Missionaries, need for more, 

Missionaries, qualifications 

of, 59. 
Missionary policy, 58-64, 300- 

I. 365- 
National spirit, 32-3. 
Neglected classes, 55, 56-7, 
Neglected districts, 56. 
Population, 51. 
Progress of Christianity, 54-6, 

Religions, native, 11, 12, 14, 

IS. 52. S3- 

Japan : 

Revival, recent spuitual, ^6. 

Teachers of English, oppor- 
tunities for, 63. 

Urgency of opportunity, 66, 
[cf. ix. 145, 148-50, 238- 

Women, work among, 55, 301. 

Work still to be done, 56-8, 

Young Men's Christian Assoc- 
iation, 56, 61, 301. 
Java, 20, 32, 41, 115, 116, 118. 
Jews : 

Classes reached, 274 ; dis- 
tribution, 268-9 ; Educa- 
tion, 274, 276 ; Language, 
269 ; Medical work, 273, 
276 ; Methods of work, 
274-5 ; Numbers, 26S ; 
Religious conditions, 270-2 ; 
Results, 274-6 ; Societies 
at work, 272-3 ; Urgency 
of the work, 277-8, 3O5 ; 
Work to be done, 276-8. 

Kaffraria, 337. 
Kamerun, 222-3. 
Korea : 

Accessibility of people, 6, 80. 

Bible Teaching, emphasis 
given to, 75, 302. 

Character of people, 72-3. 

Church, the Korean Its 
growth, 71, 75, 410-1 ; 
self-government and self- 
support, 75, 76, 7y ; evan- 
gelistic and missionary 
efforts. 75-6, 302, 303, 333, 
337 ; importance in rela- 
tion to evangelisation, 295, 
301-2 ; limitation of foreign- 
paid evangelists, 329, 431 ; 
importance of training 
Koran leaders, 79. 

Co-operation. See Delimita- 

Delimitation of field, 74. 

Education danger of secular, 
29; results of Christian, 71. 
74, 77 ; urgent need for 
developing, 78, 79, 302. 



Korea : 

Geographical features, 72. 

Industrial training, 79, 303. 

Language, influence of Chris- 
tianity on the, -ji. 

Literacy of the people, 73-4. 

Literature, provision of Chris- 
tian, 71, 73, 303, 315. 

Medical Missions, T] , 303. 

Missionaries, need for more. 

79. 364-S. 4 10- 1. 
Missionary policy, 78-9, 292. 
Missionary Societies at work, 

National spirit, growth of, 

Natural resources, 72. 
Philanthropy, Christian, 78. 
Political changes, 77-S. 
Population, 72. 
Religions, the native, -]!,. 
Results of Christian Missions, 

71. 73-75- 
Revival, spiritual, 36, ""j 

Theological training, 79. 
Urgency of opportunity, 36. 

Women, work among, 78, 
Work to be done, 78-80. 
Kurdistan. 170, 172. 177. 

Labrador, 264. 

Labuan, 113. 

Laos, II, 26, n, loS, no, 

Leavening influence of missions, 
relative importance of in com- 
parison with conversion of 
individuals, 421-6. 
Levant, the Asiatic : 

Arabia and Mesopotamia, 8, 

169, 170, 17^, 180-1, 187-8, 

268, 282, 2S4 [cf. ix. 257-8]. 
Asia Elinor, Armenia, and 

Kurdistan, 169, 170, 172, 

Bible Societies, work of, 178, 

180, 183, 310. 
Education present lack of. 

173-4 ; increasing demand 

for, 173 ; danger of secular, 

Levant, the Asiatic : 

31 ; results of Christian, 
178-9 ; importance as 
means of access to the 
people, 181, 183, 189, 310; 
need for extension, 31 ; 
especially of primary 
schools, 187 ; need for co- 
operation and co-ordina- 
tion, 187. 

Geographical features and 
divisions, 168-170. 

Hindrances to progress of 
Christianity, 174-7. 

InaccessibiUty of many parts, 

Industrial training, 311. 

Languages, 17 1-2. 

Liberty, absence of religious. 



its results, 174-7, 

Literature, dissemination of 
Christian, 178, 179, 180, 
iSi, 1S7, 1S9, 311 [cf. 
iii. Index]. 

Medical Jlissions, 178, 179, 
181, 183. 188, 189, 311. 

Missionaries, increase ur- 
gently needed, 1S6, 189. 

Missionary operations, extent 
of, 177-S4. 

Mohammedanism, 9, 18, 40, 
168. 172-7. 178, 185-9, 3<^4- 

Occupation, inadequac^^ of 
present missionarv, 184- 

Oriental Churches, 172, 177, 

178, 335- 

Persia, 9, 29, 32, 40, 168, 169, 
170, 172, 173. 181-4, 1S8-9. 
268, 310, 364. 

Population, 171, 177. 

Races and peoples, 170. 

Religious condition, 172-4. 

Social conditions, 173-4. 

Syria and Palestine, 169, 171, 
178-80, 268, 282. 

L^rgency of present oppor- 
tunity, 364. 

Women's work, 311. 
Liberia, 219, 220, 28 1. 
Literature, Christian as a 



missionary method, 314-5 ; 
urgent need for the increase of, 
60-1, 106, 140, 156, 180, 187, 
1S9, 214, 300, 304, 308, 311 ; 
position of, in Africa, 214 ; 
China, 93,95, 106,303-4, 315; 
India, 139-40, 156, 161, 308 ; 
Japan, 60-1, 300 ; Korea, 71, 
73. 303. 315 ; Levant, 178, 179, 
180, 181, 187, 189, 311 ; Siam, 
Livingstonia, 40, 241, 295, 329, 
335. 33^' 339- See also Nyasa- 

Madagascar, 40, 239-41. 

Malay Peninsula, 20, ^y, 109, 
111-3, 282, 365. 

Manchuria, 7, ^7, 65, 84, 90, 91, 
98, 99, 280, 295,333,338,358, 

Mass Movements towards Chris- 
tianity, 8, 38,39, no, 148-50, 
291. 357. 423-4 [cf. ix. iSi]. 

MateriaUsm. See Rationalism. 

Mauritius, 240. 

Medical Missions as a mission- 
ary method, 313-4; great 
value of in many fields, 27, 
109, 123-4, 160, 178, 179, 181, 
183, 188-9, 198-9, 213, 214, 
217, 261, 267, 273, 305, 307, 
310, 311, 406 ; of less import- 
ance in certain fields, 54, 
70, 161, 301 ; findings of 
sectional Conference on 
Medical Missions, 316-7 ; 
medical work in Africa, 213, 
214, 217, 310; Central Asia, 
198-9 ; China, 305 ; among 
the Eskimo, 267 ; in Formosa, 
70 ; India, 160-1, 307 ; among 
Indians in North America, 
261 ; in Japan, 54, 301 ; among 
the Jews, 273, 276; in Korea, 
77, 303 ; the Levant, 178-9, 
181, 183, 188-9, 3" ; Philip- 
-' pines, 123-4 ; Siam, 109. 

Melanesia, 128, 129, 365. 
Mesopotamia, 169, 171, 180. 
Methods, missionary. See Mis- 
sionary methods. 

Micronesia, 129. 

Missionaries need for great in- 
crease in numbers of, 287, 295, 
340-2, 363-4 ; increase needed 
in particular fields, 57-9, 79, 
102-3, 157-60, 186-9, 214, 
216, 220, 221, 236-8, 241, 365 ; 
training and quahfications of, 
59, 104-5, 294; advantages 
and disadvantages of, in com- 
parison with native workers, 
319-20; advisability of their 
adopting native modes of life, 
320-2 ; relation to the develop- 
ment of a strong and ag- 
gressive native Church, 331- 
2, 340-2. 

Missionary methods relation of 
various, to work of evangelisa- 
tion, 298-317 ; in Japan, 300- 
I ; Korea, 301-3 ; China, 
303-6 ; India, 306-9 ; Africa, 
309-11 ; general conclusions 
regarding, 311-6; necessity for 
periodic readjustment of, 316 ; 
importance of testing as to 
practical efficiency, i6o[cf. ix. 
for missionary methods of the 
early Church and of Mediaeval 

Missionary policy. See Mission- 
ary methods. Disposition of 
Forces, Leavening influence. 

Mohammedanism in Africa, 9, 
20-1, 207, 212-3, 216-9, 221, 
223, 224, 229, 233-4, 236, 238, 
243, 364, 406-8, 420 ; Arabia, 
'^73- 187-8 ; Central Asia, 
192-3, 199, 200, 421 ; China, 
19, 82, 88, 89, 101-2, 304 ; 
Dutch East Indies, 20, 114-5, 
117 [cf. vii. 40-1]; India, 8, 

19, 138, 144, 148, 152 ; Malaya, 

20, III, 365 ; Persia, 9, 40, lys- 
188-9, 421 ; Philippines, 122, 
124 ; Russian Empire, 9, 20, 
194-5 ; Turkey, 9, 18, 40, 172- 
7, 185-7, 364; social con- 
ditions under, 173-4; absence 
of religious Uberty, 174-7 ; 
disintegrating influences upon, 
13 ; increasing accessibility of 



Moslems, 8-9,13,40, 115,217, 
367 ; revival and aggressive 
propaganda, 18-20, 102, iii, 
115, 144, 207, 213, 234, 243, 
364, 420 ; absorption of pagan 
tribes by, 19-21, iii, 114, 117, 
122, 148, 218, 221, 365 ; British 
Government favourable to, 
209, 213-4, 221, 406 [cf. 
vii. Index "Mohammedan- 
ism "]; Urgency of missionary 
problem in relation to, 19-21, 
364, 365 ; need of Christian 
workers, 102, 152, 187; Mis- 
sionary methods best adapted 
to meet, 186-7, 189, 310-1, 

Mongolia, 7, 82, 84, 90, 91, 99, 
280, 366, 413-4- 

Morocco, 216, 268, 281. 

Nationalism, growth of spirit of, 

32-5, 96, 142-4. 364- 
Native Church. See Church in 

the Mission field. 
Native workers. See under 

Church in the Mission field. 
Nepal, 280, 285, 2>6^- 
Netherlands, India. See Dutch 

East Indies. 
New Guinea, 41, 119, 129, 131, 

330, 3?,6. 365. 
New Guinea, British, 128. 
New Guinea, Dutch, 114, 115. 
New Hebrides, 131, 290. 
Nicaragua, 252. 
Nigeria, 21, 220-2, 281. 
Non-Christian reUgions, waning 

power of, 11-13 ; revival and 

aggressive movements in, 14- 

20, 54, 97-8, 144-6, 164. 
North - East Africa, 21 1-4. 

See also Egypt, Sudan. 
North-West Africa, 215-7, 205. 

See also Algeria, Morocco, 

Tunis, Tripoli. 
Nyasaland, 232. See a/soLiving- 


Occupation of the field. See 
Disposition of Forces, Un- 
occupied Sections. 

Oceania, 127-34, 414-5. 

Opportunity, the present its 
greatness and urgency in view 
of accessibility of non- 
Christian peoples, 5-10 ; of 
their present plastic condition, 
25-9 ; of processes of decay in 
non-Christian religions, 11- 
13; of revival and aggressive 
movements within these re- 
ligions, 14-18 ; of rapid spread 
of Mohammedanism, 18-21 ; 
of corrupting influences of 
western civilisation, 22-5 ; of 
dangers of modern secular 
education, 29-31, of growing 
spirit of nationalism, 32-5 ; of 
a rising spiritual tide, 35-41 ; 
of reflex influence on the Home 
Church, 44-8 ; of critical 
nature of the situation, 48-9, 
341-2, 362-3, 403 ; responsi- 
bility of the Church in re- 
lation to, 13, 44-5 ; ability 
of the Church to meet, 10- 
1 1. 

Oriental Churches, 172, 177, 178, 
179, 182, 185, 335. 

Orientals in Canada, 262-4 ; 
South America, 246, 249 ; 
United States, 255-8; West 
Indies, 251 ; in the West 
generally, 417-8. 

Overlapping. See tinder Dis- 
position of Forces. 

Palestine, 169, 179, 268. 
Paraguay, 247, 248, 249. 
Parsees, 8, 172. 
Payment of native workers. See 

under Church in the mission 

Persia, 9, 29, 32, 40, 168, 169, 

170, 171, 172, 173, 181-4, 

188-9, 268, 310, 364. 
Peru, 246, 247, 249, 250. 
Philanthropy, Christian, 56, 78, 

3 1 5-6. 
Philippines, 32, 121-4. 
Plastic condition of Asiatic 
>peoplesat present time, 25-3:, 




Policy, Missionary. See Mission- 
ary Policy. 

Polynesia, 129. 

Portuguese East Africa, 233-4, 
242, 281, 407-8. 

Possibility of world-evangelisa- 
tion, 5-1 1. 

Prayer its relation to mission- 
ary work, 43, 360, 370. 

Preaching, evangelistic. See 
Evangelistic work. 

Rationalistic ideas, spread of, 
24, 53, 66, 97. 

Religions, the non - Christian. 
See non-Christian Rehgions. 

Report of the Commission 
scope of, 2-3 ; limitations 
of, 3- 

Revivals, spiritual, in the 
mission field, 36-9, 77, 
146, 147, 355-6. 

Rhodesia, 210, 230-2. 

Roman Catholic missions, 3, 55, 
91, 121, 123, 165, 197, 218, 
234, 236, 237, 252, 254, 260, 
261, 281, 402, 405, 408. 

Russia in Central Asia, 194-5. 

Russian Empire, Mohammed- 
anism in, 9, 20, 194-5. 

Sacrifice, necessity for, 44. 

Sarawak, 113. 

Scriptures. See Bible. 

Senegal, 218. 

Seychelles, 240. 

Shanghai Missionary Conference. 

See Centenary. 
Shrinkage of the world, 344-5. 
Siam, 7, II, 26, 30, 32, Z7> 108- 

10, 365. 
Sierra Leone, 219. 
Sin-kiang, 82, 90, 91, 99, 194, 

Somaliland, 211, 212, 282. 
South Africa, 21, 32, 227-30, 

244, 269, 337. 
Southern Central Africa, 230-3. 
South-East Africa, 21. 
South-West Africa, 222-7. See 

also Congo. 
South America, 246-50, 414. 

South Sea Islands, 127-30, 330, 

Statistical Atlas of Christian 

Missions, 2, 3, 98, 273, 401-2. 
Straits Settlements, iii. 
Sudan, 21, 212, 217, 219, 220, 

242, 282, 407. 
Sumatra, 20, 41, 114, 115, 117, 


Superhuman Factor in mission- 
ary work, II, 351-61, 370. 

Survey of world field, need for. 
See under Disposition of 

Swaziland, 227. 

Syria, 169, 171, 178, 180, 268, 

Taoism, 87, 97. 

Tenrikyo religion, 15. 

Theosophy, 17, 146. 

Tibet, 82, 90, 99, 195, 196, 197, 

199, 280, 285, 366." 
Togo, 219, 220. 
Training of missionaries. See 

Training of native workers. 

See under Church in the 

Mission Field. 
Trinidad, 251. 
Tripoli, 215, 281. 
Tunis, 216, 269, 281, 405. 
Turkestan, 62, 193, 194, 196, 

199, 268, 280, 414. 
Turkey, 9, 27, 29, 31, 168, 170. 

171. ^73, 310. 3". 364- 

Uganda, 40, 237, 238, 241, 292, 
295. 310, 329. 

Unification of the world, 344-5, 

Unity, relation of missions to 
Christian, 47-8. 

University, demands for a 
Christian, 60, 301. 

Unoccupied sections of the 
world, 98-102, 184-5, -79- 
88 ; causes of neglect, 284-6 ; 
need for pressing on to im- 
mediate occupation, 287-8, 
295-6, 366-7, 403-4, 419. 
See also Disposition of Forces. 



Venezuela, 247, 2^0: 

West Indies, 251, 337. 

Western Africa, 217-22, 281. 

Western civilisation- beneficial 
effects of, 140-1, 242 ; corrupt- 
ing and demoralising in- 
fluences of, 22-4, 97, 124, 132, 
226, 243-4, 266, 347. 

Women's work its place in 
missions, 294, 314 ; in China, 
91-2, 94, 305; India, 152, 
307 ; Japan, 54-5, 301 ; Korea, 
78 ; Levant, 311. 

Young Men's Christian Associa- 
tion, work of, 56, 61, 155-6 
301. 314- 

COM. I. 29 


This Index has been prepared to facihtate reference. The 
extent to which any correspondent is quoted is not to be taken as 
an indication of the importance attached by the Commission to 
his paper in comparison with other papers. 

Adams,-Rev. J. E., 356. Ford, Dr., 354. 

AUegret, M., 223. Foster, Rev. Arnold, 104. 

Anderson, Rev. D. L., 98. I Fraser, Principal A. G., 166. 

Anderson, Rev. Herbert, 145, { Frohnmeyer, Rev. J., 145. 

158, 159. 
Archibald, Rev. John, 100. 
Axenfeld, Missionsinspektor,42 1 . 
Azariah, Rev. V. S., 159, 411. 

Bashford, Bishop, 107, 409. 
Bennett, Dr., 61. 
Blamires, Rev. W. L., 415. 
Bondfield, Rev. G. H., 97, 413. 
Bonnar, Rev. W., 159. 
Brockman, Mr. F. S., 417. 
Broomhall, Mr. Marshall, 88. 

Campbell, Dr. J. Fraser, 159. 

Carus-Wilson, Mrs. Ashley, 424. 

Cary, Dr. O., 61. 

Chang, Professor T. Y., 410. 

Chiba, Rev. Yugoro, 408. 

Christie, Dr., 333. 

Clement, Professor E. W., 61. 

Corbett, Dr. H., 100. 

Davis, Dr. J. D., 61, 408. 
Ding, Professor, 104. 

I Fulton, Dr., 42, 100. 

Gairdner, Rev. W. H. T., 420. 

Genahr, Rev. I., loi. 

Gibson, Rev. Dr. J. Campbell, 

100, 431. 
Goforth, Rev. J., 355. 
Grancljean, Rev. A., 407. 
Greene, Dr. D. C, 62. 
GuUiford, Rev. H., 157. 
Gundert, Dr. H., 157. 

Hahn, Rev. F., 159. 
Harada, President, 60. 
Henderson, Principal, 229. 
Hogberg, Rev. L. E., 414. 
Holland, Rev. W. E. S., 18, 142, 

Honda, Bishop, 58, 1:9, 61. 
Hoste, Mr. D. E., g6, 427-8. 
Howard, Dr. A. T., 61. 
Hunter, Sir William, 12. 

Ibuka, President, 60, 61. 
Imai, Rev. J., 61, 62. 
Imbrie, Dr. William, 62. 

Kumm, Dr. H. Karl, 406. 

Ebina, Rev. D., 61. 

Eddy, Mr. George Sherwood, 

142, 159, 411. 
Evington, Bishop, 57, 62. 

Ewing, Rev. William, 415. Lahore, Bishop of, 39, 141, 332. 

Findlay, Rev. W. H., 42. Larabee, Major Charles F., 253. 



Laws, Dr., 338. j 

Lowry, Dr. H. H., 354. 
Lucas, Rev. J. J., 159. 
Luce, Miss E. A., 159. 

Madras, Bishop of, 39, 148. 
Mateer, Mrs. A. H., 95. 
Macnicol, Rev. N., 157. 
McKim, Bishop, 61. 
Meinhof, Professor, 205. 
Meyer, Rev. Louis, 417. 
Mitchell, Dr. Murray, 39. 
Moflett, Rev. Dr. S. A., 431. 
Mombasa, Bishop of, 237. 
Monahan, Rev. C. H., 428. 
Motoda, Dr., 61. 
Mott, Dr. John R., 401. 

Price, Rev. P. F., 427. 

Rainy, Dr., 349, 350. 
Ramabai, Pandita, 30, 143, 

Richard, Dr. Timothy, 96, 

Richard, M., 82, 83, 98. 
Richter, Pastor Julius, 432. 
Robinson, Bishop J. E., 423. 
Robson, Rev. George, 405. 

Roots, Bishop, 103, 426. 
Ross, Rev. John, 103, 358 429. 

Schneder, Dr. D. B., 61, 67. 
Scott, Dr., 238. 
Smith, Dr. Arthur H., 84, 85. 
Speer, Dr. Robert E., 425. 
Stewart, Dawn in the Dark Con- 
tinent, 206. 
Stewart, Dr. Robert, 412. 
Stock, Dr. Eugene, 428. 
Struck, Mr. B., 205. 

Tisdall, Rev. Dr. W. St. Clair, 

Tucker, Bishop, 238, 357. 
Tucker, Rev. H. C, 414. 
Tucker, Rev. St. George, 61, 62. 

Uemura, Pastor, 61, 62. 

Voscamp, Rev. C. J., 104. 

Warren, Rev. C. T., 62. 
Wingate, Colonel, 198. 

lYun, Hon. T. H., 342, 410. 

' Zwemer, Rev. S. M., 419. 

Printed l>y Morkison & Gibb Liimited, Edinburgh 

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